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Mining Press 


* V. 





Abangarez Gold Fields Co., Costa Rica 77, 

Abbontiakoon Mines. Ltd.. West Africa 217, 814, 

Abbott. James W Present conditions at Ploche, 


Abe Lincoln mine, (ripple Creek. Colorado. .. .75. 502, 618. 

Abosso, West Africa 814. 

Abrasive materials, i'nited States consumption 

Acacia mine. Cripple Creek. Colorado 423, 

Accident Commission. California Industrial. See California. 

Accident fatalities, u. S. coal mines 

Prevention v. compensation Frank H. Trego.... 

Rate, metal mines, V. S 

Accidents, Alaska 

California Commission report 

Western Australia, hoisting 

Accounts. Simple mine 

Acme. Porcupine, Ontario 

Adsorption. Phenomena of 

Advertisements and situations Editorial.... 

Africa, German Southwest, export 

Agriculture, Department of and Agricultural Society meet- 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Ahmeek Copper Mining Co., Kearsarge, Michigan ...232. 

Air compressor. Motor-driven portable 

Compressor, rotary 

Compressor, Variable volume 

Depletion In mines 

In mines, and gasoline locomotives 

AJax Gold Mining Co., Victor. Colorado 

Ajo ores, Leaching experiments on- I. II, III 

Stuart Croasdale. . . .20!i, 252. 

Akoko mine, West Africa 814, 

Alabama, coal production 

Coke production 80, 

Iron, pig, production 

Metal production 

Aladdin Mining Co. and Chambers-Ferland Mining Co.. 


Alaska, accidents 

Barlte deposits near Wrangell . .Ernest F Burchard .... 

Bethel district 

Broad Pass district reported discovery and Stephen 


Ditto Editorial 

Castle Islands barlte occurrence 

Chicago Bench suit 

Ohisana district 15«, 227, 229, 348. 500, 501. 

Chisana district map 

Chlsana gold yield 

Circle district mining 

Coal-bearing area 

Coalfields map 

Coal lands leasing Editorial . . . . 

Coal lands leasing bill in Senate 498, 

Cordova district 

Cordova district, map 

Coal lands leasing bill 

Pogmoblles Editorial. . . . 

Dred gl n g 

Eagle district mining 

Fairbanks district gold production 

Fairbanks district, placer mining E. E. Hurja.... 

Fairbanks district production 


Gold production 

Government railways 


Idlfarod district gold production 

Idltarod-Ruby district 

Innoko district gold production 

Iskoot River district 

Juneau district hlstorv and outlook 

Ketrhlkan district 

Ketchikan district and war 

Ketchikan district. Mining revival In the. .E.E. Hurja. . . . 

Klondike district dredging 

Kovukuk mining district E. E. Hurja. . . . 

Kuskokwlm River district 

Map of 

Mineral production 

'Mineral Resources of Alaska' 

Mining In the Far North Emll Edward Hurja.... 

10. 69. 103, 152. 225. 261, 588, 769. 848. 887. 

NVlchlna district 

Nlzlna district 226. 

Nome beaches 

Nome business 

Placer act decision Editorial .... 

Petroleum production 


Railways surveys report 

Ruby District gold production 

Ruhy-Tnnoko-Hltarod gold districts 

Seventvmlle District mining 

Reward and the Konal peninsula E. K. Hurja.. 

Seward Peninsula and Its mining problems 

F. Lynwood Garrison 







2 91 
63 1 



4 22 


23 9 



4 5 I 
6 5 6 

34 8 
53 4 






Alaska, Seward Peninsula gold production 731 

Slnrock iron deposit 1006 

Tanana River district 

Tin deposits Editorial. ! . 

Tolovana district gold discovery 

U. S. Gcol. Survey work 

Valdez and Prince William Sound 

Emll Edward Hurja... 

Willow Creek district. Cyanlding tailing 

J. T. Terry, Jr 

Woodchopper Creek district SSS, 892 

Wrangell mining district 69 

Yukon river drainage area 422 

Alaska Consolidated Copper Co 226 

Alaska Crow Creek Mining Co 343 

Alaska Ebnei Gold Mines Co 152 

And Consolidated California-Nevada Co 927 

Alaska Gastineau Mining Co 152, 973 

Developments of the E. E. Hurja. . . . 103 

Perseverance mine concrete head-frame 

C. T. Jackson. ... 99 

Alaska Gold Mines Co 309, 572. 973 

' 'ompany report 657 

Developments of the E. E. Hurja. ... 103 

Sheep Creek tunnel 694 

Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co 152 

Alaska Mexican Gold Mining Co. . 153. 193. 348. 122 

Alaska Oil & Refining Co 

Alaska Syndicate, Bonanza mine 

Jumbo mine 

Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co. . .IE 

534. 69S. 

v 5 5 


348, 422. 501, 
534, 698, 855 


Cvanide plant. Concentrate treatment costs 

W. P. Lass. . . . 
Alaska United Copper Exploration Co. ..193. 226. 34S, 422 

499. 53 i, 698, 

Alaska Venture Syndicate. Ltd 11 

Alboltne and petroleum production 

Alexo nickel mine, Ontario 504 

Algoma Steel Corporation 421 

Alice Gold & Silver Mining Co. v. Anaconda Copper Min- 
ing Co 

Alkalinity estimations 

Allen, A. W Milling In cyanide. . . . 

Ditto Northwestern Australia and its mineral 

resources , 

Ditto Solution control in cyanidation . . . . 

Ditto Titration results in cyanidation 

Alliance Mining Co., Republic, Washington, and Anaconda 

Gold Mining & Reduction Co 

Allls-Chalmers Mfg. Co., Little Wonder battery stem guides 

Allouez Mining Co., Allouez, Michigan 232, S74 

Alloy, antimony In 846 

Gold and sliver 18s 

Silver-copper 1S8 

I'. S. production 10-j 

Van Gundy 22 

Alps Mining Co., Pioche, Nevada 485 

Alsace-Lorraine. Germany, mining 451 

Alta Consolidated Mining Co.. Alta, Utah 537 

Alta Tunnel & Transportation Co 895 

Aluminum, alloy for silver 415 

Prices 199. 388, 511. 7u4. 7S1 

Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the metals 

Edwin C. Eckel. ... 182 

U. S. production 861 

Amalgamated Copper Co.. Montana 6^2 

Amalgamated Pioclie Mines & Smelters Corporation, Plocln- 
Nevaoa 4^2. 









Amalgamated Zinc (De Bavay's). Ltd., Broken Hill. New- 
South Wales, company report 724. 101 


Amalgamation, Rhodesia 

Silver ores 

South Dakota mills •!%* 

9 24 


Germanv, East Prussia production 

America. Production of radium Charles H. Viol.... 

American dredges for foreign countries ....Editorial.... 

American Association of State Geologists ...Editorial ... 

American Brass Co 

American Committee. The Editorial 

American Cvanamid Co • 

American Exploration Co.. Park City. Utah 233, 312, 

American Flag mines, Utah 233, 312. 

American Girl mine. Arizona 

American Gold-Copper Mining Co.. New Mexico 

American Institute of Chemical Engineers. Philadelphia 
and George Otis Smith .... 

American Institute of Mining Engineers and Congress 

Editorial .... 
Pittsburgh meeting. Bureau of mines experimental mine 

Pittsburgh meeting Editorial.... 

PHto Editorial correspondence. . . . 

Salt Lake City meeting ,v,',l' ; ', ,V- 

Pltto Editorial. . . .125, 

San Francisco section El!li or ! a J' ' 

American Locomotive Co. notes taken up ... . Editorial . . 

American Meerschaum & Pipe Corporation. New Mexico 




5 « 6 


Vol. 109 


American Mining Co., California 423 

American Mining Congress, Phoenix meeting 574, 869 

Ditto Editorial. . , .585, 788, 903 

President Wilson's letter 906 

American Museum of Safety, Safety and Sanitation Con- 
ference, New York 1005 

American Nettie mine, Colorado 822 

American Petroleum Society Editorial .... 86 

American Rutile Co., Roseland, Virginia Editorial 983 

American Smelting & Refining Co 272, 536 

Ditto Editorial 585 

And Riverside Dairy & Stock Farm 537 

Chihuahua plant 77, 774 

Chihuahua smelter Editorial.... 125 

Company ,-eport 497, 581 

Copper prices 662 

Lead production 889 

Mexican plants 419, 458 

v. Federal Mining & Smelting Co., . .Sidney Norman. . . . 339 

American Turquoise Co., New Mexico 819 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co 68 

Hillsboro, Illinois plant E. H. Leslie 280 

Amur, Gold mining on the W. H. Shockley . . . . 249 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co., Butte, Montana.. 30, 110, 121, 

208, 424, 461, 503, 580, 781, 852, 931, 934, 975, 978 

Ditto Editorial 203 

And Butte & Duluth 1005 

And International Smelting & Refining Co 816 

Barbed wire defense Editorial. . . . 829 

Flotation Editorial .... 829 

r^abor conditions Editorial.... 318 

Labor union trouble Editorial. . . . 360 

Mountain View mine fire 351, 384 

Slime concentrator 238 

v. Alice Gold & Silver Mining Co 27 

Anaconda Gold Mining Co., Roubaix, South Dakota 1005 

Anchor Tin Mining Co., Tasmania 65 

Andrada Mines, Ltd., Portuguese East Africa, Handling 

boulders L C. de la Marllere. . . . 762 

Anglo-Westphalian Kent Coalfield, Ltd 925 

Antelope Springs Mining Co., Nevada 975 

Anthracite culm 768 

Antimony Editorial.... 745 

Alloys '. 84 6 

And war 369, 732 

Canada, New Brunswick 970 

Marketed by brand Editorial. . . . 743 

New Zealand production 919 

Prices 35, 199, 388, 541, 704, 899 

Sulphide ores, process for treating 149 

t T . S. occurrence 369 

U. S. production 861 

TJgPQ o » *7 

Antelope Gold Mine, Ltd.. Rhodesia ...................... 959 

Antelope Spring Mining Co., Humboldt, Nevada 576 

Anyox mine, Granby Consolidated B15 

Apex mines v. Gauf, Rand 73 

Application of notation to gold ores John Bevan . . . . 413 

Of jigs to gold dredging James W. Neill. . . . 839 

Ditto Editorial 903 

Argall. Phillip ....Siderlte and sulphides in Leadville ore 

deposits — I. II 50, 128 

Ditto. . . .Siderlte and sulphides in Leadville ore deposits 

— a correction 148 

Argentina, imports and exports 792 

Mineral exports 918 

Mineral resources 794 

Mining in 17 

Rosario district, wolfram exports 648 

Trade entension to Editorial. . . . 829 

Argo Mining, Drainage, Transportation & Tunnel Co., 

Idaho Springs, Colorado, mill practice 833 

Argonaut Mining Co., Jackson, California 157 

v. Kennedy Entension Gold Mining Co., decision ... .28, 61 

Arizonia. Ajo copper mining district 383 

Ajo diamond-drilling tests 415 

Camp revivals 191 

Cedar district 574 

Cinnabar discovery 156 

Employment of foreigners 816 

Gila county division proposed 618 

Grand Gulch mining district 74 

Juniper Flats gold discovery 193 

Map 617 

Mineral production 74 

Mohave county mining districts 855 

Phoenix, American Mining Congress 574, 868, 906 

Ditto Editorial. . . .585, 788, 903 

Phoenix, first-aid contest 855 

Arizona Commercial Co., Globe, Arizona 114, 229 

Arizona Copper Co., Ltd., Morenci, Arizona 121 313 

348, 422, 530, 657, 855, 1006 

Smelter costs 223 

Tax suit \\ 734 

Arizona Copper-Gold Mining Co., Arizona \ 1006 

Arkansas, coal production 80 

Mineral production ] 664 

Arps and Krisher. Colorado !!..!! 822 

Arsenic in ores, Estimating Basil G. Dunstan.... 412 

Sulphide ores, process for treating 149 

White. IT. S. production and consumption 562, 661, 648 

Artificial respiration _' 755 

As war looks in London T A. Rickard 

320, 362, 394, 434, 472, 547, 868 

Asbestos. California production 929 

Ashanti mine. West Africa 217 814 955 

Rainfall '. . ' 495 

Ashlo Copper Co.. Japan, dust chambers at smelter ....... 13 

Asphalt, Alsace-Lorraine production ' 451 

TJ. S. production and consumption 664 

Assay outfit. Portable Tlico. A. Clack ' 491 

Platinum Frederick P. Dewey ... 20 

Assaying and sampling Cobalt ores 605 

Assessment suspension bill, mining . . . 652 

Work exemption of mines ' 533 


Assets Realization ■■ • .•••••. „ 68 

Assets Realizing Mines Corporation, Los Angeles 230 

Associated Gold Mines of Western Australia, Ltd., Kal- 
goorlie. Western Australia, and North Thompson 

mine, Ontario 819 

Company report ■ •• • •• ...... •■• .... • ••■• • 315 

Associated Northern Blocks, Western Australia, Ltd.. Vic- 
torious mine, Ora Banda 69 , 

Atlanta Mines Co., Goldfield, Nevada •••■•••• 76 

Atlas Mining & Milling Co., Sneffles, Colorado 822, 9-31 

Atolia Mining Co., California 821 

Atomic weights for 1915 Ui.v • -,- ; 2l? 

Attempts at domestic tin production Editorial.... 790 

Augers, pneumatic 378 

Aurelia Crown mine, Washington 895 

Aurora Consolidated Mines Co., Aurora, Nevada 158. 578 

\nd Goldfield Consolidated Mining Co 30 

New mill 57, 462 

Austin, Arthur, death of ■„■•■;:, • • • • \ •■ • lg 

Austin L S Smelting costs and prices for 

silver-lead ores 170 

Australasia, explosives Imports 886 

Federated Engine-Drivers' and Firemen's Association.. 876 

War effects in :. Editorial 471 

Australia, bismuth production 590 

Copper production 120 

Electric work 73 

Government coal mines 693 

Grinding pans Editorial .... 317 

Jam and the Malay tin industry 15 

Mineral production value Editorial.... 471 

Mining conditions Editorial 543 

Molybdenite • 73 

Northwestern, and its mineral resources. A. W. Allen. . . . 321 

Tin deposits map 651 

Zinc ores and Joplin district Editorial 625 

Australian tin mine. Tasmania 65 

Australian Institute of Mining Engineers. Melbourne meet- 
ing n 

Austria, ichthyol production 44 1 

Austria-Hungary copper production 120 

Smelters 354 

South American trade 792 

Auto reduction in the precipitation of metallic gold 

Victor Lenher 411 

Trucks for ore transport 508 

Automatic rope lubricator 980 

Autotraction drill rigs 84. 328 


Babilonia Gold Mines. Ltd.. company report 

Bachelor-Khedive Mining Co., Ouray, Colorado 822, 


Bagasse in sugar refining 

Bailey Cobalt Mines, Ltd., Glroux Lake, Ontario. .152, 499, 
Bain, H. Foster. .. .Rand banket. Horwood replies to d ! s- 

cussion. . . .297, 

Bains. Jr., Thomas M Machine drilling efficiency.... 

Balaghat Gold Mining Co.. Ltd.. India 

Balaklala Consolidated Copper Co., Kennett, California... 

Company report 

Balbach Smelting & Refining Co., New Jersey 

Balkan mine. Alpha. Michigan, accident 

Ball-mills. Hardinge, and cemented gravel 

Baltic mine. Michigan, Copper Range Consolidated ... .418, 

424. 655, 
Bancroft He wland .... Some tailing dumps in the Peruvian 

Andes. . . 

Bandmann, Charles J., death of 

Bank of England 5old reserves Editorial .... 

Bank of Germany gold reserves Editorial. .. . 

Barite. Alaska. Castle islands occurrence 

Deposit near Wrangell, Alaska . Ernest F. Burehard.... 

U. S. production 

Barnato group. Rand 

Barnes-King Development Co.. Montana 701. 823. 

Company report 

Piegan-Gloster mine 503, 

Barr, James A., confusion of two Editorial ... . 

Barstow mine. Ironton, Colorado 

Bartlesville Zinc Co.. Collinsville smelter . .F.. H. Leslie. . . . 

Bartlesville. Oklahoma, smelting practice 

Barytes, California production 

U. S. occurrence - 

TJ. S. production 104, 

Basalt, Ireland production 

Bates Leasing Co., Colorado 

Batopilas Mining Co.. Chihuahua 426, 

Battery house and crawl girders 

Stem guides. Little Wonder 

Bauxite, Arkansas 

Ireland production 

Bead Lake Gold-Copper Mining Co.. Washington 

Bearing metal, New 

Bearings, cam-shaft 

Beaver Consolidated Mines. Ltd.. Cobalt. Or>tn r io 

Beaver Gold Mines Corporation Utah Sheep Rock mine.. 
Beck Tunnel Consolidated Mining Co.. Silver City. 

Utah 117. 

Becker, Clyde M Sulphur deposits of southwestern 

Texas. . . 

Beehive coke oven, temperatures 

Beet sugar residue and cvanide. Germany 

Belcher Silver Mining Co.. Gold Hill. Nevada 659. 

Belgians, Help the Editorial. . . . 

Belgium, neutrality Editorial. .. . 

Relief work, and California engineers . . . .Editorial. . . . 


South American trade !!!!"!. 

Zinc production ......Editorial..-. 

Bell Reef Development Co.. Ltd.. Rhodesia 

Belt conveyors, new use for 

Ben Hur Leasing Co., Republic. Washington 435. 








Vol. 109 



Bengal Tiger-Gordon mine, Colorado 700 

Benguet Consolidated, Philippine Islands 571 

Beria Consols mine, Kalgoorlie & Boulder Firewood Co., 

Western Australia 381, 382 

Bering Dredge Co., Alaska 657 

Berteling, J. F Low drill-repair cost on the Gogebic 

range. . . . 599 

Beryl. South Dakota, production 853 

Bevan, John Application of flotation to gold ores.... 413 

Bevel-gears, maple-cog 567 

Big Four Mining Co., Nevada 116 

Big Pine mine, Nevada = 03 

Big Pine and Mascot, Arizona . . . • • • 1006 

Big returns on an investment Fred H. Rindge, Jr ,12 

Bigelow, George E Workmen's compensation 10o 

Bingham & Garfield Railroad bonds 68 

Birch, Stephen Alaska, Broad Pass District discovery 

untrue. ... 49 i 

And Broad Pass district, Alaska, report . . .... . , . . . 460 

And reported Alaska discovery Editorial.... 469 

Birds and mice in mines 67 

Bismarck Mining Co., Flatiron, South Dakota 8a- 

Company report °°° 

Bismuth and copper separation, Thum process -- 

Australia production •.'»" 

Bolivia production 2^" 

Peru production •>■"' 

Queensland production ?»■> 

Saxony production 'j" 

Spain production ?»" 

U. S. production ?»" 

Wolfram, Queensland production »»» 

Bituminous rock, California production .. ............ 9.9 

Black Jack Consolidation Mining Co., Stiver City. Utah. . 
Black Oak Development Co.. Soulsbyville, California mill. 

Oliver filters 


Blackstone, Richard. Home'stake superintendent .. .... 696 

Ditto Editorial .... 544 

Blackwate'r' Mines'. South Island. New Zealand 144. 1004 

Company report «*• *" 


Blackweld'er, Eliot Origin of the Rocky Mountain phos- 

phate deposits 

air, "J. I. ".T.~. Weighing minute spheres of gold and 


Blast-furnace's. Melting out slag notches 994 

Blasting by wholesale M. W. von Bernewitz 646 

Blue Bell mine. Alaska JJJ 

Blue Goose Mining Co.. Oklahoma .. . •• 9.8 

Blu»stone mine, Nevada, and Mason Valley Copper Co i0 

Blustei mine, Nevada 8i>( 

Blvth W. B Tube-mill practice and the hardness 

* ' of ores. ... 93 

B. M. & B. Mining Co., Wisconsin, Biddlck mine 457 

Board measure • 2:,, 

Boileau, John Wesley, death of "rj 

Boiler tubing -- 

Waste heat ? " 

Bolivia, bismuth production '■■■[" 

Copper production J-JJ 

Imports and exports ■■■ '»- 

Incaoro Mines Co ............. i9o. 9-0 

Ditto R. B. T. Klllani 800 

Mine ownership Editorial 939 

Mineral resources '94 

Mining operations and war 920 

Tin deposits Editorial. .. .585, (91 

Bonanza King mine, Trinity Center, California 734 

Bonanza mine, Alaska 499 

Bonnie Mining Co., New Mexico • l"0a 

Borax. California production 501. 56 1. 929 

U. S. production J 6 , 

Borax Consolidated, Ltd., Peru and Arequlpa borax fields 

Editorial 125 

Bosqui dust prevention process 49 

Boss Gold Mining Co . Good Springs. Nevada, palladium. 990 

Platinum discovery 503, 576. ,36 

Platinum-gold lode deposits Adolph Knopf.... 990 

Boston Curb reopened 69a 

Boston Stock Exchange opened 1°«- 

Boston & Montana Development Co., Montana. .459. 69a, >>2.. 

Bottomless scraper 954 

Boulder Creek Mining Co., Alaska and Dease Creek syndi- 
cate .*' 

Boulders. Handling, at Andrada ..L. C. de la Marllere... («1 

Bournonlte. occurrence In Park City mines. Utah 463 

Braden Cupper Co., La Junta, Chile 121, 154, 159, 190, 

313, 465. 497, 530, 739. 1005 



Braden mine. Oregon 19a 

Bradlov F. W Mining and Metallurgical Society. San 

Francisco section dinner to Editorial. . . . 787 

Brakes, hoist J 6 * 

Brakpan Mines Co., Rand 11- 

Bratnober. Henry, death of 464 

Brazil, diamond production '93 

Imports and exports 79- 

Manganese '24 

Mineral resources «»« 

Ouro Pretn mine 846 

St. John del Rey Mining Co., Ltd 765, 793 

St. John del Rey Mining Co., Ltd., Morro V'elho mine.. 192 
St John del Rey Mining Co., Morro Velho mine, Per- 
sistence of ore at T. A. Rlckard. . . . 985 

Brick. California production 92f> 

Illinois production 524 

Brlsels Tin & General Mining Co., Ltd., Tasmania, com- 
pany report 236, 218 

Cross-section of mine -/.■> 

Dredging 220, 693 

Britannia mln- British Columbia, aerial tramway >""> 

British Columbia. Atlln mlnng district 611 

Boundary and Kootenay districts 117. 273 

Mine fatalities 233 

Mineral production "4 6 


British Columbia. Mining districts near U. S.. map 346 

Nelson zinc shipments 620 

Rainy Hollow mining district 609 

Rossland mines . .346, 578 

British Columbia Copper Company., Ltd., Greenwood. B. c! 

121, 530, 57S, 6S9, 896 

Copper Mountain exploration work 347 

Mortgage 233 

British Empire, oil production ', 188 

British Guiana, diamond production 650 

Gold production 377, 650, 707 

Broderick, C. T. Rock nomenclature in new mining district. 185 
Broken Hill Proprietary Block 10 Co., Ltd., New South 

Wales, company report 37 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd., New South Wales, com- 
pany report 783 

Finances 381 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co., New South Wales . . . 806 

Company report 581 

Broomassie Mines., Ltd., West Africa 217, 814, 955 

Browne, Da"id H., and melting out slag notches 994 

Brunswick Consolidated Gold Mining Co., Grass Valley, 

California 29, 502, 534, 893 

Buckeye property, Colorado 157 

Buckhorn Mines Co., Beowawe, Nevada 30 

Mill, Nevada 311 

Bucking versus backing nature Editorial.... 832 

Bucyrus Co., dipper dredges, Panama canal 847 

Dredge construction in Portuguese East Africa 177 

Buena Vista copper mines, California, title suit 74 

Buffalo Hump, Burke, Idaho 340 

Buffalo Mines, Ltd., Cobalt Ontario 117, 159, 233, 3S6, 

421, 969, 977, 1010 
Building a placer mining dredge with electric power plant 

in Portugal H. G. Peake 522 

Bullfinch Proprietary, Ltd., Southern Cross, Western Aus- 
tralia 382,499, 614 

Bullion molds, silver capacity 340 

Bullion Beck & Champion Mining Co., Eureka, Utah 117 

Bull wacker Copper Co., Montana 535, 701 

Closed 2' 1 

Bullychoop Mining Co., California, claims jumped 893 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concentrating Co., Kel- 
logg. Idaho 30, 77, 231, 350, 384, 535, 735. 777, 931 

Accidents J 94 

Malm process Editorial .. . 903 

v. Stewart Mining Co i35 

Bunker Hill Consolidated Mining Co., Amador City, Call- 

fornia ••■ ' 4 > £02 

Harrow tailing treatment !• rank Lawrance.... 918 

Bunker Hill mine. South Dakota •• ■• 655 

Burchard, Ernest F Barite deposit near \V rangell, 

Alaska. . . . 371 

Bureau of Labor Safety Editorial 277, 360 

Bureau of Mines and Bureau of Labor Safety ... . . . . . 4^1 

And Department of Labor Editorial 360 

Artificial respiration 'J? 

Exhibit at the Exposition ■ 44,. 

Experimental mine, Pittsburgh, explosion test »'< 

New buildings of ■ ■ ■ • ■ ■ ■■■ Dj i 

Petroleum division gd toria 1 

Petroleum library Editorial.... 'JO 

Radium investigations. Denver Editorial.... 

Rescue stations, birds anil mice 

Safety work and Bureau of Labor Safety .......... 

Editorial. . . .2i . 

Bureaus, government and representative society meetings. 191 

Ditto Editorial.... 




Ditto How . 

Burro. Efficiency of the William A. Bun 

Burro Mountain Copper Co., Tyrone, New Mexico 



Ditto ....manorial.... ;»» 

urma Corporation, Ltd., company report ^« ' 

urma ruby mines, India ..-■•••• ; Yu' ' Y ' ' ' Y ' ' ' ^"1 

urr, William A Efficiency of the burro. ... 521 

Ditto How to make money though mining ... . 591 


533, 653 

irton C. S. ...'..Stabilization of the copper market 
Bury Compressor Co., variable volume air-compressor 

Business and European war • • • ■ • ■ . 

And New York market ^iVoVi-l 43 

And politics Ed tor a . . . . 43 

Outlook. U. S. and war ™ tor a .... ^ 

Butte and Lead— a contrast Editorial . ... 3i» 

Mines and European war "?° 

Mines unions ■ • ■ ■ • ■ , i, 

Butte- Alex Scott Copper Co., Butte, Montana ... 

Butte & Superior Copper Co Ltd Butte Montana .194, 

347, 458. 461, 530, 580, 659, 662, 701, ,0a. |ol. 854, ^ 

And Butte-New York Copper Co., new claims 68 

Apex rights suit ■-■,'.■ s g, 

Company report ox ' g31 

T a wm6riuMin.nW'co:::::::: :::::::: .\m" »«;««■ ^ 

Minerals Separation 

.Editorial. . . 

v. minerals nepai auuu ■ ■ „. .«, 

Butt'-Ballaklava Copper Co., Butte. Montana ill, %*> 

I'.utte-Bullwacker Mining Co.. Montana ' i 

Butte Central Mining and Milling Co. organ zed . . . . ... ... <-'>» 

Butte Creek Consolidated Dredging Co. and Leland Stan- 

ford University ,' • ■ .:!• ' 7n \ 

Butte-Duluth Mining Co.. Butte. Montana 461. a, 6. (ui 

And Anaconda Copper Co ■ • ■ • ' 

And Hayden. Stone & Co ... • ••• ■• ■•"- £• ; "•' 

Ditto Editorial.... 901, 949 

Leaching plant • ; • • • • ■ ■ • ■ ■ 

Butte-Milwaukee Copper Co. and Butte-New ^ ork (op- 

per Co 

Butte Mine Workers Union 

.Editorial. . 

And Western Federation of Miners 


Butte-New York Copper Co. and Butte-Milwaukee Cop- 
per Co ;■•.•••; 

Butters Salvador Mines Co.. Salvador, Central Am | 4 rl , ca 7 ' 9g ; 95 



Vol. 109 


Cactus Consolidated. Duluth, Minnesota, organized 

Caetani. Gelasio Design of the Plymouth mill. . . . 

Cages in shafts 

Calamine, Joplin district production 

Calaveras Copper Co., California, reorganized 

Caledonia Mining Co., Idaho 76, 270, 350, 535, 658, 735, 

California, Alleghany district 

And Hawaii lumber 

Assessment work on mining claims 

Borax production 

Concrete production 

Copper production by counties, 1913 

Downieville district mines consolidation 


Engineers and Belgian relief work Editorial.... 

Gas natural, production 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Getting land for taxes in 

Gold dredges, map 

Gold production by counties, 1913 

Grass Valley gold mining district 

Hydraulic mining litigation C. S. Haley ... .914, 

Hydraulicking Editorial .... 

Industrial Accident Commission 

Industrial Accident Commission and mine owners .... 

Ditto Editorial.... 744, 

Industrial Accident Commission and Workmen's Com- 
pensation insurance rates Editorial .... 

Industrial Accident Commission, report 114, 

Jackson gold mining district 

Julian district mines 

Kennett district , 

Lead production by counties, 1913 

Los Angeles Chamber of Mines and Oil bulletin 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Macadam production 

Magnesite deposits 

Ditto Editorial. . 

Magnesite production 

Marysville gold-dredging lands Editorial. . . . 

Mine operators association 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Mine Owners' Casualty Indemnity Exchange 

Editorial. . . . 

Mineral production 501, 

■Minerals of California' 

Mining and war 

Mining revival Editorial .... 

Mono Lake basin placer ground 

Mother Lodo, metallurgical practice Editorial.... 

Mother Lode, metallurgical practice and Plymouth mill 

Mother Lode region, activity 

Mother Lode region, map 

Mt. Lassen, Eruption of William H. Storms.... 

Oil and gas land legislation, Washington, D. C 

Petroleum industry 

Petroleum production 36, 193, 383, 699, 855, 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Platinum production 

Portland cement production 

Potash. Discovery of Whitman Symmes. . . . 


Quicksilver production 

Rubble production 

'Safety First' movement Editorial .... 


San Bernardino County tungsten ores 

San Fra.ieisco bay, Blasting by wholesale 

M. W. von Bernewitz. . . . 

San Francisco first-aid contest 

Shasta County mines 

Sierra County ancient auriferous gravel channels 

Silver production by counties, 1913 

Siskiyou County mines 574, 

Soapstone occurrence 

Sonora district mines 29, 75, 618, 930, 

Southern, map 151, 

Southern Oregon and Northern California Mining 


Trinitv county, map 

Water in oil sands and Mining Bureau. . . .Editorial. . . . 

Workmen's Compensation again Editorial.... 

Workmen's Compensation and Mine Owners Casualty 

Indemnity Exchange Editorial. . . .1, 

Workmen's Compensation insurance fund 

Workmen's Compensation insurance rates tumble .... 

Editorial. . . . 

Zinc production, 1913 

California-Alaska Mining Co 

California Metal Producers Association 

Ditto Editorial . . 

Articles of Association 

Directors Editorial . . 

California Portland Cement Co. suits settled 

California State Mining Bureau oilfields, water damage.. 

Editorial. . . . 

Calumet & Arizona Mining Co., Warren, Arizona 28, 

74, 121, 208, 209, 313. 422. 572, 892, 

Douglas smelter 

New Cornelia mine Ajo ores 209, 252, 291, 

Calumet & Hecla Mining Co.. Calumet. Michigan 68, 

121 232 266. 268, 310, 347, 350, 380, 382, 418, 
420, 456, 576, 817, 873, 928, 934, 

Efficiency campaign 268, 

Leaching plant 

Leachine process Editorial.. 

Length of service of miners 

•Safety First' 

White Pine claims 41 S, 

Cam & Motor mine. Rhodesia 72. 336, 765, SOS. 

Cam for stamp-mills. Improved Arthur B. Foote... . 

Shaft bearings 4.i4. 


















Cambridge University and Louvain University 

Editorial.... 585 

Camp Bird, Ltd., Ouray, Colorado 231, 822. 

Company report 423, 689, 782, 

Finance conditions 

Mining costs 729 

Canada, Alberta, Calgary oil district ....31, 273, 345, 578, 

660, 824 

■Uberta, Calgary oil district and war 386 

Alberta, Calgary oil district discovery of black oil ... . 68 

Alberta, Calgary oilfield, gasoline production 191 

■Uberta coal mining industry • 573 

Alberta, Edmonton oil discovery 896 

Alberta, oil districts 660 

Copper production 120, 689 

Copper smelting in 689 

Iron mining and government bounty Editorial.... 585 

Iron mining industry 732 

Klondike, Operations of Yukon Gold Co 

E. E. Hurja. . . . 568 

Manitoba, Rice Lake gold district 573 

New Brunswick antimony 970 

Nickel and war "72, 969 

Ditto Editorial 904 

Nickel industry 732 

Nova Scotia mineral occurrence 196 

Petroleum production 935 

Timber for mines 970 

Welland canal »24 

Yukon, Dawson district geology . .1 

Yukon. Klondike district, map 770 

Canada Iron Corporation reorganized 152 

Canadian Coal & Coke Co 573 

Canadian Copper Co., Ontario 689, 970 

Nickel production Editorial.... 904 

Canadian Copper Corporation, Ltd., and British Columbia 

Copper Co 233 

Canadian Gold Fields, Ltd.. and Consolidated Mining & 

Smelling Co 151 

Canadian Goldfields Syndicate, liquidation 68 

Canadian Klondyke Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Yukon 31, 

537, 738, 825, 896 

Dredging 454 

Operations of the Emil Edward Hurja 769 

Canadian Mining & Finance Co 34o, 5i3 

Canal, Panama, power-plants 223 

Cananea Consolidated Copper Co., S. A. Sonora, Mexico . . 121 


Troubles • l»J> 

Cancer treatment, compressed air superheated 340 

Candlish milling process 420 

C & O. Mining Co., Pinos Altos. New Mexico 6o3 

Cape Cod canal opened Editorial 201 

Cappeau furnace 20a 

Carbide lamps and explosives 135 

Carels Freres, Belgium Editorial. . . . 431 

Caribou-Cobalt Mines Co., Cobalt, Ontario 159, 580, 891 

Carisa Gold & Copper Mining Co., Mammoth, Utah 117 

Carnotite, cost of mining and delivering 30 

U. S. production 649 

Carr mine, Colorado, lessees' shipments 

Casados silver-gold mine, Hostotipaquillo district, Jalisco, 

Mexico, confiscated 

Casey Cobalt Mining Co., Ontario ...159, 

Catlin. W. Prince True fissure veins 

Caving system of mining in Lake Superior iron mines.... 

J. Parke Channing.. 


Texas occurrence ■ • 

Cement, Bureau of Standards. Washington, D. C 

California production 5 "l. 

Gun in mines 

Michigan production 

New Jersey production 

Plant. Philippine Islands 

Plants dust-fall " 

Portland. Illinois production »*J 

Portland. Kansas production '»* 

Portland, Missouri production 

Portland, Pennsylvania production °°J 

Queensland, and Gore limestone deposits •»»' 

Texas production **° 





U. S. industiy 

Centennial Copper Mining Co., Calumet. Michigan ...232. 
Centennial-Eureka Mining Co.. Eureka. Utah lit. 

Cave-in • • ■ ■ ■ • 

Center Star Mines. Rossland. British Columbia 34b. 

Central America, Salvador, gold and silver exports 

Central American Mines. Ltd., company report ... <«■ 

Central Eureka Mining Co., Sutter Creek. California .... 7J* 
Central mine, Broken Hill, New South Wales, pneumatic 

iiu°'Grs • ...........•••■•••••■•** «* « ° 

Central Zinc Co.. England J* * 

Centurv, Webb City, Missouri 1«"° 

Cerro de Pasco Mining Co., Cerro de Pasco, Peru . . . . . . i^' 

Cerro Gordo Mining Co., Keeler. California "0. »J" 

Cevlon, mining ■ • • • % 6 .\ 

Plumbago ■■• ■• • • ■ • ^"4. 844 

Chaffers Gold Mining Co.. Ltd.. Kalgoorlie, W T estern Aus- 

tralia * 

Chambers-Ferland Mining Co.. Ontario, and Aladdin Min- 

Champion Copper Co., Copper Range Consolidated. Paines- 

dale. Michigan 418. 4-4. 

Comparative drill efficiencies • - • ■ 

Champion Reef Gold Mining Co.. Ltd.. India io». 

Chandler, H. A. E Mine taxation and the conference ot 

tax officials 

Channeling machines ..... ■••v.- x ~ 

Channing. J. Parke ...Caving system of mining in i^ane 

Superior iron mines .\". ' ' " ' 

Ditto Design of the Plymouth mill. 

Chapin, Milne. Grenfell & Co. failure » 8 - 

Chapman gas-producer 




4 51 

Vol. 109 



Charles Moore mine, Utah 1010 

Chattanooga Copper Co. organized 27 

Chemistry, modern industrial Editorial. . . . 513 

Chicago. Milwaukee & St. Paul, Montana, division electri- 
fying 852 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co., Eureka, Utah 77, 117, 

536, 824. 895 

Company report 272 

Chile, Braden Copper Co., La Junta ..121, 159, 190, 465, 

497, 509, 530, 739 

Chile Copper Co 190, 268, 497, 796 

Ditto Editorial 203, 509 

Chile Exploration Co Editorial.... 203 

Copper production 120 

Imports and exports 792 

Labor crisis in Bancroft Gore. . . . 363 

Map of 497 

Mine ownership Editorial. . . . 939 

Mineral resources 795 

Nitrate export problem Editorial.... 981 

Nitrate exports 876 

Nitrate production Editorial.... 829 

Chile Cooper Co 190, 497, 796 

Ditto Editorial 203, 509 

v. Antofagasta & Bolivia railway 268 

Chile Exploration Co Editorial.... 203 

China, finances Editorial.... 125 

Gold mining in Mongolia 41" 

Kiaochow, mining near 450 

Map o( southwestern 629 

Mongolia map 410 

Ssu-chuan Petroleum, gas. and brine wells of 

Thomas T. and M. Carleton Read. . . . 629 

Chinese Engineering & Mining Co 918 







44 6 

Chinese mechanics. Shanghai Dock & Engineering Co. 

Chlno Copper Co., Santa Rita, New Mexico 68, 121, 208, 

313, 427, 458. 462, 533, 653, 694, 890. 898. 969, 

Company report 272, 


Chloridlzing roast. Rejuvenating the 

F. Sommer Schmidt. . . . 

Chlorinatlon applied to complex sulphide ores 

Process. Titus 808 

Chrlstensen chlorinatlon process 25. 195 

Chrlstv. S B.. death of Editorial 865 

Chromlte. California production 829 

Chromium. U. S. production 861 

CInco Minas, Mexico 580 

finderella Deep mine. Rand, sand filling sol 

Cinnabar. Arizona, discovery 1 56 

Cinnamon Blppo mine. West Africa 814. 955 

Cltv Deep, Ltd.. Southern Wltwatersand, Transvaal 307 

Cltv of Cobalt Mining Co 421 

Clack. Theo. A., Portable assay outfit 491 

Claim locations by employees 8S6 

Clapp process Editorial.... 85 

Classification methods, modern 56, 

Clay. California production 501. 929 

Oregon production "05 

Products, Georgia production 466 

Products. Kentucky production 664 

Products. Missouri production 664 

Products, New Jersey production "03 

Products, Pennsylvania production 661 

Products. Utah production "Or 

Products, Virginia production 333 

Product?. Washington production 

Cleveland-Cliffs Iron Co., Athens mine 

Electric hoists in mines F. E. Stanford.... 

Lloyd mine. Michigan 576. 5:i L . 

Cleveland Mining Co.. Wisconsin * 1 • 

Clevenger. G. H. .Function of lead salts In cyanldatlon. . . 6.'!.> 

Cliff Mining Co., Alaska 263 

(•lift mine. Utah H, 

Coahulla I^ead & Zinc Co.. Webb City, Missouri 1008 

Coal. Alabama production 631 

Alaska, area of lands 308 

Alaska fields, map 342 

\laska lands, leasing Editorial. ... 2i i 

Alaska leasing bill 49S. 571, 615 

Alsace-Lorraine production 451 

Anthracite culm "68 

Anthracite, Pennsylvania, and electricity 651 

Arkansas production 80, 664 

Australia and New Zealand government mines 693 

California production • 929 

Colorado production 135. <0;> 

Dredging for Editorial. .. . 62> 

Dust firing Editorial 830 

Dutch East Indies production 328 

Fields. England. German interests In 92> 

France production 181 

Gas. cyanogen in 84 1 

Gas. manufacture 693 

Georgia production 466 

Hungary Imports and production 

Illinois mines wash-house« 886 

Illinois production 166, 524 

India, production of British 1 J 

Indiana production J" 

Iowa production 80 

Ireland production 552 

Kansas production »"• 

Kentuokv production 2 is, 

Marvland production 

Mines. Electric power V. mules In 

Mining and automatic machinery 

Missouri production 38. 

Montana production ''6. 

Vew Zealand production 

North Dakota production 

Nova Scotia mines and war 

'ihto production 

Oklahoma production 

Oregon production 

5 2 9 
70 5 
91 9 
.;.', I 
1 si 


Coal. Pennsylvania production 300, 428, 664 

•Shot off the solid' 300 

Sulphur content 567 

Tennessee production 

Texas production 

Trade problem George H. Cushing . . 

Ditto Editorial. . 



S. industry 

.Editorial. . 






mine fatalities 918 









mining methods 

U. S. production 200, 

I". S. waste heaps recovery 

Utah production 

Virginia production SO, 333, 

Washington production 

West Virginia production 

Western Australia production 381 

Cobalt. Ontario production 117, 463, 

Cobalt Lake Mining Co., Cobalt, Ontario 159, 537, 

Cobalt Reduction Co., Ontario 

Cobalt Townsite Silver Mining Co., Ltd., Cobalt. Ontario.. 

Code addresses and war Editorial.... 

C. O. D. mine. Colorado 

Coke, Alabama production 80, 

Colorado production 142 

Illinois production 80 

Kentucky production 107 

New Mexico production 104 

New Zealand production 919 

Pressure-sustaining 108 

I'. S. production 567 

Virginia production 333, 605 

Colburn-Ajax mine. Cripple Creek, Colorado 75, 231, 

423, 575, 735, 931 

Coleman mine, Utah 1010 

Collbran contact, Korea. Geological report within the Suan 
mining concession D. F. Higgins.... 

Collins, George E Harrimans and mining.... 

Collins. W F Revision of the mining law.... 

Collinsvllle smelter of the Bartlesville Zinc Co 

E. H. Leslie. . . . 

Colombia, gold exports 

Imports and exports 

Map of 4°» 

Mineral resources ■■■ ■ ••■■ 

Orovllle. Dredging, Ltd ;; .. .404, 621, 

Orovllle Dredging. Ltd. Pato dredge. ... .n3 i ,38, 82o, 
Orovllle Dredging. Ltd.. Pato dredge difficulties. . . .621, 
Prospecting on the Upper Magdalena. . .C. i 

52 8 




production {J 

production ij 

I - district mining • ■ • ■•••• ■• •• •;■ •■ ■■■■ *- 

Colombian Mining & Expl. Co.. Ltd.. company report 37 

Colorado. Breckenrldge district J»' 

Breckenridge dredging companies »;><> 

Carno.lte ore shipment •• ■ . •■ • • ■ • ■ • ■• a 

Clear Creek and Gilpin county sulphides. I yanidation . . 

Jackson A. Pearce.. 833 

Coal ■»»*».*«'»*i«w 135 


Cr^ple'cVeek distrh* mlnes.^. . .75. 423, 461, 535. 5VJ, 

Cripple Creek mines. Granite and Vindicator suit 

Kerberite deposits 

Gilpin County mines 

Hughesvllle district 

Idaho Springs district mines 

Leadville district and war ■■••••■••"••.• y.V :;;• V-V 
Leadv.lle district mines . .. .23. 157. 194. HO. 5|5. 575, 

I.eadvllle ore deposits. Siderite and sulphides in— T, II. . 

Phillip Arpall . . . .r>v, 

IjP, Vectlcm 0re rteP ° 8US : Siderlte . nnd . "Phmlp 8 ArTaU??!': 1« 

Metal production 7 q 5 

Mineral production ^ 

1 luray county minerals g2 v j,^ 

Outay shipments «' 335 

Petroleum production ■•■ ■ •••■ ■;:• • -.v.- •;-•• 777 

Roosevelt drainage tunnel 194. 310, 384. 461. 658, in 

San Juan district, map 

San Juan district mines ■ • ■ ■ 

Sllverton district mines "»■ 

Silverton ore shipments MiVnVlii 

Smelting in Editorial.... 

Tellurlde cloudburst : • • V Y ', 

United Mine Workers of America trial ;, r) 

Zinc production : 

Colorado Fuel & Iron Co.. company report • ■ • 

New Mexico mines 







Commerce Mining & Royalty Co., Oklahoma. 
Commercial Mines & Milling Co.. Nevada 

Commonwealth gas P rm ' llr , pr „, ■ 

Commonwealth Mining & Milling Co., Pearce. An ( .^ nn < 

820. 97 r 

Oliver lllters 

Commonwealth wood-gas generator 

Company reports: 

Alaska Gold Mines Co . . . ■ • • • • • 

Amalgamated Zinc 1 De Bavay si Co., Broki 
American Smelting & Refining Co. ........ 

Associated Gold Mines of Western Australl 

Bablionla C.old Mines. Ltd ■ 

Ralaklala Consolidated Copper Co 

Barnes-King Development Co.. Montana 
nismark Mining Co., Flatlron .South Dak" 
rtlsckwnter Mines. Ltd.. South Island. New /, 
Irlseis Tin & General Mining Co.. Ltd.. . . . . 

UroV-r, t Ti 1 1 Proprii tary Block 10 Co., Ltd., 

Broken Hill Proprietary Co.. Ltd.. New Sou 


• n Hlil'.'.YzV, 




a, Ltd 

3 1 5 





6 63 

iealand. .166. 



, New South 


tli Wnles . . 



Vol. 109 


Company reports: n .v -nr-i.. 
Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co., New South Wales. 
Burma Corporation Ltd. . . .. . . .... . . • • • • • • ■ • • 

Butte & Superior Copper Co., Ltd., Montana ..... .310. 

Camp Bird, Ltd., Colorado 4", o89, I*£, 

Central American Mines, Ltd 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co., Utah ■■■■ 

Chino Copper Co., New Mexico *■<£• 

Colombian Mining & Exploration Co., Ltd 

Colorado Fuel & Iron Co ,•••;• ;v; 

Consolidated Gold Fields of New Zealand, Ltd 

Cornwall Tailings Co., Ltd 

Crown Mines, Ltd., Rand 

Davis-Daly Copper Co., Montana 

Doctor-Jack Pot Mining Co., Colorado 

Dome Mines Co., Ltd., Ontario 

Dominion Steel Corporation, Ontario 

English Crown Spelter Co., Ltd 

First National Copper Co 

General Petroleum Co., California 

Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co., Nevada 

Goldfield Merger Mines Co., Nevada ■ • . 

Granbv Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co., 
British Columbia 615, 

Granville Mining Co., Ltd • 

Great Boulder Perseverance, Western Australia 

Great Boulder Proprietary Gold Mines, Ltd 

Great Fingall Consolidated, Ltd., Western Australia . . 

Hampden Cloncurry Copper Mines, Ltd 

Hudson Bay Mines Co., Ontario 

Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co 

International Nickel Co 

Jerry Johnson Gold Mining Co., Colorado 

Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co 

Jumbo Extension Mining Co., Goldfield, Nevada 

Kerr Lake Mining Co 

Kyshtim Corporation, Ltd., Siberia 

Lake View & Oroya Exploration, Ltd 

Lake View & Star. Ltd., Western Australia 

Lucky Tiger-Combination Gold Mining Co 

Mascot Copper Co., Dos Cabezos, Arizona 

Miami Copper Co., Arizona 

Montana Power Co., Montana 

Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., Ltd 

Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Australia 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co 271, 

Nevada Wonder Mining Co 

New York & Honduras Rosario Mining Co., Honduras.. 

North Broken Hill, Ltd., New South Wales 

North Butte Mining Co., Montana 232, 

Old Colony Copper Co., Michigan 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co., Korea 

Orova Links. Ltd., Western Australia 81, 

Orsk Goldflelds, Ltd., Russia 

Ouro Preto Gold Mines, Ltd., Brazil 

Progress Mines of New Zealand, Ltd 466, 

Queen of the Hills mine, Meekatharra, Western Aus- 

Rand Mines, Ltd 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co., Arizona 269, 

Robinson Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rand 

Rooiberg Minerals Development Co., Ltd., Transvaal.. 

St. John del Rey Mining Co., Ltd., Brazil . . .... 

Santa Gertrudis Co., Ltd., Mexico 426, 782, 

Shannon Copper Co., Arizona 269, 973, 

Silver King Coalition Mines Co., Utah 

Sissert Estate mines, Urals 

Snowstorm Mining Co., Idaho 

South Hecla Mining Co., Utah 

Stewart Mining Co., Idaho 

Straits Trading Co 

Superior & Boston Copper Co., Arizona 

Titantie Gold Mining Co 

Tombov Gold Mines Co., Ltd 

Tonopah Merger Mining Co 

Utah-Apex Mining Co 

Utah Copper Co 272, 

Vulcan Detinning Co 

Waihi Gold Mining Co., Ltd., New Zealand 

Waihi Grand Junction Gold Co.. Ltd., New Zealand... 

Waihi-Paeroa Gold Extraction Co., Ltd., New Zealand. . 

Wealth of Nations, New Zealand 

West Kootenay Power & Light Co., British Columbia . . 

Wolverine Copper Co., Michigan 

Yuanmi Gold Mines, Ltd., Western Australia 706, 

Zinc Corporation. Ltd., New South Wales 315, 

Comparative drill efficiencies 

Compensation, workmen's — See Workmen's compensation. 

Compressed air, superheated and cancer treatment 

Compressor for Vindicator company 

Concentrate treatment costs at the Treadwell cyanide plant 

W. P. Lass. . . . 
Concentration by flotation Editorial .... 

Wet. zinc recovery 

Concentrator 1 , Pan motion 

Slime, Anaconda 

Concerning copper quotations Editorial .... 

Concrete, California production 

Head-frame C. T. Jackson. . . . 

Wot and belt conveyors 

Congress and American Institute of Mining Engineers.... 


Congress Consolidated Mining Co., California, incorporated 

Coniagas Mines. Ltd., Cobalt. Ontario 159, 660, 

Connecticut, mineral production 

Connecticut Zinc Corporation Incorporated 

Connor, J. L Kalgoorlie geology. . . . 

Conrey Mining Co., Montana, No. 3 dredge accident 

Consolidated California-Nevada Co 

Consolidated Chlorination Works. Georgia 

Consolidated Coppermlnes Co.. Ely. Nevada 

Consolidated Gold Fields of New Zealand, Ltd., South 

Island. New Zealand, company report 

Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa acid mine water. 

Trona Corporation, California, and potash production . . 

Consolidated Langlaagte Mines. Ltd., Rand 

Consolidated Mines of New Zealand 

















Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. of Canada, Ltd. Trail, 

British Columbia .. ...346 426, 689. 1010 

Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co. and Canadian Gold 

Fields, Ltd U'V.i'ii: „J 

Consolidated Mutual Oil Co., California 3»i 

Consolidated Power & Light Co •••••■ iii'VnV inni 

Consolidated Virginia Mining Co., Nevada .... . .6o9, 89o, 1009 

Continuous decantation at the Porcupine Crown Mines 

Maurice Summerhayes. . . . 88 
Decantation, New Reliance mill practice with particular 

reference to Jesse Simmons 722 

Contraband of war 924 

Converters, basic-lined »*" 

Copper, Alaska production ȣ0 

And bismuth separation, Thum process ........... 21 

And German market Editorial 509 

Arizona production • ■ "4 

Aron Hirsch & Sohn's annual report •;•■••■■ 120 

California production 349,501, 929 

Canada production 689 

Colorado production ■ ■ • • 2J1 

Deposits, secondary enrichment laboratory study. ... . 

Editorial. . . . 433 

Eastern states production 38 

Export problem and England 530, 615, 731, 772, 827, 

Ditto Editorial 543] 829J 939 

Exports ' 694, 827, 889 

Ditto Editorial. ... 830 

German Southwest Africa exports 299 

Germany, supply and war Editorial. . . . 981 

Idaho production 231 

Jasperoid, Nevada, Ely district 1001 

Lake Superior district industry 380 

Market and war ••■;••; . .347, 572 

Ditto Editorial.... 939 

Market, conditions of 420 

Market improved 

Market situation • • • • • ■■ 926 

Market, Stabilization of the C. S. Burton 760 

Ditto L- Vogelstein. . . . 845 

Michigan occurrence • • 768 

Michigan production 705, 768, 816 

Mines, Lake Superior district and European war 531 

Mines. Efficiency in Michigan 763 

Mining, Lake Superior, present and future — I 

Thomas T. Read.... 871 

Montana production 30, 705, 768 

Nevada production 425 

New Mexico production 76 

New Zealand production 919 

Ontario production 117, 195. 463. 858 

Ores, Secondary sulphide enrichment of, with special 

reference to miscroscopic study. Austin F. Rogers. . . . 680 

Peru exports Editorial 829 

Peru production 795 

Prices 34. 80, 120, 161. 197, 

198, 235, 274, 313, 353. 387, 388, 427. 465, 539, 540. 580, 

622. 662, 704, 739, 740, 781, 826, 860, 898, 899. 934, 978. 1012 

Prices. Future of Editorial .... 203 

Production, monthly 121 

Queensland production 961 

Quotations. Concerning Editorial .... 509. 788 

Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the metals 

Edwin C. Eckel 182 

Silver alloy 188 

Smelting in Canada 689 

Stocks surplus 652 

Surplus 704 

Texas production 819 

U. S. mines and export trade 154 

XT. S. mining and war 382 

U. S. production 120, 861, 924 

Utah production 705 

Washington production 77 

Western Australia production 381 

World production 120 

Wyoming production 117 

Copper Giant mine, Arizona, and United Verde Copper Co. . 534 

'Copper Handbook' publication 890 

Copper King mine. Arizona 74 

Copper King Mining & Smelting Co., Idaho 158 

Copper King, Utah 578 

Copper Producers' Association monthly statements 1002 

Report SO 

Copper Queen Consolidated Mining Co.. Bisbee, Arizona.. 

121, 313. 348, 383, 574. 855. 1006 

Douglas smelter 269 

Hoists 454 

Safety 617 

Smelter 501 

Copper Range Consolidated Mining Co.. Painesdale. Michi- 
gan 68. 121. 232. 268. 418, 576. 894, 928 

Cordoba Copper Co.. Ltd.. Cordoba. Seville, Spain 121 

Corinthian North Gold Mines. Ltd.. Western Australia .... 697 

Cornfield Mining Co.. Miami. Oklahoma 774, 928 

Cornish tin mines and war 419 

Cornwall Tailings Co., Ltd., company report 1013 

Cortez Mining & Reduction Co.. Nevada 975 

Costa Rica, Abangarez Gold Fields Co 77. 79S 

Imports and exports 792 

Mineral resources 798 


Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co 15" 

Alaska Treadwell Gold Mining Co 152. 698 

Alaska Treadwell cyanide plant, concentrate treatment 

W. P. Lass 960 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co Editorial. . . . 203 

Arizona Copper Co. smelter 223 

Associated Gold Mines of Western Australia, Ltd 31 R 

Rigmarole Mining Co.. South Dakota 663 

Rlackwater Mines, Ltd.. New Zealand 61 * 

Briseis Tin & General Mining Co., Ltd 237, 24S 

Broken Hill Proprietary Block 10 Co.. Ltd 37 

Broken Hill South Silver Mining Co S* 1 

Butte & Superior Copper Co.. Ltd 310. SSi 

Caledonia Mining Co., Idaho 822 

Vol. 109 







Camp Bird, Ltd., Ouray, Colorado 689. 

Carnotite mining and delivery 

Cement manufacturers, Queensland, Gore, limestone de- 

Chino Copper Co., New Mexico 

Chloridizing roast 328 

Cornwall Tailings Co., Ltd 1013 

Crown Mines, Ltd., Rand 163, 228 

Daly West Mining Co., Utah, mill 370 

Davis-Daly Copper Co., Montana 823 

Dexter White Caps Mining Co., Nevada 737 

Diamond rotary oil well drilling 345 

Diesel engine operation 815 

Dome Mines Co., Ltd., Ontario 1004 

Dredge construction, Portuguese East Africa 180 

Drill-repair, low, on the Gogebic range 

J. F. Berteling 599 

El Tlgre Mining Co., Sonora, Mexico 212 

Gas making, Belfast, Ireland 149 

Glroux Consolidated Mines Co., churn-drilling 454 

Goldtleld Consolidated Mining Co 31, 194, 385, 536, 

590. 701, 857, 1008 

Granby Consolidated Mining, Smelting & Power Co. . . 615 

Great Boulder Perseverance, Western Australia 614 

Great Boulder Proprietary Gold Mines, Ltd., Western 

Australia 854 

Great Fingall Consolidated, Ltd., Western Australia. 104. 163 

Hammer-mill operation. Republic, Washington 

Hollinger Gold Mines. Ltd., Porcupine 312, 819, 

lim Butler Tonopah Mining Co 

Jumbo Extension Mining Co., Goldfteld, Nevada. .. .310, 

Knlght-Christensen process 

Lake Superior district strike, militia 115 

Lake View & Star, Ltd., Western Australia, grinding 

pan Editorial.... 318 

Lone Star mine, Yukon 620 

Lonely Reef Gold Mining Co., Ltd., food 22 

Lower Burma, mining 450 

Lucky Tiger-Combination Gold Mining Co 81 

Manganese production, Brazil 724 

Miami Copper Co 534 

Ditto Editorial . ... 203 

Montana Tonopah Mines Co., Nevada 823 

Mount Lyell Mining & Railway Co., Ltd 82 

Mount Morgan Gold Mining Co., Ltd 314. 340 

Nelll Jig 841 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co Editorial.... 203 

Nevada Hills Mining Co 30 

Nevada Wonder Mining Co 901 

New Modderfontein Gold Mining Co.. Ltd.. Rand 961 

New York & Honduras Rosario Mining Co.. Honduras . . 581 

North Star Mines Co., Grass Valley, California 544, 551 

Operating, at mines near Reefton, New Zealand 526 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co.. Korea 663 

Oroya Black Range, Western Australia 895 

Oroya Links. Ltd., Kalgoorlie, Western Australia . ... 81, 

142. 614 
Plymouth Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd.. California. . . . 

893. 973 

Porcupine Crown Mines Co., Ltd 91. 92 

Progress Mines. Ltd., New Zealand 114 

Rand Mines. Ltd ll.'i, 307 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co sjn 

Rock Island Coal Mining Co., Oklahoma 7t',s 

Rooiberg Minerals Development Co.. Ltd. Transvaal... 7^2 

Safety Urst. Lake Superior district. Iron mines 608 

St. John del Key Mining Co.. Ltd 37 

Sand filling on Rand Ml I 

San Foil mill. Republic, Washington 137 

Santa Gertrudis Co., Ltd 7S2 

Shamva Mines, Ltd., Rhodesia 919 

Shannon Copper Co., Arizona 973 1006 

Silver King Coalition Mines Co., Utah '.'. . . 159 

Silver King mine. Yukon 537 

Simmer & Jack Proprietary, Transvaal Mil 

Sintering ore processes :;7s 

Smelting silver-lead ores, and prices. . . L. S. Austin! ! 170 

Bona of Gwalla, Ltd.. Western Australia 972 

Steam stamping In gold mines 514 

Tanganyika copper mines I\7 

Transvaal " ' 552 •, 1 

Tube-mill reiining "' .-.- 

Utah Copper Co ' 77 c, 

Ditto . . . Editorial '.'.'.'. 203 

van Hyn Deep, Hand U" 

Walhi Gold Mining Co., Ltd., New Zealand !!!!!!! 163 

Walhl Grand Junction. Ltd.. New Zealand »12 "60 

Wealth of Nations. New Zealand ' ' 614 

Workmen's compensation insurance In California..!!!! 
„ , ,, ,. „, . , Editorial 

Yuanmi Gold Mines, Ltd 

Yukon Gold Co. !!!!!!!!!!!!! 

Cottrell fume apparattrs. Selby Smelting Ik Lead Co ! ! 

Crackerjack claims. Ketchikan district, Alaska 

Cralgglemoro mine. Western Australia i:,r. 

("rank-shaft. Thermit weld of broken 594 

I'rawhall mine. Fields M. & M. Co.. Wisconsin. ...!...!!!! 157 

Craw] girders in a battery-house 7 "I 

Cresson Consolidated Gold Mining & Milling Co.. Colorado 

157. 974 

Accidents 735 

Creston-Colorado mine. Mexico. Mines Company of America 119 

'•ripple Creek Cyanide Milling & Mining Co., Colorado 658. 856 
Croasdale, Stuart . . . .Leaching experiments on AJo ores. I. 

II. III. . . .209. 252, 291 

Croeaus Gold Mining & Milling Co., Alleghany. California . 269 

Crown mine. New Zealand 1003 

.Charles F. Hand. 

4 2 

!l 9 .". 

Crown Mines. Ltd.. Hand 228 

Company report 1 63 

Crown Point, Idaho :;r,n 

Crown Point-Belcher. Nevada, fire 869, 1009 

Crown Reserve Mining Co., Ltd.. Cobalt. Ontario ..159 386, 

421. 458. 572. 622. 702. 819. 851. 891. 1004 

Crude methods of disposing of cyanide slag 

Arthur Feust. ... 112 

Cuba. Imports and exports 798 


. 213 

. 798. 

. 82» 
63 I 

Cuba, Iron mines, Sanitation work at 


Trade extension to Editorial .... 

Culiinan, E. P., one-man carry 

Cumberland mine. Colorado 822 

Cunningham, Noel Milling in cyanide. . . 

Ditto Simplification of gold treatment. . . 

Cushing, George H .Coal trade problem... 

Custer Peak Milling & Ore Co., South Dakota 

Cyanidation at Siiafter, Texas 

Function of lead salts in G. H. Clevenger. . . 

Of Clear Creek and Gilpin County sulphides 

Jackson A. Pearce... 

Solution control in A. W. Allen . . . 

Ditto E. M. Hamilton . . . 

Sulpho-cyanides in Harai R. Layng. . . 

Titration results in A. W. Allen. . . 

Victoria, Australia, tailing 

Cyanide and cyanite 815 

Bullion, brittle 496 

Bullion, matte on top 

Bullion, matte removal 37S 

Conditions, U. S. and Mexico Editorial... 

Consumption forecasts 


Germany, and beet sugar residue 

Methods of manufacture Editorial. . . 

Milling in A. W. Allen .. . 

Ditto Noel Cunningham. . . 

Now available from Germany PMitorial . . . 

Philippine Islands 898 

Practice, fluxes 415 

Practice, graphite in ores 60S 

Practice low base-metal content bullion 37S 

Practice: Methods of taking mill-head samples 

Lloyd Robey. ... 1S3 

Practice. Meyer & Charlton mine. Hand 496 

Practice, porous mineral medium 35 1 

Practice. Heinohl 'rapid cyaniding apparatus' 423 

Practice, silver and gold solvent 529 

Practice. Uwarra mill Andrew Walz. . . . 921 

Practice v. notation Editorial. . . . 359 

Price 313. 781 

Situation 541. 662. 694. S26, 920 

Slag. Crude method of disposing of. . . .Arthur Feust. . . 

Supply Editorial. . . .391 

U. S. condition 

Ditto Editorial. . . 

' '. S. supply 

'vanidlng tailing In the Willow Creek district. Alaska... 

J. T. Terry. Jr.. . . 

Titration results and solution control in 

Harai H. Layng. . . 

Cyanite and cyanide 

Cyanogen, In coal gas 847 

Czar mine. Blsbee, Arizona, top slicing 451 







8 1 5 

Dakota Continental Copper Co., work suspended 228 

Daly-Judge Mining Co., Park City, Utah ....26. 77, 31". 

351, 463. 504, 577. 77K. 824, I'll" 

Daly Mining Co., Utah 1"1" 

Daly West Mining Co., Park City. Utah. .340, 37", 163, 824, i"l" 

New mill 37" 

Dan Creek Mining Co.. Alaska 226 

Darling Mining Co.. Texas 1010 

Darlington, Thomas Menace of mosquitoes and what 

to do about it . . . . 334 

Darrow tailing treatment at Bunker Hill 

Frank Lawrance.... 918 
Davenport-Independent Mining & Leasing Co., Douglas, 

Arizona 385 

Davis-Daly Copper Co.. Montana 232. 823 

Company report 535 

Davis lease, E. L„ Tintlc. Utah 117 

Day-Bristol Mining Co.. Pioche, Nevada 484 

Day Dawn P. C. Gold .Mines. Ltd.. Queensland, Australia... 25 
Deadwood Business Club. South Dakota. Heidelberg 
property — See Heidelberg. 

Deadw 1 Standard mine. South Dakota ^>2 

Dease Creek syndicate ami Boulder Creek Mining Co.. 

Alaska 69 

Death rate. Hand and Panama canal Editorial.... 168 

Decisions, mining 39, 123. 161. 313. 128, ."i"7, 62:;. 

784, S62. 936 

Deebook Dredging, Ltd 16 

I iei st or Machine Co., don hie -deck sand table 1014 

New products 1" 

Deitriek Concession. Nicaragua, cancelled ....Editorial.... 982 

de la Marliere. L C Handling boulders at Andrada.... 761 

Del Mar, Algernon ... .Steam stamps from the gold minor's 

point of view .13. 963 

Dennis, Clifford J., and notation on quicksilver ores 

Editorial .... 585 

Denver Engineering Works. Richards pulsator riffle 316 

Denver Fir.- Clay Co.. laboratory roaster 786 

Low pressure oil forgo 581 

Deposition. Ore. In and near intrusive rocks l»y meteoric 

waters Andrew C. Lawson . . . . 600 

Design of the Plymouth mill Gelasln Caetani. . . . 670 

Ditto I. Parke Channing, .1. H. Lewis. . . . 846 

I >et inning. England, industry 653 

Detroit Copper Mining Co.. Morenci, Arizona ...121. 313. 

348. 855 

1 i.veloping foreign trade Editorial .... 278 

Development of gold mining in the Philippines 

C. M. Eye. ... 287 

Developments of the Alaska Gold Mines Co 

E. E. Hur.ia 103 

Dewey, Frederic P Platinum assay.... 20 

Dexter mine, Cripple Crook. Colorado 75 

Dexter White Caps Mining Co., Nevada 737 

Diamond, Brazil production 793 

British Guiana production <•>•" 

German Southwest Africa exports 299 



Vol. 109 


Diamond. Origin of ••■•■ ■ •• • • • •• **? 

Producers conference and output Editorial.... it>< 

South Africa mining ■ • • • • ■ • ..11*. »»- 

Union of South Africa industry Editorial «41 

Diamond-drilling, Ajo, Arizona, tests -Vi i - i}a 

Diamondfield Black Butte Reorganized Mining Co., Nevada 619 

Diamondfield Mining & Millng Co., Nevada .<> 

Diaphragm i£i 

Diesel engine built in America, Largest boo 

Engine, cost of operation • • S J° 

Diffusion of ore deposits Andrew C. Lawson.... 20 

Dingman well, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 191, 2.3 

Disc crushers i"? 

Discovery of California potash Whitman Symmes. ... 883 

Dixon James T Valuation of dredging ground 962 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph, boiler graphite 902 

Doctor-Jack Pot Mining Co., Cripple Creek. Colorado .... 822 

Company report 310 

Dogmobiles, Alaska Editorial 239 

Dolbear. Samuel H. . .Potash and the Geological Survey. ... 883 

Dolcoath tin mine, Cornwall 532 

Dome Lake Mining & Milling Co., Ontario 426, 660, 733, 738 

Dome Mines, Ltd., Porcupine, Ontario . . . .117, 159, 312, 499, 

660, 696, 703, 733, 854, 858, 891, 1004, 1010 

Mill treatment results 19 

Dome Mining & Reduction Co., Bullion, Nevada (36 

Dominion Coal Co.. Canada 9.1 

Dominion Steei Corporation, Ontario 68, 421 

Company report 858 

Double-deck Deister tables 1014 

Dragon Consolidated Mining Co., Silver City, Utah 117 

Draper, D Rand banket, Horwood replies to 

discussion .... 376 

Dredge, American, for foreign countries ....Editorial.... 432 

And winchman's skill 108 

Construction in Portuguese East Africa 

Charles Janin. . . . 177 

Panama canal 300 

Placer mining, Building with electric oower plant rn 

Portugal H. G. Peake. ... 522 

Recovery and drill tests Editorial.... 829 

Toronto. Ontario, harbor sand 300 

Dredging and hydraulicking in Victoria 923 

Coal Editorial.... 625 

Gold. Application of jigs to James W. Neill 839 

Ditto Editorial 903 

Gold. Philippine Islands 570 

Ground, Examination of Thomas A. Graves.... 991 

Ground, Valuation of James T. Dixon 962 

Ditto H. N. Herrick 692 

Ditto C. S. Herzig 563 

Ditto L. J. Hohl 493 

Ditto R. C. Jennings.... 527 

Ditto Donald Steel.... 845 

Ditto E. Bryant Thornhill. . . . 105 

Klondike district 454 

Recovery of gold in Charles Janin.... 717 

Recovery v. drilling Editorial.... 710 

Russia 971 

Victoria. Australia 220,529, 693 

Yukon Gold Co 56S 

Drill efficiencies. Comparative 876 

Leyner 266 

New portable 624 

Repair cost. Low, on the Gogebic range 

J. F. Berteling. ... 599 

Rigs. Autotraction 84, 328 

Suliivan 'DP-33' rotator 937 

Drilling contests Editorial. ... 85 

Contests, Bisbee. Arizona 114 

Contests, Cripple Creek, Colorado 115 

Contests, Ely, Nevada 116 

Contests, Goldfleld. Nevada 116 

Contests, Sonora, California 114 

Contests, Wallace, Idaho 115 

Machine, efficiency Thomas M. Bains. Jr. . . . 843 

Tests and dredge recovery Editorial .... 829 

v. dredging recovery .Editorial. . . . 710 

Ditto Charles Janin.... 717 

Driving the Hoosac tunnel and the lesson it taught 

P. B. McDonald. . . . 559 

Drumlummon mine. Montana 894 

Druremond Fraction mine. Cobalt, Ontario 42.1. 499 

Dry Slide gold mine. California 574 

Dudley. William Lotland. death of 661 

Duenweg Zinc & Lead Co.. Missouri 576 

Dunstan, Basil G Estimating arsenic in ore 412 

Dust chambers at the Ashio smelter. Japan 13 

Prevention on the Rand 49 

Dutch East Indies coal production 328 

Gold production 328 

Petroleum oroduction 935 

Tin oroduction 328 

Dutch Guiana, quartz mining in 810 

Dutch-Sweeney Mining Co., California 893 

Dwight-Llovd v. Huntington-Heherlein sintering processes 378 

Dyes. U. S. imports 567 

Dvestnffs. Germany and war Editorial .... 543 

" U. S. production Editorial. . . . 543 

Dykes Universal Concentrator Mfg. Co.. Utah, fire 463 

Dynamite cases as fuel 886 

Oriental Consolidaated. Korea 729 


Eagle & Blue Bell Mining Co., Bingham Utah 117, 159. 

385, 620, 660. 779, 858 

Eagle Oil Co, Mexico, fire 1010 

Eakle. Arthur S 'Minerals of California'. .. . 114 

Earlv leaching experiment lames A. Fleming. . . . 148 

Earth tremors. Rand 149, 964 

East Butte Copper Mining Co., Butte. Montana . . . .121, 208. 

266, 461, 701 

Anil North Butte 1002 

East Helena, Montana, lead smelter 454 


East Rand Proprietary Mines Jj 

Sand filling / ' Wl' L " 117 

East Tintic Development mine, Utah . "'V," - : - ' " 'j 

Eastern Oregon Light & Power Co. v. Highland Gold 

Mines Co • ••■• '„ ' 

Eastern Star Mining Co.. Nevada 3ol, 50.i 

Echo Gold Mining Co., South Dakota ■■■ »»•» 

Eckel Edwin C Relative natural and commercial 

'scarcity of the metals *°- 

Economical sliming in grinding pans. .M. G. F. Sohnlein ... . 692 

Ecuador, imports and exports '»- 

Mineral resources ' 

Edeleanu, petroleum refining process »** 

Eden Mining Co. in Nicaragua I« 

Edna May mine, Westonia, Western Australia 24, 381. ^ 

Efficiency engineering . Editorial.... 625 

O" fhebu^ro !????. .^ .'. Z V.: 1 '.William A.' Burr! \ \ \ 521 

Egypt, phosphate deposits Editorial.... 431 

« r ) Mining Co.. New Mexico 1 ""™ 

Eldorado Banket Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rhodesia . .72. 265. 959 

Eleanor Mining Co., Inc., California »< ■» 

EIe H t oi i s C ts^n St thrcfev m era t n°d n -cYiff- mines .' .F E." Stanford WW 446 

BWrhalWt't i n n itr S o aS i e a nips mlne ;. .V.VgiitoVia.: \ \ \ 

Power at Homestake Jesse Simmons. ... 3.4 

Power, Germany ■ i%\ 

Power v. mules in coal mines i<-5 

Shock, artificial respiration i»» 

Shock, first-aid ■• J1 

Smelting of iron ore, Fluorspar ^^ '£ — " ; ; ; ; 335 

Winch, new 2 I5 

Work in Australia • •■•■• •■■ • ' * 

Electrical precipitation, Progress of ........Editorial.... 626 

Electricity, Pennsylvania anthracite coal mines 6oi 

El Favor Mining Co., Jalisco, Mexico 69» 

Employees killed '* 

Eliminating the mosquito • ■ ■ • • • • ■ • • • • • • • • • • • 

Elkton Consolidated Mining & Milling Co., Cripple Creek. 

Colorado 157 - 3a0 - "*• »" 

Ellamar Mining Co., Alaska • • ■ • f *! 

Elm Orlu Mining Co., Butte, Montana •■-.•■»•■ "I 

V. Butte & Supperlor ijY, *. ', ' kit 

Ores, Flotation of Editorial. . . . o44 

Elmore copper plant. Sulitjelma, Norway 62. 

El Oro Dredging Co., Oroville, California 1006 

El Oro Mining & Milling Co., Elkton, Colorado 618, 658 

El Oro Mining & Railway Co., Mexico 504. 580. 773 

El Paso Consolidated Gold Mining Co., Victor, Colorado ... 

6d8, . . < 

El Rayo mine, Mexico, Mines Company of America 419 

El Tigre Mining Co., Sonora, Mexico, mill operations 212 

Ely Volley Mining & Milling Co., Nevada 486 

Empire Copper Co., Idaho 76 

Empire Mines & Investment Co., Grass Valley, California. . 821 

Mill, Oliver filters •>•>» 

Empire-Nevada Copper Mining & Smelting Co.. Nevada . . 38» 

Empire Zinc Co., New Mexico 533. 775, 819, 890 

Enamels, antimony in manufacture ■ ■ • • • • • • • »47 

End of the year Editorial.... 982 

Engels Copper Mining Co., California ■ • •• • • -=• 

'Engineering and Mining Journal' and 'Mining and En- 
gineering World' copper quotations .... Editorial .... 509 

Engineering Congress, San Francisco, September 1915 

Editorial . . . . o85, .87 

Engineering, efficiency Editorial. .. . 625 

England and copper export situation 530, 615, .31. 

772. 827, 926, 969. 1012 

Ditto Editorial 543, 829. 939 

Bank of, gold reserves Editorial.... .43 

Coalfield, German interests in ?-5 

Cornish tin mining and war »3- 

Detinning industry 6d3 

Iron, galvanized, manufacture 486 

Kent coal areas 9L» 

Staffordshire pottery plants, lead poisoning 5L9 

Zinc smelting 304 

English Crown Spelter Co.. Ltd.. company report 136 

Enrichment, secondary, Laboratory study of 

C. F. Tolmam Jr 649 

Ernestine Mining Co.. New Mexico 733. 890, 932 

Eruption of Mount Lassen William H. Storms.... 143 

Estey, Robert B., death of »2-> 

Estimating arsenic in ores Basil G. Dunstan: . . . 412 

Eureka Hill Mining Co., Eureka. Utah . 11". 895 

European crisis "....Editorial 202 

War — See War. 

Evans, James Porter, death of ^o.-* 

Evening Star No. 5 mine. Leadville, Colorado explosion .. 350 

Evergreen Consolidated and Dewey claims, Idaho ' 30 

Examination of placer ground Thomas A. Graves.... 991 

Experimental development of the Hall process 

James W. Neill.... 923 

Ditto H. F. Wierum 51S 

Exploration bill in House 530 

Exploration Co., Ltd., London, in Mexico 504 

Explcsion test at the experimental mine 

George S. Rice, L. M. Jones. . . . 877 

Explosions, grain mills, U S 964 

Explosives, Australasia imports 886 

Carbide lamp and 135 

'Don'ts' in handling 768 

Dynamite cases as fuel 886 

Fulminate for caps and quicksilver "29 

Fuse, handling and use of 44 4 

Gun-cotton 729 

Manufactured in U. S. in 1913 679 

Eye. C. M.. .Development of gold milling in the Philippines !87 

Vol. 109 





Faber du Faur tilting furnaces 

Factory products, U. S 

Farm products, U. S 

Fatalities, U. S. metal mines Editorial .... 

Fatality rates, quarries, U. S., France and Great Britain. . . 

Federal Lead Co., Missouri, shoveling machine 

Federal Mining & Smelting Co. v. American Smelting & 
Refining Co 

Ditto Sidney Norman .... 

Federated Malay States, Raub mine 

Tin exports • • • • • • ;-• v. • ' '•■' 

Tin mining in E. J. Vallentine 

Feeder, ore, Improved Ulysses B. Hough 

Feldt, John Denton, death of 

Feldspar, California production 

Maine production 

Fenian mine, Western Australia 

Ferberlte .V ' W. 

Ferguson. James C. H Steel roll shells 

Ferraina Copper Queen mine, Nevada 

Ferreira Deep, Ltd., Rand, dust prevention 

Ferro-alloys, U. S.. marketed Editorial ' ' " ' 

Ferro-mangane8e cauoriai .... 

And war 


Feust Arthur Crude methods of disposing of cyanide 

slag. . . . 

Fidelity Gold Mining Co., Colorado 

Fields Mining & Milling Co., Wisconsin 

New development • • 

Fife Coal Co., Scotland, •wireless' telephone 

Filter, Oliver, Operation in the Globe mill.... 

H. A. Morrison and H. G. Thomson 

•Filtros' tile ■•■■• • • • ; 

Financiers and mining Editorial 

First-aid contest, Arizona, Bisbee 

Contest, Arizona, Phoenix 

Contest, California, Jackson 

Contest, California, San Francisco 

Contest, Nevada, Ely 

Contest, Nevada, Reno, mine rescue 

For gas and electric shock 

First National Copper Co., company report 

Fissure veins. True H. C. Burton 

Ditto W. Prince Catlin .... 

Flagstaff mines, Nevada •■• 

Flaxle Mines Co., Nevada «L 

Fleming. James A Early leaching experiment 

Flint pebbles, U. S. imports 

Flints. U. S. occurrence • • • • ■■■■ 

Florence-Goldfleld Mining Co., Nevada 384, 5i 6. 

Florida, phosphate production 

Flotation, Anaconda Editorial.... 

And the patent law Editorial .... 

Ditto James M. Hyde. . . . 

And zinc recovery 

Application to gold ores John Bevan 

Minerals Separation, Ltd., suits 

Minerals Separation, Ltd., v. Miami Copper Co 

Of the Elm Orlu ores Editorial .... 

On quicksilver ores Editorial.... 

v. cyanide Editorial.... 

Flower, Richard C, career and capture 

Flue-dust smelting 

Flumes, timber 

Fluorspar in electric smelting of Iron ore 

Robert M. Keeney.... 

U. S. production 

Fluxes, cyanide practice 

Foote. Arthur B Improved cam for stamp-mills.... 

Foreign Trade Council Editorial .... 

Forest products, U. S 

Forge, low pressure oil 

Fortuna Mines Corporation, Fortuna mine. Arizona 

France, coal production 

European war. as seen in 

Iron production 

Modern Industrial chemistry Editorial.... 


South American trade '. 

Steel production . . .■ 

Franklin, Jr., mine. Michigan 

Franklin Mining Co., Demmon. Michigan 


Freeman grinding pan Editorial .... 

Freight situation and American owned foreign boats 


Fremont Consolidated Mining Co., Drytown. California . . 
French Gulch Dredging Co., Breckenrldge, Colorado. .. 157, 


Frontier. Pioneering In old countries Editorial .... 

Fry C. .1 Revision of the mining law. . . . 

Fuel, Natural gaseous Editorial.... 

Oil. U. S 

Fuller's earth. California production 

U. S. production Editorial.... 

Fulminate for caps, and quicksilver 

Fume litigation. Selby Smelter Commission report 

Litigation, smelter. Selby Smelting & Lead Co 


Smelter. T'tah decree Editorial.... 

Function of lead salts In cyanldatlon . .G. H. Clevenger . . . . 
Furnace, bullion melting 

'■'a>i<>r du Faur tilting 

Hesreler roasting 

Johnson electric zinc smelting at Keokuk. Iowa 


Rarerberatory. and powdered coal Editorial .... 

Roasting. Mattliiessen & Hcgeler 

Zellweger roasting 

Fuse. Handling and use of 

Future of copper prices Editorial. . . . 









:, is 


7!) 2 



9 HI 

63 5 

4 6 

Gaika Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rhodesia 959 

Galicia, petroleum production 935 

Gannett, Henry, death of 825 

Gardner and Trifonoff process, sulphide ore of antimony 

and arsenic 149 

Garnet, abrasive, U. S. production 80 

Garrison, F. Lynwood Seward Peninsula and its 

mining problems. . . . 907 

Gas and first aid 731 

And oil land, California legislation. Washington, D. C. 

191, 268 

Coal, cyanogen in 847 

Coal, manufacture 693 

Coal, Widnes, England 188 

In mines and effects 367 

Making cost, Belfast, Ireland 149 

Natural, California production 501. 929 

Ditto Editorial 867 

Natural, Kansas production 705 

Ditto Editorial 867 

Natural, map of U. S. deposits 727 

Natural, Ohio production 664 

Natural, Oklahoma production Editorial.... 867 

Natural, Pennsylvania production 664 

Natural. Texas production 466 

Natural. U. S. production 525 

Natural, West Virginia production Editorial.... 867 

Petroleum, and brine wells of Ssu-chuan, China 

Thomas T. and M. Carleton Read. . . . 629 

Poisoning, artificial respiration 765 

Producer, Chapman 398 

Pumps. Humphrey 108 

Gaseous fuel. Natural Editorial .... 867 

Mines, electric incandescent lamps in 693 

Gasoline locomotives and the health of miners 

O. P. Hood 585. 592 

Locomotives In mines and air depletion 608 

Gauf v. Apex mines. Rand 73 

Gaylord-Dante mine. Cripple Creek, Colorado 75, 231, 

423, 502, 575, 931 

Geldenhuis Deep, Ltd., Rand, sand filling 801 

Gemini Mining Co., Eureka, Utah 117 

Gems, California production 929 

General Electric Co., new high-voltage oil switch 166 

General Filtration Co., Inc., porous mineral medium 357 

General Mining & Finance. Rand 500 

General Petroleum Co., California, company report 707 

Geological report on the Collbran Contact within the Suan 

mining concession, Korea D. J. Hlggins. ... 95 

Geological Society of America, correspondentship elections 

Editorial 710 

Geologists. State Editorial 319 

Geology, Kalgoorlie J. L. Connor. . . . 493 

Study In applied C. A. Stewart.... 330 

George H. Crosby Mining Co., Arizona 657 

Georgia, Gold mining In Claud. Hafer.... 953 

Metal production 38 

Mineral production 4 66 

Gerber. H. C., Death of 464 

German Southwest Africa copper production 120 

Germany, Alsace-Lorraine, mining In 451 

And copper market Editorial .... 509 

And English coalfields 925 

Bank of, gold reserves Editorial .... 743 

Bills outside of Empire Editorial.... 830 

Copper production 120 

Copper supply and war Editorial .... 981 

Cyanide and beet sugar residue 729 

Cyanide now available from Editorial.... 511 

Dyes exported to U. S 567 

Dyestuffs Editorial.... 543 

East Prussia amber production 924 

Electric power 188 

Hydrogen 188 

Magdeburg potassium cyanide 567 

Petroleum production 935 

Platinum deposits of Germany's paleozoic 

P. Krusch (translated by F. Sommer Schmidt).... 879 

Scientific management of industries. . H. N. Stronck... 648 

Smelters 354 

South American trade 792 

Zinc production Editorial 278 

Gertie Mining Co., Idaho 76 

Getting land for taxes In California 634 

Giant Mines, Ltd., Rhodesia 336, 959 

Gila Canyon Copper Co., Chlllto. Arizona 193. 460 

Giroux Consolidated Mines Co., Klmherly, Nevada, churn- 
drilling 454 

Glaciers, Alaska 67 

Glasgow & Western Exploration Co.. Utah, Montreal mine. 660 

Glencoe mine, Utah 1010 

Globe and Mueller tube-mill liner 255 

Globe & Phoenix Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rhodesia 72, 

336. 808, 959 
Globe Consolidated Mining Co., Dedrlck, California, Oliver 

filters 558 

Ditto H. A. Morrison and H. G. Thomson.... 554 

Godiva mine, Utah 117 

Gogebic range, Michigan. Low drill-repair cost 

J. F. Bertellng 599 

Gold. Alaska. Fairbanks district production 422 

Alaska, Idltarod. Innoko. and Ruby districts production 6^6 

Alaska prpductlon 590, 8 ;0 

Alaska Seward Peninsula production 734 

And silver alloys 188 

And silver. Weighing minute spheres I. I. Blair.... 526 

Arizona production 74 

Australia production 10 s 

British Guiana production 377. 650, 707 

California production 349.501. 929 

Central America, Salvador exports, and silver 648 

Colombia exports 878 

Colorado production 231, 705 

Dredging, Application of iigs to.... James W. Neill.... 839 

Ditto Editorial.... 903 



Vol. 109 

Gold, Dredging, California industry Editorial.... 201 

Dredging, Philippine Islands 570 

Dutch East Indies production 328 

Eastern states production 38 

Exports Editorial .... 4 

Federated Malay States, Raub mine 842 

Honduras production 955 

Idaho production 231 

India production 255, 959 

London imports 161 

Metallic, Auto-reduction in the precipitation of 

Victor Lenher.... 411 

Miner's point of view, Steam stamps from the 

Algernon Del Mar. . . . 513 

Mining in Georgia Claud. Haf er .... 953 

Mining on the Amur W. H. Shockley . ... 249 

Mining, Steam stamps and Algernon Del Mar.... 963 

Ditto H. W. Hardinge 884 

Mongolia mining 410 

Montana production 30 

Nevada production 424 

New Mexico production 76 

New Zealand production, Auckland province 1003 

New Zealand production 198, 613, 919 

Nova Scotia 971 

Ontario, Porcupine mining and war 733 

Ontario production 31,117,463, 858 

Ore treatment, Simplification of.. Noel Cunningham.... 19 

Oregon production 195, 705 

Ores and metallics 651 

Ores, Application of flotation to John Bevan . . . . 413 

Peru coinage standard 780 

Peru production 68 

Philippine Islands milling development ..C. M. Eye.... 287 

Queensland, Australia, production 605, 616, 961 

Rand production 526, 662 

Ditto Editorial 787 

Recovery in dredging Charles Janin. . . . 717 

Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the 

metals Edwin C. Eckel 182 

Reserves, Bank of England and Bank of Germany 

Editorial. . . . 743 

Rhodesia production 72, 251, 459, 808, 959 

Russia mining 971 

Siberia production 144 

South Dakota, Black Hills production 852 

Texas production 819 

Transvaal production 72, 614, 1001 

Treatment with nitric acid 886 

U. S., Eastern States production 110 

U. S. exports 580 

U. S. exports and imports 934 

Ditto Editorial. ... 239 

U. S. production 861 

Utah production 705 

Washington production 77 

West Africa production 217, 814, 955 

Western Australia mining, men employed 815 

Western Australia production 25, 381. 499, 854, 972 

Western Australia production decline ....Editorial.... 667 

Wire and leaf 188 

World production 908, 1001 

Wyoming production 117 

Gold Bond Leasing & Development Co., Colorado 30, 931 

Gold Bullion mine, Alaska 342, 989 

Gold Chain Mining Co.. Mammoth, Utah 117 

Gold Chief mine. Pioche, Nevada 385, 462, 485 

Gold Cup Mining Co. organized 157 

Gold Hill and Walter G. Newman 110 

Gold Hill & Iowa Mines Co., Idaho 618 

Gold Hunter Mining & Smelting Co., Mullan, Idaho 350 

Gold King Mining Co., Alaska 264 

Gold King Mining Co., Cripple Creek, Colorado. .. .461, 894, 931 

Gold-Platinum Mining Co., Nevada 975 

Gold Prince Mining & Leasing Co., Nevada 271 

Gold Road Mines Co., Arizona 460, 734 

Golden Center Mining Co., Grass Valley, California 383 

Whiskey vein S56 

Golden Cycle Mining Co., Cripple Creek. Colorado. . . .30, 75, 

231, 350, 384, 423, 535, 575, 700, 735, 822, 031 

Golden Eagle Mining Co., Alaska 264 

Golden Horse-Shoe Estates, Ltd., Western Austrlia ....25, 

381, 382. 498, 614, 697, 854, 972 
Golden Reward Consolidated Gold Mining & Milling Co., 

Terry. South Dakota 462, 702, 852 

Hidden Fortune mill 112 

Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co.. Nevada 30, 76. 194, 

232. 385, 425. 536, 576, 701, 737, 857. 931, 100S 

And Aurora Consolidated Mines Co 30, 57, 194 

Company report ' 778 

Costs ; . . 590 

Goldfield Merger Mines Co., Nevada 857 

Company report 736 

Gold Fields Rhodesian Development Co 265 

Goldschmidts. detinning in England 653 

Gore. Bancroft Labor crisis in Chile. . . . 363 

Government Gold Mining Areas (Modderfontein) Consol. 

Ltd., Rand 99, 112, 731 

Government owned merchant ships Editorial. . . . 392. 

Gow, G. Aubrey Ore. ... 187 

Graham rheostat resistance block 149 

Grain mill explosions. U. S 964 

Granby Consolidated Mining. Smelting & Power Co.. Ltd.. 
British Columbia ....110, 121, 233, 268, 313. 346, 465. 

617, .689, 896, 1010 

Anyox property 739, 926, 976 

Company report 615, 783 

In Alaska 11. 262. 530 

Granbv Mining & Smelting Co., Joplin, Missouri .. 208, 232. 654 

B. & H. concentrating plant 305 

Rose Lake smelter, Illinois 736 

Ditto E. H. Leslie.... 395 

Grand Central Mining Co.. Mammoth, Utah... 117, 385. 458, 660 

Grand Gulch mine. Arizona 74 

Granite. Georgia production 466 

Ireland production 55° 

Washington production 77 


Granite Gold Mining Co., Alaska 264, 501, 855 

Granite Gold Mining Co., Victor, Colorado, and Vindicator 

v. Teller county 15° 

Granite Hill mine, Oregon 3ol 

Granville Mining Co Ltd., company report i07 

Graphite, artificial, Niagara Falls 80 

California production 929 

Dixon's boiler 902 

Electric furnaces and uses 188 

In ores and cyanide treatment 608 

U. S. imports and production 388 

Graves Thomas A Examination of placer ground. .. . 991 

Great Boulder Perseverance Gold Mining Co., Ltd., com- 
pany report 614 

Great Boulder Proprietary Gold Mines, Ltd., Kalgoorlie, 

Western Australia 382. 614 

Company report 2^6 

Cyanide consumption and quicksilver loss iii 

Victoria mines 854 

Great Britain, smelters 3j>4 

South American trade 92 

Great Cobar, Ltd., Cobar, New South Wales 121 

Great Fingall Consolidated, Ltd., Western Australia 1»» 

Company report 163 

Contract work 697 

Costs 104 

Freeman grinding pan 318 

Great Northern Development Co., Alaska 500 

Green Hill, Cleveland, Idaho 350 

Greene Cananea mine, Sonora, Mexico 159, 208. 652 

Gregory. J. W Rand banket, Horwood reply to 

discussion 766. 811 

Grenfell failure, London 162 

Grier, Thomas Johnston, A pioneer mine manager, death 

of 725 

Death of Editorial .... 469 

Monument "52 

Will 696 

Grinding pan as a regrinder William S. Mann. . . . 963 

Pans Editorial 317 

Pans, Economical sliming in . . . .M. G. F. Sohnlein.... 692 

Gross & Dixon Gold Mining Co., North Carolina 659 

Grothe. Albert, death of 464 

Guanajuato Consolidated Mining & Milling Co., Mexico.. 580 

Guatemala, imports and exports 792 

Resources 797 

Gullachsen, B. C Hydraulic stowing in the gold mines 

of the Witwatersrand. . . . 801 

Oumaos Placer Co., Philippine Islands 570, 780 

Gun-cotton 729 

Gypsum, California production 929 

South Dakota production 853 

U. S. production 99 

Hafer. Claud Gold mining in Georgia. . . . 

Haggin, James B., death of 

Hague, William, and W. D. Pagan North Star mine. 

Grass Valley. . . . 
Haiti, imports and exports 


Halev. C. S Plan for reviving hydraulic mining — I. II 


Ditto Prospecting on the Upper Magdalena. . . . 

Hall process Editorial .... 

Ditto Howard F. Wierum .... 

Process. Experimental development 

James W. Neill. . . . 

Ditto Howard F. Wierum. . . . 

Hamilton. E. M Solution control in cyanidation . . . . 

Hamlet Mining & Milling Co.. Middleton, Colorado .... 

Hammer drill. Sullivan 'DP-33' rotating 

Hampden Cloncurry Copper Mines.. Ltd., Cloncurry. 

Company report 

Hanaoka mine. Japan Editorial. . . . 

Hancock Consolidated Mining Co., Hancock. Michigan. .232. 
Handling and use of fuse 

Boulders at Andrada L. C. de la Marliere. . . . 

Hanford Mining Co., Joplin. Miisouri 

Hardinge. H. W Short tube-mills. . . . 

Ditto Steam stamps from a gold miner's 

point of view. . . . 
Hardinge ball-mills and cemented gravel... V. A. Stout. . . . 

Mills, Motors for driving 

Mills. Use of herringbone gears to drive 

Harney Peak Tin Mining Co Editorial . . . . 

Harrimans and mining George E. Collins. . . . 

Hasami gold mine, Japan, closed 

Hatch, F. H Rand banket, Horwood replies to 

discussion. . . .297, 

Hawaii and California lumber 

Hawkeyc-Pluma mine. South Dakota 

Havden. Stone & Co. and Butte-Duluth mine 926. 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 

Head-frame. Concrete C. T. Jackson. . . . 

Health of miners. Gasoline locomotives and 

O. P. Hood 585. 

Hecla Mining Co., Burke. Idaho 350. 

Hecla Mining Co.. Chewelah, Washington 

Hector mine. Tdaho 

Hedley Gold Mining Co., British Columbia ..346, 347. 45S. 

Hegeler roasting furnace 

Heidelberg Mining Co.. South Dakota 463. 655. 


Heidelberg property. Deadwood Business Club. South 


Heinze. F. A., and Gould litigation 

Death of 772. 

Legal entanglement 

Help the Belgians Editorial. . . . 

Henrietta or Big T mine. Idaho 

Hercules Mining Co., Burke. Idaho 76. 

Hercules Powder Co.. Missouri drilling contest 

Hercules Powder Co.. Utah 





4 57 


.".3 7 


53 5 





Vol. 109 




Herrick. H. N Valuation of dredging ground.... 692 

Herringbone gears. Use of to drive Hardinge mills 759 

Herzig, C. S Valuation of dredging ground.... 563 

Hiawatha mine. Cripple Creek, Colorado 658 

Hidden Treasure Gold Mining Co., South Dakota 463 

Higgins, D. F Geological report on the Collbran con- 
tact within the Suan mining concession, Korea 95 

Higgins, Edwin. .. .Ventilation in the iron mines of Lake 

Superior district 367 

Highland Gold Mines Co., Oregon, v. Eastern Oregon Light 

& Power Co 737 

Hirsch & Sohn, Aron, annual copper report 120 

Hohl, L J Valuation of dredging ground.... 493 

Hoist brakes i 768 

Electric, First motion 390 

Electric, in Cleveland-Cliffs mines... F. E. Stanford 446 

Little Tugger 624 

Hoisting accidents in Western Australia 878 

Holland, L. F. S... Welfare work among mine workers.... 747 

Holland, Patrick J., death of 825 

Holland, smelters 354 

Holllnger Gold Mines, Ltd., Timmons, Ontario 159, 312. 

345, 458. 463, 573, 703, 738, 779, 819, 854, 891, 933, 1010 

Mill bevel-gears 567 

Mill Treatment results 19 

Hollinger Reserve, Timmins, Ontario 733 

Holmes, J. A., American Mining Congress, Phoenix, Arizona 906 

Holmes, Robert, v. St. Joseph Lead Co Editorial 981 

Holt-Dern furnace 25 

Homestake Mining Co., Lead City, South Dakota 112, 

223, 227, 267, 272, 458. 702. 842, 852, 978. 1010 

Christmas dividend 1004 

Electric power at Jesse Simmons.... 374 

Employee's aid fund 860 

Labor conditions Editorial.... 318 

New construction 852 

New manager 696 

Superintendent Blackstone Editorial.... 544 

Telephone system 496 

Wage increase 932 

Honduras, Central America, gold production 955 

Imports and exports J.92 

Mineral resources "<*•_ 

Mining and war ?" 

Mining companies "'-'•; 

Silver production 9° ;| 

Honolulu Consolidated Oil Co., California 383 

Hood O. P Gasoline locomotives and health of 

miners. . . . 592 

Hook, J. S. . .Rand banket, Horwood reply to discussion. ... 186 

Hooke, A. W Juga estimates.... 414 

Hoosac tunnel. Driving, and the lessons It taught 

P. B. McDonald.... 5o9 

Hopaloosa Prospecting Co., Missouri 928 

Horn Silver Mining Co 6j- 

Hornadav. W D White Island sulphur deposit.... 91.S 

Horwood". C. B Rand banket, replies to discussion.... 

S.e also 'Rand' 186, 297. 337. 376. 413. 452. 766. 811, 996 

Hough, Ulysses B Improved ore feeder. . . . 562 

Houghton, Douglass, Memorial to Editorial.... U-'ti 

How to make money though mining 591 

Hubbard, Harry J., death of 426 

Hubbard-Elliott Copper Co., Alaska ■ • '■ 

Hudson Bav Mines, Ltd., Ontario Company report.... 660 

Huerta, passing of Editorial. ... H5 

Humphrey gas pumps 10s 

Hungary, coal Imports and production 212 

Iron production 552 

Huntlngton-Heberleln V. Dwight-Lloyd sintering processes 378 
Hurja, Emil Edward. . .Mining In the Far North: Cordova. 

Alaska 225 

Ditto Mining in the Far North: Developments of 

the Alaska Gold Mines Co 103 

Ditto Mining in the Far North: Juneau. Alaska . . . 152 

Ditto. . .Mining In the Far North: Klondike, the Tread- 
gold placers, and outlying districts v I s 

I lit to Mining in the Far North : Koyukuk mining 

district 416 

Ditto Mining In the Far North: Mining revival In 

the Ketchikan district, Alaska 10 

Ditto Mining in the Far North: Operations of the 

Canadlan-Klondyke Gold Mining Co.. Ltd 769 

Ditto Mining in the Far North: Operations of 

Yukon Gold Co 568 

Ditto Mining in the Far North: Placer mining in 

the Fairbanks district 965 

Ditto Mining In the Far North: Seward and the 

Kenal peninsula 341 

Ditto Mining in the Far North: Skagway-Whitc 

Horse mining district 609 

Ditto Mining In the Far North: Upper Yukon: 

Circle City, Eagie. and Woodchopper 887 

Ditto Mining In the Far North: Valdez and Prince 

William Sound 261 

Ditto. . Mining in the Far North: Wrangell, Alaska.... 69 

Huronlan Belt Mining Co.. Ontario 891 

Hutching*. Jame» M„ Miner's Ten Commandments 

Editorial 317. 344 

Hv le. James M Flotation and the patent law.... 728 

Hvdraullc mining. Plan for reviving — I. II 

C. 8. Haley 914. 943 

Stowing In the gold mines of the Wltwatersrand... 

B. C. Gullachsen. ... 801 

Stowing of mine workings Editorial.... 791 

Hvdraullcklng. Alaska 886 

And dredging In Victoria 923 

California Editorial 939 

Hvdroovanlc add. determination 300 

Hvdro-Electrlc Power & Metallurgical Co.. Tasmania '9 

ITv<irogen. Germany 188 

Hypotheek Mining & Milling Co.. Idaho 424. 856 



Ibex Mining Co., Little Jonny mine 

Ichthyol, Austria production 


Idaho, Big Creek district 

Coeur d'Alene district, company assessments . 

Coeur d'Alene district, lead ores and sulphur content. 

Coeur d'Alene district mines 310, 350, 

Forest Service v. Star Silver Lead Editorial.... 

Georgetown district, phosphate deposits 

Lead production 

Lemhi county fair 

Mackay district, garnetiferous copper deposits 

Map of 

Metal production 

Mineral production 

Miners' picnic. Kellogg 

Mining conditions 

Sawtooth quadrangle 

Silver production 

South Mountain district 


Idaho-Continental Co., Port Hill, Idaho 75, 

Idaho Gold & Radium Mining Co., Idaho 

Idora Hill Mining Co. mortgage 

Illinois, coal mine wash-houses 

Coal production 188, 

Coke production 

Mineral production 

Petroleum production 36, 

Portland cement production 

Zinc statistics 

Imperial Reduction Co., California, cloudburst 

Impression of the Rand 

Improved cam for stamp-mills Arthur B. Foote. . . . 

Ore feeder Ulysses B. Hough. . . . 

Inca Mining Co., Peru, Santo Domingo mine 

Incaoro Mines Co., Bolivia 795, 

Mill, R. B: T. Klliani 

Independence Mining Co., Manitoba. Canada 

India, Bombay silver stocks 

British, coal production 

Burma ruby mines 

Gold production 255, 

Kolar goldfleld, Persistence of ore. . . .T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Lower Burma, Mining in the Tavoy district 

E. Maxwell-Lefroy . . . . 

Petroleum in 810, 

Tigers and wild pigs Editorial.... 

Indian reservations, mineral lands on Editorial. .. . 

Indiana, coal production 

Coke production 

Mineral production 

Petroleum production 36, 

Portland cement production 

Industrial Accident Commission. California — See California. 
I. \V. W. and Goldlield and Tonopah fires. ... Editorial. .. . 

In Tonopah. Nevada Editorial. . . . 

Industrialism, a man and his job Editorial. .. . 

Industry of the Wltwatersrand 

T. A. Rickard — Editorial.... 

Infusorial earth, California production 

Ingalsbe. F. R Mining law — proposed revision. . . . 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. rivet-set retainer 430, 

Tngllston Consols mine. Western Australia 

Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co., Miami. Arizona 

28, 114, 156, 420, 458, 652. 

And Keystone 

Company report 

Compressor and hoist house 

New Keystone ground for tunnel Editorial ... . 

v. New Keystone Copper Co.. right-of-way 

lnstitnto Mexicano de Minas y Metalurgia, Transactions 

published Editorial 

Insurance premium. Western Australia, Workers' Compen- 
sation Act 

Rat.s tumble Editorial 

International Acheson Graphite Co., Niagara Falls, graph 

ite and culm 

International lead refinery. East Chicago 

International Nickel Co 352, 732. 772, 818. 

Company report 


International Smelting & Refining Co.. Globe. Arizona... 

114. 156, 

And Anaconda Copper Mining Co ■ • ■ 

International Steam Pump Co. and Power & Mining Ma- 
chinery Co .-;'••' 

Receivership Editorial ... 

Tnterstate-Cnllahan mine, Idaho 3;>0, 658, 

Iowa, coal production 

Mineral production 

Portland cement production 

Towa-Tlger Mining Co.. Colorado 

Ireland. Belfast, gas-making cost 

Mineral production 

Iron, Alsace-Lorraine production 

And steel. New Zealand industry 

California production 

Canada, mining and government bountry. Editorial. . . . 

Canada, mining industry 

Cuba mines. Sanitation work at. . .Charles F. Rand.... 

France production 

Galvanized. England manufacture 

Hungary production 

Ireland production • • 

Lake Superior mines, caving system of mining 

7. Parke Channing. . . . 

Lake Superior mines. Ventilation in. Edwin Higgins... 

Michigan districts and P. P. I. E 

Michigan, Mesahl range 

Michigan production 

ATlchlgan shipments 

Minnesota production 

Vew Mexico production 

New Zealand deposits 

















62 4 







3 59 









Vol. 109 


Iron, Ontaro production 117,463, 80S 

Ore, average price . . . • ■ • • 

Ore. Fluorspar in electric smelting of....... 

' p Robert M . Keeney 335 

Philippine Islands, Bulacan province »•>» 

Pig, Alabama production ™? 

Pig, Colorado production rii 

Pig, Illinois production iii'YuV sts 

Pig, Ontario production 117. 463, 858 

Pig. Pennsylvania production ™J 

Pig prices 

Pig'. Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the 

metals Edwin C. Eckel 

Pig. U. S. production 



Editorial. . . . 



Pig, U S.. 

Pig. Virginia production 

Pyrite, Virginia production »«•> 


U. S. production 366 . 664 

Virginia production • 

Iron & Silver Mining Co., Leadyille Colorado. ........... - 

Iron Blossom Consolidated Mining Co., Silver ^^20 858, ^ 

Iron Cap Copper Co., Copper Hill, Arizona.'. ' 156, 776 

•Iron Finlander' urv.i - • ■ : 97a 

Iron Mountain mine, Keswick, California a '» 

Ironstone flux, Queensland production ............ ... abi 

Isabella Mines Co., Victor, Colorado. . 75, 231, 423, 575, 658, 931 

isle Royale Copper Co., Houghton, Michigan ._ . . . . . „„ ^ 

Italy, copper production 120 

Petroleum production »J» 

South American trade • <** 

Ivanhoe Gold Corporation, Ltd., Western Australia^. -^ ^ 

Jackling, D. C ...Mining in Utah.... 

Jackson, C. T Concrete head-frame.... 

Jacobson, Anton J., death of ■■;■■■:■■,■■■■ 

Jacobus, William, and scrap metallurgy Editorial 

James, Caradoc, death of • • • ■ ■•• • • 

Janin, Charles Dredge construction in Portuguese East 

Ditto .Recovery of gold in dredging.... 

Japan, Ashio Copper Co., dust chambers at smelter 

Copper production 

Cyanide famine ■ 

Hanaoka mine Editorial 

Hasami gold mine closed 

Kano copper mine 

Nippon Oil Co 

Petroleum production 686, 

Smelting Editorial 

Tokvo, Taisho national exposition 

Warren D. Smith. . . . 

Zinc production Editorial 

Jeffery 'Quad' truck 

Jennings, R. C Valuing placer ground 

Jerry Johnson Gold Mining Co., Colorado, company report. 
Jigs, Application to gold dredging James W. Neill. . . . 

Application to gold dredging, James W. Neill 


Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co., Tonopah 76, 116, 159. 

351, 385, 425, 503, 577, 659, 823, 860, 894. 932, 

Company report 

v. West End, Nevada 619, 702, 932, 976, 

Jim Fair mine, New Mexico 

Johnson, W Origin of the diamond . . . . 

Johnson electric zinc-smelting furnace at Keokuk, Iowa. . 


Jones, L M., and George S. Rice Explosion test at the 

experimental mine 

Jones, Thomas D., and U. S. Reserve Board. . .Editorial. . . . 
Joplin district 232, 774, 857, 975, 

District and Australian zinc ores Editorial. . . . 

District, ore market 113, 351, 384, 465, 654, 

District, ore market and European war 

District production 351, 701, 

District, strip-pit zinc mining 

District, topographic map 

District, wet concentration 

District, zinc production 

District, zinc smelters and European war 

Josie mine, British Columbia 

.Tualin property, Alaska 153, 

Jupa (Nigeria) Tin & Power Co., Ltd., estimates 

A. W. Hooke. . . . 

Jumbo Extension Mining Co., Goldfield. Nevada. ... 76, 425, 

461, 576, 659, 701, 736, 823, 894, 926, 935. 

Company report 

Jumbo Mining Co.. Sulzer, Alaska 10, 69, 

Jupiter Mines. Ltd.. Ontario 738, 

Mine and McKinley-Darragh, Ontario 
















Kalgoorlle geologv J. L Connor .... 

Kalgoorlle & Boulder Firewood Co., Beria Consols mine. 
Western Australia 

Lancefield mine 

Kalgoorlle & Boulder Mines Water Trust, Western Aus- 
tralia, water used 

Kalgurll Gold Mines. Ltd., Western Australia 

Kampong Kauranting Tin Dredging Co., Australia 

Kano copper mine. Japan 

Kansas, coal production 

Galena mining 

Gas. natural production Editorial .... 

Mineral production 

Missouri-Oklahoma district — See Joplin district. 

Northeastern oil and gas territory Editorial.... 

Petroleum production 36, 

Portland cement production 

Zinc statistics 










Katanga mines, South Africa Editorial. ... 203 

Copper production Vli" " iiu 

Kauri gum, New Zealand production 

Gum uses 





Karnaugh- Jo Dandy 'mine, Cripple Creek,_ Colorado...^ 

Keeney, Robert M Fluorspar in electric smelting of 

iron ore • iiZ 

Kelly, David John, death of . ■ • • ■ '« 

Kelvin-Sultana Copper Co., Arizona 60,, iSi 

Kemp. J. F., ore deposition *«* 

Kenai-Alaska Gold Co . "•,••■:•■"! 

Kenncott Mines Co., Alaska, Bonanza and Jumbo mines.. 
Kennedy Extension Gold Mining Co. v. Argonaut Mining 

Oo d6cision * •»&, 

Kennedy "Mining & Milling Co., California, First-aid 501 

Kensington mine, Alaska « j 

Kentucky, coal production -** 

Coke production J" ' 

Mineral production ■ ■ • J<>* 

Petroleum production ....... ^6, ».!» 

Kern Trading & Oil Co., California 893 

Kerr lake Cobalt, Ontario, draining 260 

Kerr Lake Mining Co., Cobalt, Ontario 159, 421, 499. 702 

Company report • ■ • • ■ • • • • Ji Z 

Keweenaw Copper Co., Mandan, Michigan 192, 418 

keystone Copper Mining Co. and Inspiration Consolidated 

Copper Co 1«9» 

Kiaochow, Mining near • •• • •■ .. ■ • 4j0 

Kiliani. R. B. T Incaoro mill, Bolivia.... 800 

Kilos into troy ounces 415 

King-posts in stamp-battery 14» 

King's Asbestos, Rhodesia ■ 72 

Kirby, E. B Report of committee on revision of 

'mineral land laws 869 

Kirkland Lake mine, Ontario 696, 106 

Klondike gold production 463 

Knob Hill Co., Republic, Washington 537 

Knopf, Adolph, and ore deposition 604 

Ditto Platinum-gold lode deposition in southern 

Nevada '.•••■ vi 990 

Knox, Henry H Rand banket, Horwood reply to 

discussion -•••!: *" 

Knox, Newton B Upper Yenesei valley and adjacent 

MonEolifl. -• • * "— — 

Kolar, Persistence of ore at T. A. Rickard.... 956 

Kongsberg mines, Norway .' ... .... . .... 924 

Korea. Oriental Consolidated Mining Co 159, 233, 312. 

426, 537, 780, 977 

Ditto Editorial 625, 660, 663 

Oriental Consolidated dynamite 729 

Seoul Mining Co 77, 352, 426, 578. 779. 977 

Suan Mining Co., Geological report on the Collbran con- 
tact D. F. Higgins.... 95 

Krusch, P., translated by F. Sommer Schmidt. . .Platinum 

deposits of Germany's paleozoic 879 

Kyshtim Corporation, Ltd., Kyshtim, Perm, Russia. 121, 739. 772 

Company report 224 

Labor as an investment Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Fred H. Rindge, Jr 

Bureau of Safety 

Butte unions 


Cost. Portuguese East Africa, dredge construction 

Crisis in Chile Bancroft Gore 

Department of, and Bureau of Mines Editorial. . . . 

Mexico, and its peculiarities Max J. Welch.... 

Mexico, San Luis Potosi conditions 

Panama canal 

Safety, Bureau of Editorial 277. 

Southern Rhodesia 

Unions, Butte, Montana 424, 

Ditto Editorial 360, 

Unions and liberty Editorial.... 

Unions' proposals in Western Australia 

Western Australia troubles 24, 155, 

Laboratory roaster 

Rtudv of secondarv enrichment Editorial. . . . 

Ditto C. F. Tolman. Jr . . . . 

Lady Harriet mine, Western Australia 

La Exposicion Mining Co 

Lake Shore Engineering Works 'Iron Finlander' 

Lake Superior copper miners and European war 

Copper region map 

District and labor agitation Editorial.... 

District, copper mining industry 

District copper mining: present and future — I 

Thomas T. Read. . . . 

District iron mines. Caving system of mining 

J. Parke Channing.... 

District, iron mines, safety -work cost 

District strike, cost of militia 

District, Ventilation in the iron mines of the 

Edwin Higgins. . . . 

District, war effects 

District writings Editorial .... 

Lake Superior Institute of Mining Engineers mining meth- 
ods on Marquette range 

Lake View & Oroya Exploration. Ltd.. company report.. 
Lake View & Star. Ltd., Western Australia 

Company report 

Lampa Mining Co., Ltd., Santa Lucia, Puno. Peru 

Francis Church Lincoln.... 

Land for taxes in California. Getting 

Lanir. Herbert Management of a country smelter.... 

Ditto Ore contracts and the smelter.... 

Lansreloth, Jacob, death of 

Langlaagte Consolidated. Rand. v. Victoria Falls & Trans- 
vaal Power Co 

Lanyon-Starr Smelting Co.. Bartlesviile. Oklahoma 

Lartrp versus small stamps Editorial. . . . 

La Rose Consolidated Mines Co.. Cobalt, Ontario 

159, 190. 196, 267. 537. 573, 580. 702. 

Tn goldflelds 












Vol. 109 



, 420 


La Rose Extension, Ontario ■ ■ • 

La Salle mine, Michigan ......... •' ' 

Las Animas Peaks Gold Mines Co.. New Mexico proper- 

t i,-s • 

Lass W. P Concentrate treatment costs at the 

Treadwell cyanide plant 

Last Chance mine. Republic, Washington 

And Western Union mines 

Last Dollar mine, Colorado ••••■•••• 

Latest Out Mining & Smelting Co., Idaho...... ■■•-•■ 

Eun America. Trade possibilities-See South America. 
Launder construction, gold and » llv er m »l?-- j-;- ••■-.•• • 
^Laurel Line' railway, Pennsylvania, dredging, Jor^^oal . . . 

Law, Flotation and the patent Editorial .... 

Mining, Codification • iu8 ' 

Mining, Codification commission VriiYn'r'iki 

S&£ revisit «ommittee-on Mines and Mining! 
Mining. Revision ot ... .3^ * ^-gj-;;; ; 

L> »° F. R. Ingalsbe 

£"° I! G. L. Sheldon.... 

Mining.' revision.' Report of committee. .E. g. Klrby ■ . . . 

LawViTnet fi». MU°l-d.Y« U^X^i ,„ 






l « w.^n" \ndrew '6' '. '. '. '. '. '. ■ • • ■ Diffusion of ore deposits . . . . 
Diuo ..™Ore deposition in and near intrusive rocks 

Layng by Ha m ra. e R riC . "'^ Su.pho-cyanides in cyanidaiion [ . . . 
Ditto ...".Titration results and solution control in 





lch i C n y g an c d a'ru?neV * Hec'la process . .Editorial. . 

ggSSSft Ka'rTy 8 ^^ ^-^A. 'Fleming . . . 148 

Experiments on Ajo o'«^„^ c »^ a kie: !! iioi.'MJ. 291 

Mines Operating Co.. Park City plant 324 

Lead, Arizona production y/q" 999 

California production *"■ - 05 

Colorado production :. ••*■ , g 

Eastern States production • • •-• 6 , 8 

Idaho production ..... ' • , 51 

Joplln district production .'.'.".'.'.' 889 

Mfs r s k ouri,' Flat' River mines.' and'hoveiing'^a^jne'. '. '. . go7 

^** ' 664 

Missouri production 30 

Montana production 425 

Nevada production 76 

New Mexico production 19 - 

8rlf 0n Coeu r d d ? Al ene ' district.' and' iulphuY 'content . . \ . . 886 

Ditto"" 18 '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'..'.'.' Editorial '.'.'.'. 8« 

!. 427. 456:465, M.. M0. £... «,. .«. ,04. J.J. 740. 


Salts in cyanldatlon. Function of..G. H. Clevenger 

Silver ores. Smelting costs and prices for^. -^—^ ; ; • 




Smelter. East Helena. Montana 

South Dakota production ■-';, 

Texas production °J 

U. 8. production 

Utah, Bingham Canyon 

Utah production 

Washington production • • • 

Western Australia production ■■ iBt 

wfsconsln. production by districts; Platteville ore mar- 

Irpt 70, 30t>, 4DO. did, bi » 

Leasing bill.' Alaska coal 

Bill. Alaska coal, In Senate -,v 

Bill. In Congress os " 

Leaver lease, Tlntlc. Utah i?i 

Le Due mine. California • ■ • • ••_■„■ 

Lena Goldflelds, Siberia 2 51 ^ finS ' 

Lenlier Victor*.". .!?Au'to'YVductlon in ' the precipitation 
of metallic gold 

Leonora claim, Utah i'.v.'fMV'l'ii ViV 

I.* Roi mines. Rossland. British Columbia .......... 346. 

Leslie. E. H Colllnsvllle smelter of the Bartlesvllle 

Ditto '..Nassau' zinc' works at Depue. Illinois 

Ditto National Zinc Co., Bartlesvllle. Oklahoma.... 

Ditto . . .Rose Lake smelter of the Granby company 

Ditto Shoveling machines at Flat River 

Ditto Zinc smelting at Bartlesvllle. Oklahoma 

nitto Zinc smelting at Hlllsboro, Illinois 

Lett, s. J. Rand banket. Horwood replies to dlseus- 

T.ewls .1 H '.'.'.'.'.'.■'.'.'. '. '• '• Design of the piymouth mill ... . 

Lewis' James B Tin mining In Tasmania 

Lews Gold Mining Co.. Colorado, Last Dollar mine 4 ; .s 

Lexington Gold Mining Co., Colorado •■• »" 

Leyner drill ........ . . . ... • • • OD> 7S 

Llmbarh. Edward C. death of '" 

Lime, 'burning', and fuel consumption 






6 1 5 





5 77 

4 1 




California production •'-■. 

T S. production *-" 

Virginia production >°2 

tl'„..l,(.,.,l..,. TirriMllfllnn ______ ' ' 

Washington production 
Limestone, ssphnltlr, Texas occurrence 

California production 

Flux, Queensland production 

Ireland production 

Missouri production 

Queensland. Gore deposits 

Washington production 


Lincoln, Francis Church Lampa copper smelter, Santa 

Lucia, Puno, Peru 

Lindgren, Waldemar. . . .Rand banket, Horwood replies to 

discussion 297, 

Link-Belt Co., Use o£ link-belts 

Lithia, South Dakota production 

Little Bell mine, Utah 

Little Jonny mine, Leadville district, Colorado 420, 

Little Pet mine, Porcupine, Ontario 

Little Tugger hoist 

Little Wonder battery stem guides 

Loader, mine, 'Iron Finlander' 

Locomotive, 'centipede', Erie railroad 

Gasoline, in mines, and air depletion 

Gasoline, and health of miners O. P. Hood.... 080, 

Lode mining, Yukon 

London, As war looks in T. A. Rickard. . . . 

320, 362, 394, 434, 472, 547, 

Gold imports 

Metal Exchange and war 

Heal estate in Edward Walker.... 

Royal Mint copper requirements 

London Electron Works Co., England 

London mine, Colorado 

Lone Pine mine. Republic, Washington 

Lone Star Consolidated Mining Co., Nevada 

Lone Star Gold Mining Co., Dawson, Yukon 196, :>37, 

Lonely Reef Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rhodesia 336, 

Food cost 

Long Lake mine, Ontario 

Looking forward: 

American Mining Congress, Phoenix. Arizona 

Calumet & Hecla 'Safety First' 

Mexico: Torres' Constitutionalist manifesto 

Lorain Coal & Dock Co., Wheeling Creek mine explosion. . 

Loring, W. J„ welcome banquet 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Louisiana, petroleum production 36, 

Louvain University and Cambridge University 

Low drill-repair cost on the Gogebic tange 

J. F. Berteling. . . . 

Pressure oil forge 

Lower Burma, Mining in the Tavoy district 

E. Maxwell-Lefroy. . . . 
Lower Mammoth Mining Co., Mammoth, Utah. 117, 351, 577, 

Lubricant for high temperatures 

Lubricator, automatic rope 

Lucky Boy Consolidated Mines Co., Nevada 

Lucky Tiger-Combination Gold Mining Co., company re- 

Lufkln Rule Co., combination pocket rule and level 

Metallic tape threader • ■ ■ 

Lunlng Gold Mines Co.. Nevada 577, 

Lunlng-Idaho Mining Co., Nevada .385, 

Lunt, Horace F Vindicator mill 

Lyons Atlas Co., Diesel engine. Largest in America 














Mac-Donald, J. A Phototopography 

MacNamara Mining Co.. Tonopah. Nevada 

Macadam, California production 

Machine drilling efficiency Thomas M. Bams, Jr 

Magneslte and war Editorial 

California production 

V. 8. Imports 

U. S. production VAi.V ■■■•■■•• 

Uses and occurrence Editorial .... 

Maine, feldspar production 

Malagult Dredging Co., Philippine Islands .' 

Ma lav Peninsula tin industry 

Tin industry and Australian jam 

Malaya Tin Corporation wiiVV.'iii 

Malm process *•."•_, Editorial. . . . 

Mambulao Placer Co.. Philippine Islands 

Mamie mine, Granby Consolidated ............••.■■■••• • 

Mammoth Channel Gold Mining Co.. California. < rabb g e 

MammoU, Copper" Mining' Co..' Kenne'tt.' California^. ._._._. 

Fume suit :.. •....:....'....'.....'. 734. 930. 

Smelter , 

Mammoth Mining Co., Oregon, suits . • ■ • • ■ • 

Mammoth Mining Co., Mammoth, Utah ...117. 46 j, 

Man and his job. A Editorial.... 

Management of a country smelter Editorial ... . 

Ditto Herbert Lang. 

Mandarin Mines Corporation and Yellow Jacket mine Idaho 
Manganese, and effect of war Editorial. . . . 

Brazil shipments 

Commercial, American 

For use on Pacific coast 

New Zealand production 

Ores, world's supply 

Queensland production • ■ 

U. S. production J^- 

Manhattan a Co'n's'olidated' Mining '&' Milling Co.. Nevada 

Manila. Philippine Islands, water-supply ■• 

Mann. William S Pan as a regrinder. . . 

Mararoa mine, Western Australia 

Marble. California production 

German Southwest Africa exports . .. • ••■ • 

Market, Status of the metal ...Editorial ... . 

Marquette range. Michigan. Mining methods 

Marquette Trap Rock Co 

Marsh Mining Co., Idaho 

Never Sweat lode mining claim ■ ■ • 

v. Washington Water Power Co. *--■ 

Mary Mac company. Western Australia . . . . . . . • • • • 

Marv McKlnney, Cripple Creek. Colorado 231. 618, 658. 

Maryland, coal production 

Mineral production : * : • • 

Mascot & Western Railroad Co., Arizona, Incorporated... 
Mascot Copper Co.. Dos Cabezos. Arlzom 

And Big Pine. Arizona 









Vol. 109 


Mascot Copper Co., company report 861 

Mason Valley Mines Co., Yerington, Nevada 

122, 232, 313, 385, 503, 536, 659, 694 

And Bluestone mine 70 

Smelter 195, 311 

Thompson, Nevada, smelter 697 

Massachusetts, Hoosac tunnel, driving and the lessons it 

taught 559 

Mass mine, Michigan 736 

Matthiessen & Hegeler roasting furnaces 477 

Maximelo Dredging Co Philippine Islands 570 

Maxwell-Lefroy, E.... Mining in the Tavoy district, Lower 

Burma 448 

Mav Day Mining & Milling Co., Eureka, Utah. 117, 351, 385, 577 

McAlpine Mines Co., California 1007 

McDonald, P. B Driving the Hoosac tunnel and the 

lessons it taught 559 

Ditto. .. .Shaft timbering, Mesabi range, Minnesota.... 690 

McDonald Mining Co., Missouri 931 

Mclntyre Iron Co. titanium tests Editorial. . . . 983 

Mclntvre-Porcupine Mines, Ltd., Schumacher, Ontario.... 

733, 738, 1004 

And Nipissing Mines Co., Ontario 463, 572 

McKinley-Darragh-Savage Mines of Cobalt, Ltd., Ontario. 

31, 159, 386, 458, 703, 858, 977 

And Jupiter mine 573, 1003 

McMillan Mining Co. zinc plant, Hazel Green district Wis- 
consin 457 

McRae-Goldman claims, Idaho Ill 

Measure, board 924 

Meerschaum, New Mexico deposits 819 

Meese & Gottfried Co., belt conveyors and wet concrete. ... 84 

Mellor, E. T Rand banket, Horwood replies 

to discussion 413 

Melting out slag notches 994 

Menace of mosquitoes and what to do about it 

Thomas Darlington. .. . 334 

Mendha-Nevada mine, Highland, Nevada 484 

Menzies Consolidated Gold Mines Ltd., Western Australia. 

382, 853 

Merton, Henry R., copper statistics 622, 860 

Messina (Transvaal) Development Co., Ltd 122, 200, 889 

And Grenfel) failure 500 

Metal market. Status of Editorial 240 

Mine fatalities, U. S Editorial 586 

Review, New York 34, 198, 388, 540, 740, 899 

Metall und Erz, August number Editorial.... 543 

Metallic tape 'threader' 276 

Metallurgist, scrap Editorial .... 85 

Metals, Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the... 

Edwin C. Eckel 182 

Meteoric waters, Ore deposition in and near intrusive rocks 

by Andrew C. Lawson .... 600 

Methods of mining at Republic mine. Republic, Michigan.. 

R. B. Wallace 525 

Of taking mill-head samples Lloyd Robey. . . . 183 

Of testing placer gravels James W. Neill. . . . 221 

Ditto Walter J. Radford. .. .5, 221 

Mexican Gold & Silver Mining Co., Virginia City, Nevada 

385, 659, 1009 

And Rochester Weaver Mining Co 462 

Mexican Light & Power Co., Ltd 1010 

Mexican Metals Co 459 

Mexican Mining Journal, The, publication resumed 

Editorial 667 

Mexico. Chihuahua mining 621 

Coahuila mines 538 

Coinage, bronze five-centavo 768 

Conditions in 71, 312. 621, 738. 780 

Ditto Editorial 85, 239 

Conditions in, and New York mining interests 154 

Conditions in, Huerta mine titles annulled 53S 

Conditions in, mining 774 

Conditions in, railway service 537 

Copper production 120 

Cyanide shortage 703 

Gold-silver bullion exports 580 

Imports and exports 792 

International Mining Association 703 

Labor and its peculiarities Max J. Welch.... 597 

Labor conditions at mine3 Editorial.... 360 

Map of 504 

Mining conditions 419, 504 

Money situation Editorial .... 359 

Peso 41S 

Petroleum operations suspended 621 

Petroleum production 935 

Ports of entry 809 

Resources 798 

San Luis Potosi minimum wage 660 

Sinaloa and west coast mining outlook. . . .Editorial. . . . 743 

Sonora mines 538 

Tampico oil exports 538, 1011 

Torres' Constitutionalist manifesto 984 

Train service 504 

Mexico Mines of El Oro 889 

Meyer & Charlton mine, Rand 112 

Cyanide practice 496 

Miami Copper Co., Miami, Arizona. .. 114, 122, 154. 208. 269, 

313, 529. 572, 816 

Ditto Editorial .... 203 

Company report 534 

Dupen suit 501 

v. Minerals Separation. Ltd 228, 732 

Mica. North Carolina production .' 705 

South Dakota production 853 

Michigan, copper companies men employed 232 

Copper Country Commercial Club 456 

Copper country map 773 

Copper district 658 

Copper mines, Efficiency in 763 

Copper occurrence 768 

Copper production 768, 816 

Copper shipments 857 

" Gogebic range. Low drill-repair cost on the 

J. F. Berteling 599 


Michigan, Houghton County casualties 655 

Houghton County taxes 816, 928 

Houghton memorial Editorial.... 626 

Iron ore districts and P. P. I. E 889 

Iron River district 306 

Iron shipments 975 

Lake Superior district — See Lake Superior district. 

Marquette range, Mining methods on the 595 

Mesabi range iron , 1001 

Mesabi range square-set ore-chute 763 

Mineral production 705 

Petroleum production 935 

Portland cement production 38 

Sanitary conditions in copper country 772 

Stoping methods 18 

Trap-rock quarries 772 

Michigan College of Mines, workingmen's course 531 

Michigan-Utah Mining Co., Utah 660 

Midas Gold Mining Co., Knob, California 856 

And Victor Power & Mining Co 230 

Midas mine, Granby Consolidated 530, 615 

Midlands Oilfields Co., California 383 

Midway mine, Nevada 895 

Mikado mine, Verona, Michigan, Low drill-repair cost 599 

Mill design and machinery in inaccessible places 415 

Head samples, Methods of taking Lloyd Robey.... 183 

Practice and cleanliness 415 

Practice, crawl girders in a battery-house 729 

Practice, gold and silver launder construction 454 

Milling, gold, Development in the Philippines. C. M. Eye. . . . 287 

In cyanide A. W. Allen. . . . 377 

Ditto Noel Cunningham .... 606 

Minas Pedrazzini Gold & Silver Mining Co., Sonora, Mexico 312 

Mine accounts, Simple 60 

Mine Operators' Association, California — See California. 
Owners and the California Industrial Accident Commis- 
sion Editorial. . . . 744 

Products, U. S 924 

Rescue contest, Bisbee, Arizona 114 

Rescue contest, Ely, Nevada 116 

Sampling 567 

Signboards 22 

Taxation and the conference of tax officials 

H. A. E. Chandler 838 

Ditto Editorial 831 

Wastes 496 

'Mine Workers Journal' Editorial .... 904 

Minera La Blanca y Anexas, Cia., Mexico 580 

Mineral lands on Indian reservations Editorial.... 85 

Paint, California production 929 

Production of Virginia, 1913 .. .Thomas L. Watson.... 333 

Statistics 38, 428, 466, 664, 705. 861 

Water, California production 929 

Water, U. S. production 428 

Water, Virginia production 605 

Water. Washington production 77 

Mineral Point Zinc Co 70 

Coker mine, Wisconsin, shaft-sinking record '. 886 

Nassau plant E. H. Leslie. ... 475 

Mineral Range railroad. Michigan 928 

Minerals Separation, Ltd., Elm Orlu ores flotation 

Editorial.... 545 

In Supreme Court 732 

Ditto Editorial ..'.'. 743 

v. James M. Hyde Editorial .... 41 

v. Miami Copper Co 228, 732 

Miners, Gasoline locomotives and health of .. .Editorial. .. . 585 

Ditto o. P. Hood 592 

Ten Commandments 344 

Ditto Editorial 317 

Min»s and European war Editorial. . . . 317 

Gasoline locomotives and air depletion 608 

Mines Company of America 68 

Creston-Colorado and El Ravo mines 419 

La Colorado mine strike 77 

Mines Operating Co., Park City, Utah 77, 312, 577. 82V 1010 

Chloridizing leaching 260 

Chloridizing roast F. Sommer Schmidt. '..'. 324 

Mining and financiers Editorial. . . . 359 

And milling at Republic. Washington. . .E. C. Morse. . . . 435 

Assessment suspension bill 65° 

Decisions 39, 123, 164. 315. 428, 507, 623. 784.' 862. 936 

District of Pinos Altos, New Mexico : 

_ W. Rogers Wade.... 402 

Eastern capital and 154 

Experts, amateur Editorial .... 369 

Hydraulic, Plan for reviving C. S. Haley 914, 943 

In Alsace-Lorraine. Germany ' 451 

In Argentina 17 

In the Far North Emii Edward' Hurja.' '.'. '. 

10, 69, 103, 152, 225, 261, 341, 416, 568, 609, 769, 848, 887, 965 

In Spain 5 6 

In the Tavoy district. Lower Burma 

"_ ,.„ ,_ 1 E. Maxwell-Lefroy 448 

In U t ah D c j a ckling 301 

In Venezuela 54s 

Law codification , ............. .308. 731 

Law codification commission '. .'.'.'.'. *.'.'. '.'.'. . . .' 927 

Law, Revision of the w. F. Collins! '. .'. 453 

Ditto Clarence K. Colvin 106 

D tto c . J. Fry 21 

Ditto... . G . L . Sheldon 259 

Law revision again Editorial 201 

Law revision and Committee on Mines and Mining. . . . 

, , Editorial 86 

Law revision proposed F. R. Ingalsbe 100 

Law, revision of. Report of committee. E B Klrbv.... 869 

Law revision. Work for Editorial 866 

Legislation at Washington, D. C 498 

Legislation. Washington. D. C. and war 571 

Machinery, driving methods, Western Australia 881 

Men and politics Editorial 431 

Methods on the Marquette range 595 

Mexican conditions Editorial .... 360 

Near Kiaochow 45ft 

Properties, Selling ...'..".". Editorial! '.'. ! 628 

Vol. 109 


Mining, Revival in the Ketchikan district, Alaska 

E. E. Hurja. . . . 

Selective, of orebodies Douglas Waterman .... 

Trade Commission and Editorial .... 

•Who's Who in' Editorial 

'Mining and Engineering World' and 'The Engineering and 




. 279 


»g and 

Mining Journal' copper quotations Editorial.... 509 

Mining and Metallurgical Society of America, San Fran- 
cisco section dinner to F. W. Bradley. . .Editorial. . . . 787 

'The Advancement of the Art of Ore Dressing' 

Editorial. ... 709 

Mining Corporation of Canada 421 

Minnesota, iron production 664 

Mesabi range, shaft timbering P. B. McDonald.... 690 

Minnie Moore mine, Utah 117 

Mint. Royal, London, copper requirements 378 

em C ~1~ A ~ k.,ni n . nn i n + „ -■ v ', 7fi1 910 


San Francisco, bullion receipts 389, 781, 

San Francisco, operations 80, 251, 353, 

Miocene Oil Co. California 

Missouri, Alba-Neck City district 158 

Coal producton 38 

Flat River shoveling machines E. H. Leslie. . . . 807 

Geological experimental work 113 

Joplin district mines 457 

Kansas-Oklahoma district — See Joplin district. 

Mineral production 664 

Mim-s and mineral exhibit at Panama-Pacific Exposition 113 

Northwestern oil and gas territory Editorial.... 865 

Petroleum production 935 

Portland cement production 38 

Southwest Missouri mine, Safety and Sanitary Associ- 
ation 931 

Mitchell coal mine, Illinois, disaster Editorial 667 

Mizpah Extension Co., Tonopah, Nevada 976 

Moctezuma Copper Co., Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico.. 122, 313. 858 

Modderfonteln B, Transvaal, Nlssen stamps 450 

Modderfonteln group of mines, Rand 730 

Modoc Mines Co., High Grade. California 193, 461 

Mogul Mining Co., South Dakota 852 

Mohawk Mining Co., Mohawk, Michigan 68, 122. 232, 

347, 427. 580. 658, 873, 1008 

Molds, bullion, silver capacity 340 

Molybdenite, Australia 73 

Queensland production 56, 961 

Monarch mine. South Dakota 655 

Monarch oil well, Calgary field. Alberta. Canada 31, 68. 117 

Mond Nickel Co., Ontario, Canada 689, 732. 772, 970 

Money though mining. How to make 591 

Mongolia, gold mining in 410 

Map of 410 

Upper Yenesei valley and adjacent 687 

Ditto Newton B. Knox.... 922 

Mongolyor company. Gold mining in Mongolia 410 

Monitor Belmont Mining Co.. Nevada 462. 858 

Montagu & Co., Samuel, silver statistics 160. 313. 539. 

662. 739. 860. 101 2 

Montana. Butte district ST. 1 

Butte district mines and European war 266 

Butte district mines and unions 424. 461 

Ditto Editorial.... 431 

Butte district strike 572 

Butte district strike and state troops 816 

Butte district unions 189. 384 

Coal production 176 

topper production 30. 76S 

Dillon quadrangle 115 

East Helena, lead smelter «. 451 

Gold production 30 

Lead production 30 

Map of southwest 573 

Metal production 705 

Phosphate. Flliston field 1008 

Silver production 30 

I". S. Geol. Surv. map 931 

Zinc production 30. 354 

Montana-Blngham Consolidated Mining Co.. Bingham. Utah 1010 

Montana-Idaho Copper Co., Idaho 270. 619 

Montana Minln" Co., Ltd.. litigation expenses 

Editorial 277 

Montanar Power Co.. Montana 30 

Company report 658 

Montana-Tonopah Mining Co., Tonopah, Nevada 

76, 385, 619, 823. 932. l'i09 

Monthly copper production 121 

Moore. Charles. What is the matter with prospecting?. . . . 257 

Moore process, radium refining Editorial. .. . 41 

Morning mine, Idaho 350. 424 

Morocco. Northwest Africa, mineral resources 815 

Morrison. H. A., and H. G. Thomson Operation of the 

Oliver filter In the Globe mill 554 

Morro Velho mine. Brazil 793 

Morse. E. C. Mining and milling at Republic. Washington 435 

Moscow mine, Idaho Ill 

Moscow .Mining & Milling Co., Moscow, Utah 620 

Mosquitoes. Eliminating the 14 

Menace of, and what to do about It 

Thomas Darlington.... 334 

Mother Lode California, activity 1 50 

Map 150 

Metallurgical practice Editorial.... 668 

Metallurgical practice and Plymouth mill 670 

Mother Lode Copper Mining Co., Mother Lode property, 

Alaska 226, 499, 698 

Motor tires 567 

Motors for driving Hardlnge mills 742 

Mount Champion mine. Colorado 700 

Mount Lassen. Eruption of William H. Storms.... 143 

Mount Lyell Mining * Railway Co.. Ltd.. Queenstown, 

Tasmania 122.808, 876 

Company report 82 

Men employed , 59 

Mount Mnn.Mii Gold Mining Co., Ltd.. Queensland. Aus- 
tralia 122, 300, 340, 616, 716, 988 

Company report 314 

New plant 988 

Mountain Copper Co., Keswick, California 75, 269 


Mountain Jewei Mining Co., Yukon 609 

Mountain Queen, Ltd., Western Australia ....'. 854 

Mountain Top Mining Co., Colorado 350 

Moyle Engineering & Equipment Co., E. H., small stamp- 
mills 863 

Mueller, J. G New tube-mill liner.... 255 

Mules v. electric power in coal mines 728 

Musgrove Mining Co., Idaho $19 

Mushett-Wittenberg mills, Nevada 737 

Myers-Whaley shoveling machine 807 

Mysore mine, Kolar district, central India... 255, 265, 956, 958 


Nassau Zinc Works at Depue, Illinois E. H. Leslie. . . . 

National City Bank Editorial .... 743, 

And George E. Roberts Editorial. . . . 

National Concentrator Co., Missouri, sludge plant 

National Copper Co., Mullan, Idaho 194 461, 575 

National Lead Co 

National Mines Co., National, Nevada 

National Zinc Co., Bartlesville, Oklahoma 

Ditto E. H. Leslie 

Natomas Consolidated of California 230, 720 

Fiasco Editorial 

Refinancing Editorial 2, 

Natural gas — See gas. 

Gaseous fuel Editorial .... 

Nature, Bucking v. Backing Editorial. . . . 

Nau Aug mine. Idaho 384, 

Navigation laws, U. S., system of Editorial.... 

Needed: constructive co-operation of mining men 


Needles Mining & Smelting Co., Arizona 

Neill, James W .. .Application of jigs to gold dredging.... 

Ditto Editorial 

Ditto. Experimental development of the Hall process. . . . 

Ditto Methods of testing placer gravels. . . . 

Nerchinsk Gold Co., Ltd., Siberia 

Netherlands, Soutli American trade 

Neutrality, Philippine Islands Editorial. . . . 

Nevada, Austin district 

Belmont district 

Comstock Lode fire 

Comstock Lode mines 

Comstock Lode mining operations 

Comstock Lode unwaterlng 

Ely district jasperoid 

Gold district discovery Editorial .... 

Goldfield and Tonopah fires and I. W. W 


Good Springs platinum discovery 503, 

Luning district 536, 

Manhattan mills 

Map of western 

McCoy camp 

Metal production by counties 

Mining conditions 

New York canyon district 

One-man carry 

Palmetto district gravel deposits 

Pioche. Present conditions at James W. Abbott.... 

Rawhide mines 

Reno, mine-rescue and first-aid contest 

'Safetv First' contests. Ely Editorial. . . . 

Silver Park district 

Tonogold discovery 

Tonogold mines 701. S23. 932. 

Tonopah and I. W. W Editorial.... 

Tonopah district enlarged 

Tonopah mines. 31. 116, 159. 195. 232. 311. 361, 385. 424, 
425. 462. 503. 536, 577. 619. 702. 737. 779. 823. 857, 895, 

932, 976, 
Yellow Pine district. Platinum-gold lode deposit in.... 

Adolph Knopf. . . . 

Nevada-Anaconda property. Nevada 

Nevada Cinnabar Co.. Nevada 159, "622. 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co.. Ely. Nevada .... 116. 122. 
195. 208. 313. 4 27. 462. 536. 619, 694. 737. 779. 

Ditto Editorial.... 


Company report 271. 

Copper Flat mine explosion 

Eureka pit 

Eureka pit explosion 

Safety First 823. 

Steptoe Valley Smelting & Mining Co 


Nevada Copper Mining. Milling & Power Co 

Nevada Douglas Copper Co.. Nevada.. 195, 385. 45S. 462. 503, 

Casting Copper section 

Leaching plant 

Nevada Hills Mining Co.. Nevada .... 30. 232. 381. 576. 736. 

Nevada Packard Mines Co., Rochester, Nevada 

576, 619. 932, 

Nevada Valleys Power Co.. Nevada 

Nevada Wonder Mining Co., Nevada 

Company report 

Neville, John Pvm. death of 

Neville-Free Coinage mine, Cripple Creek, Colorado...... 

75, 575, 

New buildings of Bureau of Mines 

Porous mineral medium 

Portable drill 

Ventilating fan 

New Almaden nuleksllver mine, California 

New Aurora mill An Occasional Contributor. . . . 

New Centurv Mining Co., Galena. Kansas 

New Cornelia Copper Co., Ajo mountains. Arizona. Leach- 
ing experiments on ores — I. II. TTI 

Stuart Croasdale 209. 252. 

And Calumet & Arizona Mining Co 

New Hampshire metal production 

Mineral production 

New Idrla 






















3 1 1 

3 8 2 

4 2.". 
93 2 

9 77 

3 57 






Vol. 109 


New Jersey metal production 70 - 

Mineral production 3 g 

Portland cement production ,, 3( . 

Pottery production 354 

Zinc production -V ft ' 017 

New Jersey Zinc Co., Wisconsin °* u ' |ii 

New' Ke e ys°tone r Copplr Co.' v. ' inspiration Consolidated Cop! 

Ditto" C °' riSht ' 0t : Way . '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. '. ". ". '. ' Editorial'. '. ! '. 865 

New Mexico.' Caballo mountain discovery faked 976 

Coke production • • • • • fiS q 

El Porvenir district molybdenite ores 52 = 

Iron production . g 19 

Meerschaum deposits _y 7 g 7 

Mineral production 819 

Mining districts ' 7 yy 9 o 2 

Mogollon district • • • • lid - ^ 

Pecos Valley oil and gas field ' jjj! 

Petroleum production . . . ■■■ ■•■■ ■ ■■■ VpVjl 402 

Pinos Altos mining district W. Rogers v\ aae *u£ 

Sierra County mines .............•••• •■■••■ „ fil 

New Modderfontein Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rand ...... . »bi 


North Carolina metal production 

Mineral production ••• 

North Dakota, coal production 

Mine . 
New R^^ce 5 ^^^^^; South DakoU. . 228, 

Mil de?a a n C ta i t C i e on WUh . .^l". .^S^l— " 8 722 

New RepuDlic company, Washington £■" 

New South Wales, Broken Hill metal production 842 

Broken Hill mines 59 

Broken Hill shipn.ents , 19 

Broken Hill zinc and war lgs 

Gold production 4 9 

Mineral production 409 

New York, coke ovens y 6 " 9 , 5 

Petroleum production • , 8 

Portland cement production „„ 

New York city and business ••_• „„„ 

Business and European war "»■ 

Metal market and war 

Metal review 

Mining and eastern capital 

.'34,' 198, 388, 540, 740, 8 




New York, Honduras & Rosario Mining Co., Honduras. . . . g b» 

New°Tork! y nIw Haven '& Hartford railroad ' snares' on 

New York exchange •• 10 g, 

New Zealand, Auckland province gold ^""ij 

Gold production g93 

Government coal mines „,,„ 

Iron and steel industry | 15 

Iron deposits sl5 

Kauri gum . . . 613 

Map 9 19 

Mineral production 1002 

Mining and war •■•••••• 044 

Mining industry, state aid °, 

New Plymouth district oil wells J »«* 

Operating costs at mines near Reefton . 


nines iico-i «^nuu 

Otira "tunnel, South Island . . ._... %%, 


Point Elizabeth government colliery jjbi 

Silver production 

Thames district, North Island 

Thames Drainage Board suspension VSi.V-.Vlii 

Smo e . Isi . and . su ! phur . p .° . : •' •' : :w.' d-' X%£$ 

New Zealand Sulphur Co. ...... .. • 

White Island sulphur plant destroyed 

Newbury Mining Co ■ . • • 

Newfoundland, copper production 

Niagara Falls, artificial graphite . . . . . Wii.y 'lii " " 98' 

Nicaragua, Deitrick Concession canceled Editorial »»- 

Imports and exports 

Mineral resources • • ■ ■• • • • • ■ • • 

Panama Mining Co. and Tonopah Mining Co 

Pis Pis district • 

Tonopah Mining Co. property 

And war 

Canada 7 ' 7 y 

Canada and war ' ' £• 

Ontario and war • ■ • • ■ • ■ • -2*2. 

RelaU°= P ---!-d-commerc-iai -scarcity oV the' metals 


Editorial. . . 
Editorial. . . 

Edwin C. Eckel. . . 
W. Hooke. 


iVnrth' Star Mining & Mining Co., Jarbidge, Nevada 76 

North Washington Power & Reduction Co. litigation 31 

Northern Ontario Exploration Co. ............... .... »" 

Northern Pacific Railroad Co. and Pittsburgh & Gillmore 

Northwestern" Australia and its mineral ^resources^. . 




Nigeria, Juga Tin & Power Co., Ltd., estimates 

NinTs 1 sin P g r Min C e t s 10 Co.,' Cobalt, Ontario .' .' .'il7,' i 59,' ISO,' 196, '233, 
P 267. 312? 386, 458, 504, 580, 620, 622, 702, 779, 819, 977, 

And Mclntyre mine =., 

And Mclntyre share J?? 

And Teck-Hughes property **» 

In goldflelds VA7 

New ventures Si 

Nippon Oil Co., Japan °° 

Nitrate. Chile exports TMiVoVlai ' ' 

Chile exports problems Ed tor ai. 

Chile production Editorial . 

Nitric acid in gold treatment ■pUlYoVini' 

Nitro lamps Editors 

Noble Electric Steel Co 
Ferromanganese . . . 

NoUind B l"oyd. '. '. '. '. '.Mosquito 'elimination,' Tennessee Coal, 

Iron & Railroad Co .. . . .. 

Nomenclature, Rock, in new mining districts. „ „„£ . . .. 

Norman, Sidney Norman-Federal suit 

Norman-Federal suit 

■Vorth Anantapur. India : 

North Broken Hill. Ltd.. NewSouth Wales, compan^rep^rt 


Norway and Sweden copper production 120 

Kongsberg mines ?„. 

Mining and war *gj 


Sydvaranger property 

Nova Scotia coal mines and war 

Guysborough county gold mining g -» 

Nov^^ia'steer&coarco::::::::::::::::":::42i.'49|. »7i 

Nundydroog, India ""• 30s 





Heroult, California 



O'Brien, W. S., death of ■ 

Ochre, Georgia production 

Wisconsin, Highland district j»J« 

Ohio gas, natural, production '-•? 

Mineral production • • ■ J" 

Petroleum production in - a 2? 

Portland cement production « 

Pottery production ■•••■•• ■■■■ 97" 1 qi" «VtV 

Ohio Copper Mining Co., Bingham, Utah . . . . . . .27, 196. 351. 

Control of 

Mill improvements 

Oil — See Petroleum. 

And gas lands bill SS? 

Forge, Low pressure J|J 

North Butte Mining Co., Montana 208, 351, 46 

And East Butte ■ • • • x "" 

/-i^^rtTxom, 1-cr.rtrt 6dL, I t 

Company report 
Taxes . . 



Oilstone, U 


lew high-voltage ^|J 

S. production 




Oklahoma, Bartiesville, National Zinc Co. .E. H. Leslie... 

Bartlesville Zinc Co.. E. H. Les e. . . 

Bartiesville zinc smelting E. H. Leslie 

<7oal production i,, 

Gas, o natural, Production . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -^—^ ; ; ; ; |J| 

Kansas-Missouri district— See Joplin district. 

Mineral production .y JS- 

Petroleum production *">• »^J 

01d Z Cli C ann%V S hy C drauii'c' mines.' Galice' district.' Oregon'.'.'lVs'. 533 

Old Colony Copper Co., Michigan company report .... .... »■» 

ow D rr o ?7,fe M m. n fof s^ritvt-^ifi.ig 1006 

Smelter, basic-lined converters . 

Oliver filter, Operation in the Globe mill. 

H. A. Morrison and H. G. Thomson. 

Oliver Iron.Mining Co.. Michigan, Section 21 mine 

Olives and carbon bisulphide ',„ 

Omega mine, California -* 

One-man carry, Nevada ■ ■ y °2I 

Ontario, assessment work «*• "2 

Cobalt bullion shipments ' vi - ™i 

Cobalt mines and war J J? 

Cobalt mines conditions "" 

Cobalt ore shipments |" 

Cobalt ores, Sampling and assaying »»» 

Cobalt silver mining industry decline «» 

Cobalt silver prices , """ 

Cobalt silver shipments • •• • 1 ViV 

Cobalt silver situation -"«>• *|J 


Gold production 
Kerr Lake draining 

117. 463. 





Mineral production "<■ *" s - 222 

Mining districts map • •-• 

Nickel industry and war 51s - 

Nickel production 

Porcupine gold mining and war • • ■ 

Silver production J1> 

Sudbury nickel industry ..... ._ ..... ■•••■ 

Sudbury ore deposits. Origin of Stuart St. Liair. . . . 

Toronto mining exchange 

Ontario Mining Co., Kellogg. Idaho J»V 

v. Stewart Mining Co., Idaho ■ • • ■ J-J 

Ontario Silver Mining Co., Park City. Utah 196, U 

Ooregum Gold Mining Co.. Ltd.. India... ........ .!••. 

Operating costs at mines near Reefton. New Zealand..... 

Operations of Canadian-Klondyke Gold Mining Co., Ltd. . 



Emil Edward Hurja. 

Of Oliver filter in the Globe mill 

H. A. Morrison and H. G. Thomson 

Of Yukon Gold Co Emil Edward Hurja... 

Ophir Gold Mines. Milling & Power Co.. Colorado. Reinonl 

'rapid cyaniding apparatus' ■ • • • , J«J 

Ophir Silver Mining Co.. Nevada « 5M - l "»» 

Opohongo Mining Co.. Robinson. Utah ^ -^y^ •fcf ; ; ' \\t 







Chute. Square-set ■i-:-';-:";, 

Contracts and the smelter Herbert Lang..-- 

Deposition in and near intrusive rocks by meteoric 

Waters Andn-w C. Lawson . . . . 

Deposits. Diffusion of Andrew C. Lawson 

Feeder, Improved Ulysses B. Hougn. . . . 

Loader, 'Iron Finlander' • ■ 

Oregon Jackson, and Josephine counties' mineral resources 

Josephine County mining and railway »2- 

Map of 195 


Vol. 109 




Oregon, Metal production 195 

Mineral production 705 

Platinum production 642 

Potash discovery 577 

Southern Oregon and Northern California Mining Con- 
gress 157 

Oregon Gold Mines Co., Oregon o33 

Oriental Consolidated Mining Co., Korea 

159, 233, 312, 426, 537, 660, 780, 977 

Ditto Editorial.... 625 

Company report 663 

Dynamite 'j» 

Spares used •»» 

Origin of diamond 4 °9 

Of Rocky Mountain phosphate deposits 

Eliot Black welder. .. . 987 

Of sand filling Editorial. . . . 791 

Of Sudbury ore deposits Stuart St. Clair 243 

Original Amador Consolidated Mines Co., California, tail- 
ing dam ■••• •?? 

Oro Hondo mine, Lead, South Dakota 227, 6oo 

Oronogo Circle Mining Co., Oronogo, Missouri 1008 

Oroville Dredging, Ltd., California 776, 1006 

Oroville Dredging, Ltd., Colombia •••••";• •••■ "4 

Pato dredge 537, 719, 738, 825, 1010 

Pato dredge difficulties • »21, 652 

Oroya Black Range mine, Western Australia lOljj 

Costs ...,,......»..«..••••■•••••••••«•••• 995 

Oroya Links, Ltd., Kalgoorlie, Western Australia 142 

Company report sl - 'J* 

Orsk Goldflelds, Ltd., Siberia 6-6 

Company report • • • • • • • • il * 

Osceola Consolidated Mining Co., Osceola. Michigan. . . _. ^ 

Otira tunnel, South Island, New Zealand 340 

Ounces, troy, avoirdupois pounds and kilos 415 

Ouro Preto Gold Mines, Ltd., Brazil 846 

Passagem mine, company report 192 

Oven, beehive coke, temperatures 496 

Owasco Gold Mining Co., Washington 117 

Ozocerite deposits, Utah 536, b9J 

Pachuca vat, model 340 

Pacific Dredging Co., California 618 

Pacific Gas & Electric Co. load factor 107 

Pagan, W. D., and William Hague North Star mine, 

Grass Valley 549 

Painter Tramway Co., automatic rope lubricator 980 

Palladium its characteristics, uses, and discovery in the 

Boss mine 990 

Pan as regrinder William S. Mann.... 963 

Motion concentration 468 

Panama canal, cargo passed through 815, 964 

Canal, Culebra cut, Bucyrus dipper dredges 847 

Canal, Culebra cut slide 815 

Canal, death rate Editorial 168 

Canal, dredges 300 

Canal, earnings 693 

Canal, excavation 529 

Canal, fender chains 67 

Canal, Gatun lake watershed run-off 340 

Canal, labor employed 768 

Canal, locks and currents 964 

Canal, Mlndl explosion 260 

Canal, power plants 223 

Imports and exports 792 

Resources 798 

Panama Mining Co.. Nicaragua, and Tonopah Mining Co.. 

578. 780 

Panama-Pacific International Exposition Editorial.... 787 

And Michigan iron-ore districts 889 

Bureau of Mines exhibit 445 

Model mine 256 

Ditto Editorial 168, 903 

Paraffin wax, U. S. exports 693 

Paraguay. Imports and exports 792, 796 

Park City Mills Co., Utah 386 

Smelter 660 

Parramatta sewerage works, Sydney, New South Wales, 

pumping engines 608 

Parsons Mining Co., New Mexico 533, 819 

Patent law. Flotation and the Editorial. ... 586 

Ditto James M. Hyde. ... 728 

Patents. Recent 83, 165, 468, 623, 862 

Peach pits and prusslc acid manufacture 454 

Peace prospects In Mexico Editorial. .. . 668 

Peake, H. G Building a placer mining dredge with 

electric power-plant in Portugal 522 

Pearce, Gilbert, death of 532 

Pearce, Jackson A Cyanldatlon of Clear Creek and 

Gilpin County sulphides 833 

Pearl, occurrence 886 

Penn-Alaska Mining Co 153 

Pennsylvania and Vermont metal production 38 

Coal production 300. 428 

Electricity In anthracite coal mines 651 

Gas, natural, production 525 

Mineral production 664 

Petroleum production 36, 935 

Portland cement production 38 

Pennsylvania Railroad Co., steel rails 608 

Pennsylvania Steel company 68 

Perseverance mine. Western Australia 382 

Persistence of ore at Kolar T. A. Rickard .... 956 

Of ore at the St. John del Rey T. A. Rickard .... 985 

Peru, banks closed 732 

Bismuth production =90 

Borax Consolidated, Ltd., and Arequtpa borax fields.... 

Editorial 125 

Cerro de Pasco Mining Co 121 

Copper exports Editorial . . . . 829 

Copper production 120, 795 

__ ' Page. 

Peru, Gold production 68 

Gold standard [][ 780 

Imports and exports 792 

Lampa copper smelter, Santa Lucia, Puno 

Francis Church Lincoln.... 553 

Mine ownership Editorial.... 939 

Mineral resources 795 

Petroleum exports 961 

Petroleum lands Editorial .... 167 

Petroleum production 935 

Santo Domingo mine, ore treatment 181 

Silver production 795 

Some tailing dumps in the Andes 

Howland Bancroft. . . . 805 

Peruvian Consolidated Mining Co., Utah 895 

Peso, Mexican 415 

Pet mine, Ontario 896 

Peterson, Albert, death of 661 

Petrolatum oil, and petroleum production 693 


Alaska production 935 

Alboline and petrolatum oil 693 

Alsace-Lorraine production 451 

American Petroleum Society Editorial. 


British Empire oil 188 

California industry 

California production 193, 383, 501, 699, 855, 

Ditto Editorial 

California State Mining Bureau and water in oilfields 


California, water In oil sands Editorial. 



Canada, Alberta, Calgary field 191 

Canada production 935 

Colorado production 935 

Dutch East Indies production 935 

Galicla production 935 

Gas, and brine wells of Ssu-chuan, China 

Thomas T. and M. Carleton Read.... 629 

Germany production 935 

Illinois production 524, 935 

India production 935 

India resources 810 

Indiana production 935 

Italy production 935 

Japan production 686, 935 

Kansas production 705. 935 

Kentucky production 935 

Literature collection Editorial .... 710 

Louisiana production 935 

Map of U. S. resources 727 

Mexico production 935 

Mexico, Tamplco exports 738, 1011 

Michigan production 935 

Missouri production 935 

New Mexico production 93 5 

New York production 935 

New Zealand, New Plymouth district 1004 

Ohio production 664. 935 

Oil and gas industry. U. S Editorial 86 

Oil and gas land, California legislation, Washington, 

D. C. "I 

Oil statistics 935 

Oklahoma production 935 

Pennsylvania production 664, 935 

Peru exports 964 

Peru production 935 

Peru lands Editorial. ... 167 

Refining and sulphuric acid 964 

Rumania production 93j 

Russia production 93;> 

Tamplco crude oil shipments 538 

Texas production 466, 93n 

U. S. Bureau of Mines division Editorial.... 

U. S. production 36, 924, 935 

U. S. railroads fuel oil 964 

Washing-ton. D. C, legislation Editorial 126 

West Virginia production 93a 

Wyoming production 93o 

Phelps, Dodge & Co., Inc 122. 313, 458, 534, 978, 1012 

And Black Diamond mine, Arizona 460 

And Tombstone mines 28 

Tin production attempt Editorial. . . . 790 

Phenomena of adsorption 451 

Philippine Dredges, Ltd., Philippine Islands. .159, 352, 570, 859 

Philippine Islands, cement plant 1000 

Customs revenues 571 

Cyanide supply 898 

Development of gold milling in C. M. Eye. . . . 28 1 

Dredging 23. 570 

Gumaos Placer Co 780 

Iron ores of Bulacan province 571, 8a9 

Mamhulao Placer Co 97i 

Manila property valuation 571 

Map. northern part 5(0 

Map. southern part 24 

Masbate mining 

Ml ndoro placers 

Mines tax 

Neutrality Editorial .... 

Philippine Dredges, Ltd 159, 352. 

Purigao province iron 

Phoenix mine, Granbv Consolidated 

Phosphate, Egypt deposits Editorial. . . . 

Idaho, Georgetown district deposits 

Land bill 

Montana. Elllston field 

Rocky Mountain deposits, Origin of 

Eliot Rlnekwelder. . . . 

Phototopography J- A. MacDonald. . . . 

Picher Lead Co., Miami. Oklahoma 654, 

Plcklng-up bottoms • • • • • 11 ■ • ■ 

Plegan-Gloster mine, Barnes-King Development Co.. Mon- 

Plgg's Peak mine, Rhodesia • ■ • 

Pllot-Butte Mining Co.. Butte, Montana 194. 

Pioneer mine, Nome, Alaska 


2 9 •"> 

65 S 



Vol. 109 

, 659 

Pioneering in old countries . • • • • ■ . .Editorial. ... 

Pittsburg Dolores Mining Co., Rockland mine, Nevada.. 70, 

Pittsburgh meeting of the A. I. M. E • 

Editoral correspondence. .. . 

Pixley and Abell silver statistics i,^:';;.,- 622 ' 

Placer act, Alaska decision ■ ^J 11 ?, 1 '.,{ 

Gravels, Methods of testing. ..... ..James W Neill. . .. 

D itto Walter J. Radford. .. .5, 

Ground, 'Examination of Thomas A. Graves 

Ground, Valuing (see dredging ground) 

Mining dredge, Building with electric power plant in 
Portugal H - <*■ i'eaKe.... 

Mining in the Fairbanks district . • • • • • ■ ■ •■■•;• 

Emil Edward Hurja. . . . 

Plan for reviving hydraulic mining— I, XI. ^ —j— • • ; ; 91 Y 

Platinum assay Frederic' P. Dewey. . . . 

California production 

Deposits of Germany's paleozoic . . . ■ • • ■ •••••• 

P Krusch, translated by F. Sommer Schmidt 

Gold lode deposit in southern Nevada. Adolph Knopt. . . . 

Nevada, Good Springs district discovery 503, 

Nuggets, Large 

Prices, refined 

Russia production °{ 

U. S. production . . . . ■ 

Platteville, Wisconsin, ore market (see Wisconsin). 
Plumbago, Ceylon * 6i ' 

?!yn^h P ^^olid^d^ld 2 Mines; Lt^ Cal^nia. . . . . . 

D itto An Occasional Contributor. . . . 










Mill Design of '.'.'.'.'.' Gelasio Caetani. 

Ditto ....... J. Parke Channing, J. H. Lewis. 

Pocahontas Lead & Zinc Co., Missouri 

Poisoning, lead . -„„ 

Lead, pottery industries ■■••• •••• °*% 

Politics and business Ed itoria . . . . 43 

And mining men Editorial «i 

Porcupine Aurum, Ontario, organized ■■••••• 4/1 

Porcupine Crown Mines, Ltd., Cobalt, Ontario^...... „„ ioM 

Continuous decantation at... Maurice Summerhayes 88 

Porphyrv Dike mine, Montana :■■/,:■ ; ??, 

Portable assay outfit Theo. A. Clack. ... 491 

Porter porous mineral medium . ....... ... »»' 

Portland Canal Tunnel Co., British Columbia 53/ 

Portland cement, U. S. production « 

Cement, Washington production ........... 

Portland Gold Mining Co^Crl^pte Creek, Colorado. ... „„ 

Ports of entry, Mexico ■■ 

Portugal and Spain copper production nu 

Building a placer mining dredge with electric power 

plant in :**• **• Peake.... a._ 

Portuguese East Africa, Dredge ooMtrucUon^- — • jn ; ; ; ; m 

Potash. Alsace-Lorraine production •••••••• 451 

And the Geological Survey Samuel H. Dolbear 

California, Discovery of Whitman Symmes.. 

Oregon discovery ■■ • • • • •.• • ■ • 

Salts and war Ediom . . 

Spain resources Editorial . . 

Potassium cvanide, Magdeburg. Germany 

Potrero del Llano oil well, Tampico 

Pottery, U. S. production ■"« 

Pounds avoirdupois into troy ounces »io 

Power & Mining Machinery Co. and International Steam 

Pump Co 

Power plant, steam, efficiency • • • • • • ... ■ 

Precipitation, electrical. Progress of Editorial 

Precision of thought . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . „ • ^Uorial . . . . 

Premier diamond mine, Transvaal, graphite-coated dia- 
monds V ■ v. ^'•"t"'"" 

Present conditions at Pioche, Nevada. James W. Abbott 

Presidio Mining Co., Shatter, Texas, cyanidation 643 

Pressures, Harvard University laboratory 188 

Prestea Block A mine, West Africa 814, 95.) 

Report and state of company 304 

Preston, Edmund B„ death of »'» 

Primrose mine, Alaska ..................... • • ■ • »*{: 

Prince Consolidated Mining Co., Pioche. Nevada 462, 485 

Prince William Sound Mining Co., Alaska 2b- 

Probert, F. R Three R mine, Patagonia district, 

Ari 7ons ..,....,.........■•■•■-■•••■•••■•*■■• * '• 

Probiglo Mining "Co., Idaho 111 

Production and uses of tungsten .p. J. Steinhart 64 










Of radium in America Charles H 

Production statistics: 

Alabama coal ^l 

Alabama coke "g"; 

Ditto, U. S. Geol. Surv 80 

Alabama. Iron, pig Jii'Yon" -it 

Alaska, gold 422, 590, ,34 

Alaska, minerals »«« 

Alsace-Lorraine, minerals 4bi 

Arizona minerals. U. S. Geol. Surv 74 

Arkansas, coal, U. S. Geol. Surv 80 

Arkansas, minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 664 

Australia, bismuth 590 

Australia, gold J»» 

Bolivia, bismuth •>»« 

British Columbia minerals 34b 

British Empire oil J 

British Guiana, diamonds AA-V.V 

British Guiana, gold 3 , i , b50 

California borax • •• • ■ ........ 

California, gas, natural Editorial 

California metals, 1913 

California minerals 

Ditto. U. S. Geol Surv .... . • ■ . . • • • ■ 501 

California petroleum 193, 383. 699 85a, 929 

pi tt0 .» Editorial .... 277 

California quarry products 647 



Production statistics: 

California quicksilver, U. S. Geol. Surv 21, 

Canada copper }!! 

Colorado coal • • • • i% 

Colorado coke, U. S. Geol. Surv 142 

Colorado metals, U. S. Geol. Surv 231 

Colorado minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 705 

Connecticut minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 70a 

Egypt, phosphate ■ • • - ™i 

Florida, phosphate, U. S. Geol. Surv 664 

France, coal *5* 

France, iron , S; 

France, steel • - • • • - ■ 'Zt 

Georgia, minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 466 

Germany, East Prussia, amber 9J* 

Honduras, gold -J;!:! 

Honduras, silver %x% 

Hungary, iron 5?, 

Idaho, lead • • • • • ■ • °i° 

Idaho, metals, U. S. Geol. Surv 231 

Idaho, minerals • *£° 

Illinois, coal, U. S. Geol Surv 46b 

Illinois, coke, U. S. Geol. Surv »» 

Illinois, minerals °fi 

India, British, coal .£' 

India, gold • ■ • • a S5 

Indiana, coal, U. S. Geol. Surv 38 

Indiana, coke, U. S. Geol. Surv so 

Indiana minerals ';» 

Iowa coal, U. S. Geol. Surv »« 

Iowa minerals f ?; 

Ireland, minerals *'- 

Japan, petroleum •• ••• ••.••.•" ' ?c- 

Japan, zinc Editorial. . . . 16, 

Joplin district ores • ■ • "J 

Kansas coal, U. S. Geol. Surv iC'.lArf.V **" Hi 

Kansas, gas, natural • Editorial 86, 

Kansas, minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 705 

Kentucky, coke • • • • • • ■ • • • Vi' 

Kentucky, minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 664 

Maine, feldspar ■ *" 

Marvland, coal, U. S. Geol. Surv "b 

Maryland, minerals •••• *«» 

Michigan, copper ■•■ "">• «i» 

Michigan minerals, U. S. Geol Surv 70a 

Minnesota, iron, V. S. Geol. Surv 664 

Missouri, coal. U. S. Geol. Surv. 38 

Missouri, minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 664 

Montana coal • • • • ii? 

Montana metals, U. S. Geol. Surv ,05 

Montana minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 30 

Nevada, metals, by counties, U. S. Geol. Surv 424 

New Hampshire minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 7Uo 

New Jersey minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv ,0a 

New Mexico, coke 10 * 

New Mexico, minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv ' b 

New South Wales minerals • • • • *•» 

New Zealand, gold 1»». «* 

New Zealand, minerals =}j 

New Zealand, silver »JJ 

Nigeria, tin • 55- 

North Carolina minerals, TJ. S. Geol. Surv ,05 

North Dakota coal. U. S. Geol. Surv 80 

Ohio minerals, TJ. S. Geol. Surv bbi 

Oklahoma, coal, TJ. S. Geol. Surv 184 

Oklahoma, gas, natural Editorial 8b , 

Ontario gold and silver • ■ ■_■ ■■•■ i\ 

Ontario, minerals "', ***• °J° 

Ontario, nickel °9i 

Ontario, silver °j' 

Oregon, metals, U. S. Geol. Surv l»j> 

Oregon, minerals, TJ. S. Geol. Surv 'Ob 

Pennsvlvania, coal 300 

Ditto, U. S. Geol. Surv 428 

Pennsylvania, minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv bb4 

Peru, bismuth 2„- 

Peru, copper ij[2 

Peru, silver '»* 

Queensland, metals ki'VnV bik 

Queensland, minerals »b, bob, bib 

Rand, gold • • • 66. 

Rhodesia, gold 808, 9a9 

Rhodesia, Southern, minerals 459 

Russia, platinum 64. 

Saxony, bismuth 590 

Siberia, gold Jjj 

South Dakota, gold, Black Hills |a2 

South Dakota, minerals •»■> 

Spain, bismuth »90 

Tennessee, coal, U. S. Geol. Surv 80 

Texas, cement, U. S. Geol. Surv 4bb 

Texas, coal, U. S. Geol. Surv 80 

Texas, gas. natural, TJ. S. Geol. Surv |bb 

Texas, metals 819 

Texas, petroleum, U. S. Geol. Surv i-V-V ,«S? 

Transvaal, gold 72, 614, 1001 

Union of South Africa, minerals «| 

United States alloys J02 

United States, aluminum, U. S. Geol. Surv jjbi 

United States, antimony, U. S. Geol. Surv 861 

United States, arsenic 648 

United States, arsenic, white »*- 

Ditto, U. S. Geol. Surv 664 

United States asphalt, U. S. Geol. Surv 664 

United States barytes J12 

United States barytes, U. S. Geol. Surv 3*8 

United States barytes. crude JO' 

United States bismuth ?»". 

United States borax » J' 

United States carnotite 648 

United States chromium. U. S. Geol. Surv °bi 

United States coal, U. S. Geol. Surv 200 

United States coke J» ' 

United States copper |j" 

Ditto. U. S. Geol. Surv 861 

United States explosives «' s 

Vol. 109 







Production statistics: . 

United States fluorspar, U. S. Geol. Surv l3o 

United States fuller's earth, U. S. Geol. Surv...... 

Editorial .... So 

United States garnet, abrasive, U. S. Geol. Surv SO 

United States gas, natural, U. S. Geol. Surv bib 

United States gold, eastern states "" 

United States gold, U. S. Geol. Surv 861 

United States graphite, U. S. Geol. Surv 3SS 

United States gypsum • • • • • • ■ ■ "" 

United States iron, U. S. Geol. Surv •■■366. 664. 861 

United States iron, pig ■ • Editorial .... 625 

United States lead, U. S. Geol. Surv Sbl 

United States lime, U. S. Geol. Surv. . 4-8 

United States magnesite, U. S. Geol. Surv o26 

United States manganese "? 

Ditto, U. S. Geol. Surv Hiii'W o , A„ - „V q,;~ - ' il 

United States metals, eastern states U.S. Geol. Surv.. 38 

United States mineral water, U. S. Geol. Surv- 4 8 

United States minerals, per cent of the world »-* 

United States minerals, value . . WliiV„Viii 

United States oil and gas industry. Editorial 

United States oilstone, U. S. Geol. Surv 

United States petroleum, U. S. Geol. Surv s*>. 

United States platinum •••••• v.' ' r a ' ,;; ' 

United States Portland cement, U. S. Geol. Surv 

United States pottery, U. S. Geol. Surv 

United States pumice, U. S. Geol. Surv 

United States quarry rock . ••••••• • ■ ■;,■■•• Vi V 

United States quicksilver. U. S. Geol. Surv 217, 861 

United States radium *"• "H 

United States salt, U. S. Geol. Surv 4-J 

United States sand and gravel -' - 

United States silica ■ °2i 

United States silver. U. S. Geol. S"rv. ................ ■ 861 

United States steel ingots and castings, U. S. Geol. Sur\. 105 

United States stone quarries ■ • --•■•- 1 °7 

United States sulphur, U. S. Geol. Surv Editorial 87 

United States tin " ' 

Ditto, U. S. Geol. Surv.............. '5 1 

United States titanium, U. S Geol. Surv 861 

United States tripoli and dlatomaceous earth, U. b. 

Geol. Surv ■...■•■••,■•; Sg? 

United States tungsten. U. S. Geol. Surv sbl 

United States uranium . . . . • • • • • ■ • • • • • ■„ • ;■ • • "" 

United States vanadium and uranium, U. S. Geol. Surv. 861 

United States zinc ■■••• • ■••. •• • • :;2J 

Ditto Editorial 278 

Ditto, U. S. Geol. Surv 

Utah metals, U. S. Geol. Surv 

Vermont minerals. U. S. Geol. Surv 

Virginia coal, U. S. Geol. Surv. 

Virginia minerals, U. S. Geol. Surv 

Virginia minerals, 1913 Thomas L. Watson 333 

Virginia rutile. ■ ••• • •• • • ■ •• 

Washington minerals. U. S. Geol. Surv 

West Africa, gold • • • 

West Virginia, coal, U. S. Geol. Surv . . .. . 

W.-st Virginia, gas, natural Editorial .... 

Western Australia, gold 25, 499, 854 

Western Australia minerals 

World, copper ■ • 

World, gold M " s 

World petroleum. U. S. Geol. Surv 

World, tin •• ... 

Wyoming, copper. U. S. Geol. Surv JJ' 

Wyoming, gold. U S. Geol. Surv i 

Wyoming, silver. U. S. Geol. Surv 

Progress and working costs, Tanganyika copper mines. 
R Robert Williams.. 

In zinc smelting 5 < !!! 0r ! a !" 

Of electrical precipitation Kdltorlal b-b 

ogress Mines of New Zealand. Ltd.. South Island 1*4 

Company report 4Dh ' 

Costs ■ • ■ • • vi' ; 

Prospecting on the upper Magdalena . . . . . .C. S. Haley... 

What is the matter with? Charles Moore... 

Ditto Operator 

Prospective growth In output of tin .................. • 

Prosscr. W. S Precision of thought... 

Prussian biue and tea leaves . 

Prusslc acid manufacture and peach pits »»* 

Pueblo mine. Yukon '.'- 

Pumice, United States production •,•;. ,".,' 

Pumping engines. Parramatta sewerage works. New South 

Wales 6 "5 

Pumps. Humphrey gas ">* 

Plunger, tmproy-il J '■ 

Purkevplle mine. Gold Hill district, Oregon lib 

Pvrlte, California production ; '-• 

Wisconsin. Benton district ' ' " 







95 5 



9 7 2 








Quarries. California 

Production. Ireland 

United States, men employed 

Quarry products. Kentucky production 

Products. Missouri production 

Products. Pennsylvania production 

Products, Virginia production 

Quartz Creek Placer Mines. Idaho 

Quartz mining In Dutch Guiana 

Hock California production 

Queen of the Hills mine. Meekatharra. Western Austra- 
lia, company report 

Thermit weld of broken crank-shaft 

Queensland. Australia, gold production 1»8. 

Gore, limestone deposits 

c.vmple mining 

Metal production 

Mineral Index ii'VnV 

Mineral production r ' h . "" ;i - 

Quicksilver and war ■■■■ 

California production . . . ■ • ■ • • • -■'• 

Ores and flotation Edit. .rial 

64 7 

5 53 
66 1 
73 5 


6 I 6 
:: 17 
5 v ;, 





Quicksilver prices 34, 79, 119, 161, 198, 235, 274, 313, 353 

387. 427, 465, 539, 580, 622, 704, 739, 781, 826, 860, 898, 

934, 978, 1012 
Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the metals 

Edwin C. Egkel 182 

United States production 217. 861 

Quilp Gold Mining Co., Washington 77 

Quincy Mining Co., Hancock, Michigan ... 68, 122, 232, 266, 

418, 420, 658, 871, 894, 978 

Quo Vadis mine discovery unfounded, Nevada 701 


Radford, Walter J Methods of testing placet- 
gravels 5, 221 

Radium bill ............. i)>° 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 239 

Bill in House ■ ■ 531 

Bureau of Mines, Denver investigations. . .Editorial. .. . 41 

Production in America Charles H. Viol.... 443 

United States production bjS 

Railroad, Alaska ; 34s 

Railwavs, United States, live per cent increase in eastern 

territory Editorial .... 981 

United States, fuel oil 964 

Rainbow Development Co 4bl 

Rambler-Cariboo mine. British Columbia Hi 

Rand, Charles F. .Sanitation work at Cuban iron mines. . . . 213 

And Order of Isabella Editorial So 

Rand banket, C. Baring Horwood replies to discussion: 

Bain, H. Foster 

Draper D • - - ■ 

Gregory. J. W ' 6b. 

Hatch, F. H 2 » ' . 

Knox, Hook, and Lett 

Lindgren. Thomas, Bain, and Hatch 

Mellor. E. T 

Rickard. T. A 

Rand, cyanide consumption 

Dust preventicn on the • ■ 

Earthquakes 149 ' 

Far East, development 

Figures for six months 

Gold production 

Hydraulic stowing in gold mines.. B. C. 

Impression of the 

Industry of the Witwatersrand ■■■•••■•■•••:••■,■•. 

T. A. Rickard, Editorial.... 

Labor probiem "'.7. 7.7. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.". 7. .7. '.'.'.".' Editorial. . . . 

Life of Editorial .... 


Modderfonteln group of mines 

Ore hoisted ■ • ■ ;;■ • v : 

Sanitary conditions on the kdltorlal.... 

Rand Mines, Ltd.. company report ■■• ■■•■• 

Rathfon Reduction Works Co., Washington 233, 43b. 

Raub mine. Federated Malay States V»Vini"ViV 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co., Ray. Arizona^. . 122. 208. 313. 

Company report ■ 269 ' 

Rea mine. Porcupine Ontario •■ ■ 

Read, Thomas T. .Lake Superior copper mining: present 

and future — T ■ • • ■ ■ • ^-AL 

Read Thomas T. and M. Carleton Petroleum, gas. 

brine wells of Ssu-chuan, China •• •■■■ ■■ ■ • 

Reading for culture Editorial. 

Real del Monte. Pachuca, Mexico ',; r,: ' 'i' VvWu-e,'-' 

Real estate in London Edward Y\ alkei . 

Recovery calculation formula T-V ','.i'.'„' Tnni'n ' 

Of gold In dredging Charles Janin. 

Red Butte Mining Co., Nevada 

Red Ledge mine, California 

Red Metal mine. Idaho •• ■• •■■•• • 

Refinancing Natomas ;,v.,Y- " o i? - 

Regrinder. Pan as a V\ lltlam S. Mann . 

Reinohl process Editorial. 

•Rapid cvanlding apparatus' 

Rejuvenating the chlorldlzlng roast b'„^i^;' 

F. Sommer Schmidt 
Relative natural and commercial 


. . Editorial. 
Gullachsen . 






5 80 
41 1 


9 6 3 

scarcltv of the metals. . 

Edwin c. Eckel 


of mineral land laws. . 
E. B. Kirby. . - 

Release dates 

Report of committee on revision 

Of Selbv Smnlter Commission . 
Republic Consolidated Mines Corporation, Washington 

corporated ;;.■ .'■ 

Republic Iron & Steel Co.. Hartford mine, Michigan.. 
Republic Leasing Co . Washington 
Republic mine. Republic. Michigan 



Republic Mines Corporation. 

Present ownership 

Reserve Board, United State 

Method of mining. 
K. B. Wallace. 
Republic. Washington 

s, and Thorns 

D. Joins. . 

Respiration, artificial 

Revenue mine. Colorado 

Revision of mining law 




Of mining law again ■ 

Of mining law, proposed F 

W. F. Collins. . . 

Clarence K. Colvin . . . 
C. J. Fry 

G. I.. Sheldon . . . 

Editorial. . . 

R. Ingalsbe 

Of mining law, Fteporl of commtttei 

Rezende Mines, Ltd.. Rhodesia 

Rheostat resistance block. Graham 

Rhodesia, amalgamation 

Geological Survey report 

Gold production 

Small mines 

Southern, mineral production 

Rice, George S.. and L. M. Jones. ...Exp 
experimental mine 

. ]•:. B Kirby 

251. M >^ 

■ sion t.Kt at the 


5 01 

7 65 

1 19 

9 5 ! ' 
41 '. 



Vol. 109 


Richards pulsator riffle 316 

Rickard, T. A As war looks in London. . . . 

320, 362, 394, 434, 472, 547, 868 

Ditto Industry of the Witwatersrand, Editorial.... 

Ditto North Star, Grass Valley, Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Persistence of ore at Kolar. . . . 

Ditto. . . .Persistence of ore at the St. John del Rey. . . , 

Ditto.. Rand banket, Horwood replies to discussion.... 

Ridge & Valley mine, Utah 117 

Riffle, Richards pulsator 316 

Right of Way Mines Co., Ontario 779 

Rindge, Jr., Fred H Big returns on an investment.... 712 

Rio Tinto Co., Ltd., Spain 615, 773 

Riverside Dairy & Stock Farm and A. S. & R. Co 537 

Rivet set retainer 

Roast, Rejuvenating the chloridizing 

F. Sommer Schmidt 



Roaster. Laboratory 786 


Robbins, Frank, death of 

Roberts, George E., and National City Bank. . Editoria 

Roberts, Harry, death of 695 

Robey, Lloyd. .. .Methods of taking mill-head samples.... 183 
Robinson Deep Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rand, sand filling 

803, 804 

Robinson Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rand, company report... 37 

Rochester Consolidated Mining & Milling Co., Nevada.... 503 

Rochester Hills Mining Co., Nevada 116, 462 

Rochester Mines Co., East Rochester, Nevada..: 

76, 116, 425, 462, 823, 1009 

Extends leases 116 

Rochester Weaver Mining Co., Nevada 1009 

And Mexican Gold & Silver Mining Co 462 

Rochford-Wyomtng Oil Co., South Dakota 702 

Rock nomenclature in new mining districts 

C. T. Brodrick 185 

United States quarry production 219 

Rock Island Coal Mining Co., Oklahoma 768 

Rockland mine, Nevada, Pittsburg-Dolores Mining Co.... 70 
Rocks, intrusive. Ore deposition in and near, by meteoric 

waters Andrew C. Lawson .... 600 

Rocky Mountain phosphate deposits, Origin of the 

Eliot Blackwelder 987 

Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co 826 

Cyanide situation 353, 662, 694 

Cyanide manufacture Editorial. . . . 391 

Rogers, Austin F Secondary sulphide enrichment of 

copper ores with special reference to microscopic 

study 680 

Roll shells. Steel James C. H. Ferguson 809 

Roosevelt drainage tunnel, Colorado 194, 310, 384, 461, 777 

Rope lubricator, Automatic 980 

Wire, true diameter 815 

Rosario mine, Honduras, Central America 525 

Rose Lake smelter of Granby company... E. H. Leslie.... 395 

Ross Goldfields, New Zealand 1004 

Rotary air-compressor 624 

Round Mountain Mining Co., Nevada 462, 858 

Formed 233 

Roval Gold Mines Co., Angels, California 699 

Organized 230 

Royal mine, Hodson, California 1006 

Royal .mint, London, copper requirement 378 

Rubble, California production 647 

Ruby Consolidated Mines. California 74 

Ruhl. Arthur, and cyanide situation 920 

Rule and level, Combination pocket 542 

Rumania, petroleum production 935 

Rush & Brown mine, Ketchikan district, Alaska 10 

Russia, alboline and petrolatum oil 693 

Copper production 120 

Dredging 971 

Gold mining 971 

Kvshtim Corporation 772 

Lena Goldfields 808 

Mao of part 971 

Mines 224 

Petroleum production 935 

Platinum nuggets 246 

Platinum production . . . 642 

Sissert mine 772 

Spasskv Copper Mine, Ltd 772 

Wages 971 

Russian Gold Mining Co., Siberia 250 

Russian Poland smelters 354 

Russian Trust & Finance Co 224 

Rutile, Virginia production 567 


Saeger charging machine 137 

Safety and Sanitation Conference, New York 1005 

Safety. Bureau of Labor Safetv and Bureau of Mines 

Editorial. . . .277. 360 

'Safety First, - California Editorial.... 239 

Calumet & Hecla 942 

Copper Queen, Arizona 617 

Cost iron mines, Lake Superior district 608 

Movement. California 930 

Nevada. Ely, contests Editorial .... 41 

St. Clair, Stuart. .. .Origin of the Sudburv ore deposits.... 243 

St. Elmo Mining & Milling Co.. Colorado 461 

St. John del Rey Mining Co.. Ltd., Brazil 765, 793 

Company report 37 

Electric power 22 

Morro Velho mine 192 

Morro Velho mine, Persistence of ore at 

T. A. Rickard. . . . 985 

Temperatures of air and rock 67 

St. John Mines (Colorado). Ltd 27, 575 

St. Johns mine, flotation on quicksilver ores 

Editorial.... 585 

St. Joseph Lead Co., Missouri 694. 704, 889 

Holmes suit Editorial. . . . 981 

St. Louis Smelting & Refining Co., Missouri, shoveling 

machine 808 

Salines, California 821 


Salmon River Power & Light Co., Washington ... 270 

Salt, Alsace-Lorraine production 451 

California production 929 

Michigan production 70» 

Ohio production 664 

Petroleum, and gas wells of Ssu-chuan, China 

Thomas T. and M. Carleton Read.... 629 

Rock, Ireland production 552 

United States production 428 

Salt Lake meeting of the Institute 301 

Salvador, Central America, Butters Salvador Mines Co... 

648, 798, 952 

Imports and exports 792 

Mineral resources • 798 

Salvador lease, Tintic, Utah Ill 

Samples, mill-head, Methods of taking. . .Lloyd Robey 183 

Sampling and assaying Cobalt ores 605 

Mine "i 

Sand and gravel. Oregon production 705 

And gravel, United States production 212 

And gravel, Virginia production 333 

And gravel, Washington production 77 

Filling in Rand gold mines B. C. Gullachsen. . . . 801 

Filling, Origin of Editorial 791 

Glass, California production 929 

Table, Deister double-deck 1014 

Sand Queen mine, Western Australia 853 

Sandstone, California production 929 

Washington production iii-v.V „?i 

San Francisco mint, bullion received 389, 781, 910 

Mint, operations 80, 251, 353. 634 

Sanitary conditions on the Rand Editorial 168 

Sanitation work at Cuban iron mines. .Charles F. Rand 213 

San Juan Metals Co., Colorado 822 

San Poll Consolidated Co., Republic, Washington 31, 578 

Mill, Republic, Washington . ... 437 

Santa Gertrudis Co., Ltd., Pachuca, Mexico 154, 889, 931 

Company report 426, 782, 1010 

Finance conditions 162 

Santa Ysabel Mining & Milling Co., suit, California 194 

Santo Domingo, imports and exports i92 

Resources 798 

Santo Domingo mine, Peru, ore treatment 181 

Saxony, bismuth production 590 

Schmidt, F. Sommer Platinum deposits of Germany's 

paleozoic, translated from P. Krusch 879 

Ditto Rejuvenating the chloridizing roast.... 324 

Schumacher mine, Ontario 696 

Scientific management in the German industries 

H. N. Stronck 648 

Scottish Gympie Co., Queensland 616 

Graphite in ores 608 

Scranton mine, Utah 1'i 

Scrap metallurgist Editorial 85 

Scraper, bottomless •' 954 

Secondary enrichment. Laboratory study of . .Editorial ... . 433 

Ditto . C. F. Tolman, Jr 649 

Sulphide enrichment of copper ores with special refer- 
ence to microscopic study Austin F. Rogers. . . . 

Seeking South American trade — a word of caution to home 

folks Editorial 

Selby Smelting & Lead Co., fume commission 930 

And fume commission Editorial .... 939 

Report of Selbv Commission 947 

Ditto Editorial 939 

Selective mining of orebodies Douglas Waterman .... 54 

Selling mining properties Editorial 628 

Seminole mine, Georgia ■ 9o3 

Seneca-Superior Silver Mines, Ltd., Cobalt, Ontario..... 

lo9. 660, 8d8 

Senn Concentrating Co., pan motion concentration 468 

Seoul Mining Co., Korea 77, 352, 426, 578. 779, 9< . 

Servia, copper production • • • • 120 

Seven Troughs Coalition Mining Co, Seven Troughs, Nev. 

31. 351, 425, 503, 619. 778, 894. 1009 

Seward Bonanza Gold Mines Co 341 

Shaft timbering, Mesabi range, Minnesota 

P. B. MacDonald. . . . 

Shamva Mines. Ltd.. Rhodesia 72, 265, 808, 919, 

Shanghai Dock & Engineering Co., Chinese mechanics. .. 
Shannon Copper Co., Metcalf, Arizona. 122, 208, 348, 465, oOl, 

Company report 269. <9_, 

Shantung Mining Co.. Kiaochow, China 

Sharp mine, Utah H ' 

Shattuck Arizona Copper Co.. Bisbee. Arizona........... 

122, 208, 313. 572, 694, 698, 892. 

Sheave, well guarded 

Sheldon, G. L Revision of mining laws.... 

Shins, American-owned foreign, and freight situation.... 


Government-owned merchant Editorial.... 

Shockley. W. H Gold mining on the Amur.... 

Shoes, stamp-batterv as dies 

Short tube-mills H. W Hardinge 

Shoveling machines at Flat River E. H. Leslie.... 

Showers mine, Utah 

Siam. wolfram production 'J" 

Siamese Tin Dredging Syndicate 

Siberia. Gold mining on the Amur....W. H. Shockley. 







Gold production ;;; 

Orsk Goldfields. Ltd °8S 

Upper Yenesei vallev and adjacent Mongolia •>*< 

Ditto ' Newton B. Knox 922 

Sidorite and sulphides in Leadville ore deposits — I. II..... 

Philip Argall 50. 

And sulphides in Leadville ore deposits, a correction.. 

Philip Argall 

Siehenthal, C. E Midvear spelter statistics.... 

Ditto Zinc situation .... 

Sierra Nevada Consolidated Mining Co.. Idaho 350 

Silica. United States production 69- 

Silver, Alaska production 8.0 

Aluminum alloy 415 

Amalgamation of ores 300 

And gold alloys 188 

And gold, Weighing minute spheres of. .J. I. Blair 526 



Vol. 109 




Silver and war 382 

Arizona production 74 

Bullion molds capacity 340 

California production 349, 929 

Cobalt ores, Sampling and assaying 605 

Colorado production 231, 705 

Copper alloy 188 

Eastern states production 38 

Honduras production 955 

Idaho production 231, 618 

Lead ores, Smelting costs and prices for 

L S. Austin 170 

Market conditions 160 

Montana production 30 

Nevada production 424 

New Mexico production 76 

New Zealand production 613, 919 

Ontario production 31, 117, 463, 858, 891 

Oregon production 195 

Ores and metallics 651 

Peru production 795 

Prices 33, 79, 119, 

161, 197, 235. 274, 313. 353. 387, 427, 465, 539, 580, 

622, 662, 704, 739, 781, 826, 860, 898, 934, 978, 1012 

Prices and war Editorial.... 317 

Queensland production 961 

Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the metals. 

Edwin C. Eckel 182 

Salvador exports 648 

.Shipments 826 

Smoot bill 353 

Texas production > 819 

United States exports and imports 239, 580, 934 

United States production 861 

Utah production 705 

Washington production 77 

Wyoming production 117 

Silver Cable mine, Mullan, Idaho 535 

Sliver King claim, Yukon 27, 537 

Silver King Coalition Mines Co.. Utah 463, 824, 1010 

Company report 159 

Electric hoist 390 

v. Silver King Consolidated Mining Co.. Utah 702, 1010 

Sliver King Consolidated Mining Co., Park City. Utah 

233, 463. 824. 1010 

Si. ion Splro and shareholders 620 

v. Silver King Coalition Mines Co., Utah 702. 1010 

Silver Lake mine, Colorado 384 

Silver Pick Consolidated Mines Co., Nevada 310 

Simmer & Jack Proprietary Mines. Ltd., Transvaal 901 

Sand filling 803. 804 

Simmons, Jesse Electric power at Homestake. . . . 374 

Ditto New Reliance mill practice, with par- 
ticular reference to continuous decantatlon 722 

Simple mine account* 60 

Simplification of gold ore treatment. .Noel Cunningham. ... 19 
Sintering ores, Huntlngton-Heberleln v. Dwlght-Lloyd pro- 
cesses 378 

Slssert Estate mines, Urals, Russia 772 

< 'ompany report 224 

Skagwa v-Whlte Horse mining district 

Emll Edward Hurja.... 609 

sk. • n-Lechner property, Alaska 342 

Slag, cyanide. Crude method of disposing of 

Arthur Feust 142 

Notches. Melting out 994 

Slate. Virginia production 333 

Slime concentrator. Anaconda 238 

Settlement and water viscosity 608 

Slings and other hoisting accessories, storage of in mines. 415 

Small stamp-mills 863 

Smelter fume litigation (see fume) 

Lampa copper, Santa Lucia, Puno. Peru 

Francis Church Lincoln. . . 553 

Management of a country Editorial .... 431 

I'itto Herbert Lang.... 440 

i >r<- i on tracts and the Herbert Lang. . . 4 92 

Smoke. Utah, new decree Editorial.... 865 

Wales zinc, plans Editorial ... 981 

Smelters. European countries 354 

Smelting. Colorado Editorial ... . 941 

Copper. In Canada 689 

Costs and prices for silver-lead ores. . . .L. S. Austin . . 170 

Electric, of Iron ore. Fluorspar In 

Robert M. Keenev. . . . 335 

Japan Editorial... 359 

Low-grade flue-dust 300 

Zinc, England 301 

Zinc. Kansas and Oklahoma 530 

Zinc practice of Middle West 

E. II. Leslie 44, 136. 204. 280. 395. 175 

Zinc. Progress In Editorial... 169 

Zinc-retort :!"0 

Smith. George Otis, and American Institute of Chemical 

Engineers. Philadelphia HOC 

Smith. Warren D..Talslio national exposition at Tokyo.... 4 no 

Smllhsonlte, English and American meanings 

Editorial... I'lO 

Wisconsin. Plattevllle district 693 

Smokestaeks. brick, cracking and weathering 119 

Smoot. A. M Gold and silver ores and metallics.... 651 

Smoot silver bill :'.".3 

Smuggler-Union Mining Co., Colorado, fire 777 

Welfare work L F. S. Holland 717 

Snake Creek tunnel. Utah 352 

Snow Flake mine. New Mexico 7 7 r, 

Snowstorm Mining Co., Larsen, Idaho 7fi. 350 

Company report 236 

Soapstone. California occurrence 919 

California production '■'-"' 

Virginia production 605 

Socorro Mining & Milling Co., New Mexi.o 733, 890, 932 

Soda. California production 929 

Sohnleln. M G. F Economical sliming in 

grinding pans 692 

Solution control In cyanldatlon A. W. Allen.... 527 


Solution control in cyanldatlon E. M. Hamilton. 145 

Control In cyaniding, Titration results and 

Harai R. Layng. . . . 606 

Some tailing dumps in the Peruvian Andes 

Howland Bancroft. .. . 805 

Sons of Gwalla, Leonora, Western Australia 

155, 382, 499, 614, 853, 972 

South Africa, diamond mining 113 952 

Katanga mines Editorial .... 203 

South America, Copper Syndicate 842 

Mines, and foreign capital Editorial.... 939 

Trade development with Editorial .... 865 

Trade possibilities in Editorial review.... 792 

Ditto G. W. Wepfer 885 

Trade, Seeking a word of caution to home folks 

Editorial 789 

South Australia gold production 198 

South Carolina metal production 38 

South Dakota, amalgamation mills 924 

Deadwood Business Club, Heidelberg property Ill 

Gold production, Black Hills 852 

Hill City tin 1004 

Mills, potassium and sodium cyanide consumption 924 

Mineral production 853 

Mineral production. Black Hills 1009 

South Hecla Mining Co., Alta, Utah 463 

Company report 1010 

South Kalgurli Consolidated Mines Co., Ltd., Western Aus- 
tralia 382 

South Utah Mines & Smelters, Newhouse, Utah 463 

Southern Montana railway 459, 1002 

Spain and Portugal copper production 120 

Bismuth production 590 

Mining In 56 

Potash resources Editorial.... 431 

Smelters 354 

Spanish-American Iron Co., Cuba., Sanitation work 

Charles F. Rand. .. . 213 

Spassky Copper Mine, Ltd., Siberia 122, 772 

Specie movements 934 

Spelter manufacture and properties. . .George C. Stone.... 754 
(See zinc) 

Sprague Electric Works, electric winch 276 

Springfield Tunnel & Development Co., California 194 

Springs mine. Rand 112 

Square-set ore chute 763 

Stabilization of the copper market C. S. Burton. . . . 760 

Ditto L. Vogelstein 845 

Stamp battery, king-posts 149 

Battery shoes as dies 496 

Milling, Large versus small stamps Editorial ... . 511 

Milling, screens 378 

Milling, Steam stamps from the gold miner's point of 

view 513 

Mills, curiosities in 768 

Mills, Improved cam for Arthur B. Foote.... 955 

Mills. Small S63 

Stamps and tappets 567 

Large versus small Editorial.... 511 

Steam, from the gold miner's point af view 

Algernon Del Mar.... 513, 963 

Ditto H. W. Hardinge 884 

Standard Chemical Co radium production 443 

Standard Silver-Lead Mining Co., Ltd.. New Denver. Britisli 

Columbia 77, 117. 346. 426. 504. 1010 

Stanford F. E Electric hoists In the Cleveland- 
Cliffs mines 446 

Star Silver Lead. Idaho, v. Forest Service. ... Editorial. .. . 903 

State geologists Editorial.... 319 

Status of the metal market Editorial.... 240 

Steam pcwer plant efficiency 924, 964 

Stamps Editorial .... 509 

Stamps from the gold miner's point of view 

Algernon Del Mar.... 513. 963 

Ditto H. W. Hardinge 884 

Steel. Donald Valuing placer ground.... 845 

Steel, France production 184 

Ingots and castings. United States production 705 

Ralls. Pennsylvania Railroad Co 60S 

Roll shells James C. H Ferguson .... 809 

Stelnhart, O. J Production and uses of tungsten.... 64 

Steptoc smelting plant. Nevada, lower-grade due-dust 300 

Stewart, C. A Study in applied geology. . . . 330 

Death of 505 

Stewart Bros, mine, Alaska 341 

Stewart Mining Co., St. -wart. Idaho 7.. 350, 619, 658, 931 

\nd Helnze shares 31]} 

Company report 3n0 

Fight for control ISO 

v. Bunker Hill & Sullivan J3o 

v. Ontario Mining Co., Idaho 421 

Stocks and war <;■>- 

Stone. George C... Spelter manufacture and properties.... io4 

Stone industry, California production 929 

Oregon production '05 

Quarried, United States 76a 

Virginia production 333 

Sloping, Michigan method '; 

Storms. William II Eruption of Mt. Lassen. ... 143 

Stout. V. A. ..Hardinge hall-mills and cemented gravel.... 430 

Straits Trading Co., company report - "' 

Stratton's Independence. Ltd.. Cripple Creek. Colorado 

75, 231. 423. 57.".. 658. 73.".. 822. 931, 100S 

Strike, Butte, Montana -''z 

Lake Superior district, cost of militia H a 

Stronck, H. N Scientific management of 

German Industries J>48 

Study in applied geology C. A. Stewart 10 

Suan Mining Co., Korea. Geological report nn the Collbran 

contact I' F. Hlgglns ?•> 

Success Mining Co.. Ltd.. Wallace, Idaho •••' ' 

Sugar refining and bagasse .' 

Sulitjelma. Norway '' 

Sullivan Machinery Co. air-compressor. tor-driven port- 

able •■■ ,,,, 

Auto-traction drill rigs »*, ■>-* 



Vol. 109 


Sullivan Machinery Co. channeling machines 124 

Compressor for Vindicator company 828 

■DP-33' rotator 937 

'Water piston' drill 876 

Sulphide and siderite in Leadville ore deposits — I. II 

Philip Argall 50, 128 

And siderite in Leadville ore deposits, a correction.... 

Philip Argall 148 

Enrichment, Secondary, of copper ores with special ref- 
erence to microscopic study. . . .Austin F. Rogers. . . . 680 
Ore, Treatment at Yuanmi mine, Western Australia.... 995 

Ores of antimony and arsenic, process for treating 149 

Sulphide Corporation, Central Zinc Co 304 

Sulpho-cyanides in cyanidation Harai R. Layng. 


Sulphur oil 18 

Production Editorial .... 87 

Texas 927 

Texas, deposits of southwestern .. .Clyde M. Becker.... 296 

United States production Editorial .... 87 

White Island deposit Editorial .... 903 

Ditto W. D. Hornaday . ... 913 

Sulphuric acid and petroleum refining 964 

Sumitoma mine, Japan Editorial. . . . 359 

Summerhayes, Maurice Continuous decantation at 

the Porcupine Crown mines 88 

Sun and earth, masses of 22 

Sunbeam mine, Utah 117 

Sunnyside mine, Sherlock, California 74 

Sunnyside Mines, Eureka, Colorado 461 

Sunset Mining & Development Co., Nevada 619 

Superior & Boston Copper Co., Copperhill, Arizona 

114, 229, 268 

Company report 973 

Superior & Pittsburgh Copper Co., Arizona 572 

Superior Copper Co., Michigan 232, 266, 736, 857 

Swansea Consolidated mine, Utah 117 

Sweden and Norway copper production 120 

Mining, and war 591 

Switch, oil. New high-voltage 166 

Switzerland, South American trade 792 

Sydvaranger property, Norway 924 

Symmes, Whitman Discovery of California potash.... 883 

Symons Brothers Co., disc crushers 708 

Table, sand, Double-deck Deister 

Tailing, cyanidation, Victoria, Australia 

Darrow treatment at Bunker Hill. .Frank Lawrance. . . . 

Dumps in the Peruvian Andes, Some 

Howland Bancroft.... 

Willow Creek district, Alaska, Cvaniding 

J. T. Terry, Jr. . . . 
Taisho national exposition at Tokyo. .Warren D. Smith.... 

Talc and soapstone. Virginia production 

Talisman mine, Karangahake, New Zealand 614, 

Tamarack & Custer Consolidated Mining Co., Idaho 

Tamarack Mining Co., Calumet, Michigan 

. 122, 232, 418, 655, 817, 

Tanganyika Concessions, Ltd., Progress and working costs. 

Tanganyika copper mines Robert Williams. . . . 

Tape 'threader,' metallic 

Tappets and stamps 

Taquah Mining & Exploration Co., Ltd., West Africa 

217, 814, 
Tasmania, dredging 

Gold production 

Hvdro-Electi ic Power & Metallurgical Co 

Mt. Lyell mine 808, 

Tin mining in James B. Lewis.... 

Taupiri Coal Co., New Zealand 

Ralph's mine explosion 

Taxation, mine, and the conference of tax officials 

H. A. E. Chandler. . . . 

Mining and co-operation of mining men . .Editorial. .. . 

Taxes, Getting land for, in California 

Tea leaves and Prussian blue 

Teck-Hughes mine, Kirkland Lake, Ontario. .. 233, 696, 970. 

And Nipissing 

Telephone, 'wireless,' Fife Coal Co., Scotland 

Temiskaming & Hudson Bay Mining Co., Cobalt, Ontario.. 

117, 159, 196, 702. 738, 779, 

Temiskaming Mining Co., Ltd., North Dome property 

Temperature, deposit formation 

Tennessee, coal production 

Metal production 

Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co., Birmingham. Ala- 
bama, mosquito elimination 

Tennessee Copper Co., Copperhill. Tennessee 

122, 208, 311, 458, 895, 969, 

Tennessee mine, Chloride. Arizona 

Terry, Jr., J. T. . . .Cyaniding tailing in the Willow Creek 

district, Alaska 

Tesora mine. Utah 

Texas, celestite deposits 

Cement production 

Coal production • 

Gas, natural, production 

Ichthyol 779, 


Ironstone, asphaltic deposits 

Metal production 

Mineral production 

Mineral reference book 

Mining in western 

Petroleum production 36, 4 66, 

Portland cement production .' 

Shatter, Cyanidation at 


Sulphur deposits of southwestern . .Clyde M. Becker.... 

Thawing frozen gravel, Yukon Gold Co 

Thermit weld of broken crank-stiaft 

Thistle-Etna Gold Mines. Ltd., Rhodesia 

Thomas, Kirby..Rand banket, Horwood replies to discus- 
























Thompson, William B„ activities 154 

And Federal Reserve Board 1002 

Thompson-Quincy Consolidated Mining Co., Park City. 

Utah 824, 895, 1010 

Thomson, H. G., and H. A. Morrison Operation of the 

Oliver filter in the Globe mill 554 

Thornhill, Bryant E Value of dredging ground. . . . 105 

Three R mine, Patagonia district, Arizona. K R. Probert. . . . 174 

Thum process, bismuth and copper separation 22 

Tiffany turquoise mines, New Mexico 702 

Tightner Mines Co., Alleghany, California 29 

Timber Butte Milling Co., Butte, Montana 461, 857 

Timber flumes 180 

Timbering contest, Bisbee, Arizona 114 

Tin and war 347. 704 

Australia deposits map 651 

Bolivia deposits Editorial. . . .585, 791 

Building a placer-mining dredge with electric power- 
plant in Portugal H. G. Peake. . . . 522 

Domestic production, Attempts at Editorial.... 790 

Dutch East Indies production 328 

England smelting industry and war 419 

Federated Malay States exports 844 

Federated Malay States industry 333 

Federated Malay States industry and Australian Jam.. 15 

Federated Malay States, mining in the 

E. J. Vallentine 473 

German Southwest Africa exports 299 

In the United States Editorial 470 

Mining and reduction and writers • 651 

Mining at the Briseis, Tasmania 248 

Mining in Tasmania James B. Lewis.... 65 

Nigeria production 580 

Prices.. 34, 35, 80, 120, 161, 198, 199, 235, 274, 313, 353, 387, 
388, 427, 465, 539, 540, 580, 622, 704, 739, 740, 781, 826, 

860, 898, 899, 934, 978, 1012 

Prices and war 694 

Prospective growth in output of 333 

Queensland production 961 

Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the metals 

Edwin C. Eckel 182 

Transvaal and low prices 500 

United States imports 647 

United States production 861 

Western Australia production 381, 647 

World production 15 

Tintic Coalition Mines Co., Utah, formed 737 

Tintic Standard mine, Utah 117 

Tires and motors 567 

Titanium Editorial .... 983 

United States production 861 

Titanium Alloys Manufacturing Co Editorial.. 

Titantic Gold Mining Co., South Dakota company report.. 

Titration results and solution control in cyaniding 

Harai R. Layng.... 

Results in cyanidation A. W. Allen .... 

Titus chlorination process 

Tolman, Jr., C. F Laboratory study of secondary 


Tomboy Gold Mines Co., Ltd., Colorado. . 231, 461, 658, 700. 

773. 822, 




Company report 706 

Tombstone Consolidated Mines Co., Arizona 

And Phelps, Dodge & Co 28. 

Tom Reed Gold Mines Co., Oatman, Arizona .. 114, 460, 734. 

Tongkah Compound, N. L., Victoria, Australia 

Tongkah Harbor Tin Dredging Co., N. L, Tasmania 

Tonopali Belmont Development Co.. Tonopah, Nevada.... 
116, 159, 351, 385, 425, 462, 503. 577, 622, 659, 702. 737. 

779. 823, 895, 898, 978. 

Surf Inlet mine, British Columbia 

Tonopah Cash Boy Consolidated Mining Co.. Nevada 

Tonopah Extension Mining Co. Nevada 31, 68, 76. 116. 

159, 232, 311, 351, 385, 425, 577. 619, 702, 737, 823, 895. 


And Tonopah Mining Co., Nevada 

Tonopah Merger Mines Co., Nevada 31, 

Companv report 

Tonopah Mining Co., Nevada ... .31. 159, 232, 311, 385, 503. 
539. 659. 702, 737, 823, 976, 978. 
And Panama Mining Co.. Nicaragua 732. 









And Tonopah Extension Mining Co 536 

Nicaragua property 578. 1011 

Reno mine-rescue contest 455 

Tonopah Placers Co.. Colorado 157, 735 

Breckenridge dredges 618 

Toronto, Ontario, harbor, sand 300 

Torpedo-Eclipse property. Colorado : 350 

Tough-Oakes, Ltd., Kirkland Lake. Ontario 

31, 159, 233, 267. 660. 696. S91 

Trade Commission 653 

And mining Editorial. . . . 279 

Trade, Developing foreign Editorial. ... 278 

Foreign Council Editorial. ... 16< 

Possibilities in Latin America Editorial review. . . . 792 

Ditto G. W. Wepfer S85 

Tramway, aerial, Venezuela 961 

Locked coil wire rope 1001 

Transvaal and Rhodesia Estates, Rhodesia 95'9 

Gold mines and war 946 

Gold production 72, 614. 1001 

Johannesburg rainfall 1001 

Production of companies 910 

Tin mining industry and low prices 500 

Traylor Engineering & Manufacturing Co., Anaconda slime 

concentrator 238 

Treadgold placers ^t< 

Treasure Mining & Reduction Co. foreclosed, Mogollon. 

New Mexico 976 

Treatment of sulphide ore at the Yuanmi mine, Western 

Australia 995 

Trego, Frank H.. Accident prevention v. compensation.... 691 

Trethewey Silver-Cobalt Mine, Ltd., Cobalt. Ontario 

159, 702. 101 ft 
Trlfonoff and Gardner process, sulphide ores of antimony 

and arsenic 149 

Vol. 109 



Trimountain mine, Copper Range Consolidated Co 

418, 424, 658, ST.", 

Trinity Asbestos Mining Co., California 535 

Trinity Consolidated Hydraulic Mining Co., California.... 575 

Tripoli and diatomaceous earth, United States production. . 23 6 

Trojan Mining Co., Trojan, South Dakota 112, 852 

Trona Corporation, California, potash production 974 

Trong Tin Mining Co 17 

True fissure veins H. C. Burton.... 452 

Ditto W. Prince Catlin.... 566 

Tube-mill feed 188 

Liner, New J. G. Mueller.... 255 

Practice and the hardness of ores W. B. Blvth. ... 93 

Short H. W. Hardinge 218 

Tubing for boilers 22 

Tungsten, California production 929 

California, San Bernardino county 821 

England and war 419 

Production and uses of O. J. Steinhart . . . . 64 

South Dakota production 853 

United States production 861 

Tunnel, Hoosac, Driving, and the lessons it taught 

P. B. McDonald 559 

Tuolumne Copper Mining Co 461 

Tuolumne Deep Channel Mining Co., California 930 

Tuolumne mine, Montana 659 

Turkey, copper production 120 

Turner Oil Co.. California 383 

Twin City Mining Co., Missouri 774 

Tyee Copper Co., Ladysmith. British Columbia 70, 689 

Type, small 'Rolling Stone'.... 187 

Umari Gold, Ltd., Philippine Islands 570 

Uncle Sam mine, Utah 117 

Underwriters Land Co.. Joplin, Missouri 458 

Union Basin Mining Co.. Arizona 229 

Union Consolidated Mining Co., Virginia City, Nevada. 385, 1009 

Union Construction Co., new portable drill 624 

Union Hill Mining Co., California 534 

Union of South Africa mineral production 72 

Unions, labor, and liberty Editorial.... 625 

Labor, Butte, Montana 189 

Labor, Butte, and mining companies Editorial.... 431 

United Copper Co., Chewelah, Washington 537, 660, 933 

United Globe Mines 68 

United Gold Mines Co., Cripple Creek, Colorado 75 

W. P. H. mine 535 

United Mine Workers of America and Western Federation 

of Miners 576 

Ditto Editorial 125 

United Ore Sampler, Utah 117 

United States Bureau of Mines — See Bureau of Mines. 

United States, foreign trade Editorial.... 239 

Industries 924 

Mineral products Imports 524 

Mineral reserves and war Editorial.... 391 

Production statistics — See production statistics. 

South American trade 792 

Tin in Editorial.... 470 

United States Geological Survey field men and Identification 

cards Editorial.... 667 

'Mineral Resources of the United States' and Congress' 

appropriation 109 

'Our Mineral Reserves — How to Make America Indus- 
trially Independent' Editorial.... 391 

Potash and the Samuel H. Dolbear 883 

Production statistics — See production statistics. 

United States Metals Refining Co., nodullzlng flue-dust... 223 

United States Smelting, Refining A Mining Co... 122, 530, 889 

Alaska Ebner property 153 

Needles Mining & Smelting Co., Arizona 1006 

United States Steel Corporation, Michigan Iron-ore dis- 
tricts and P. P. I. E 8S9 

United Tlntlc Mines Co., Silver City. Utah 117 

United Verde Copper Co., Jerome, Arizona 122. 269 

Copper Giant mine 534 

United Verde Extension Mining Co., Arizona 534, 657 

United Zinc Co.. Joplin. Missouri 457 

Sludge plant 535 

Upper Yenesel valley and adjacent Mongolia 

An occasional contributor.... 687 

Ditto Newton B. Knox 922 

Upper Yukon: Circle City, Eagle, and Woodchopper 

E. E. Hurja 887 

Uranium, United States production 648 

Uruguay, imports and exports 792 

Mineral resources 796 

Use of herringbone gears to drive Hardinge mills 759 

Of link-belts 40 

Utah. Bald Hills gold district strike 272 

Bingham Canyon lead 191 

Fortuna gold district 620 

Great Salt Lake salinity 567 

Low-grade ore treatment 25 

Map 895 

Metal production 705 

Mines dividends 824 

Mining and metallurgical Industries exhibit 702 

Mining In D. C. Jackllng 301 

Mining Industry 824 

Ozocerite 693 

Park City mines 824. 1010 

Park City mines bournonlte occurrence 463 

Portland cement production 38 

Salt Lake City Stock Exchange 976 

Silver-lead ores, smelting costs and prices 

L S Austin 170 

Smelter smoke decree Editorial. ... 865 

Snake Creek tunnel 352. 426. 620, 779. 976 

Tlntlc district mines 77. 117. 386, 660, 895, 976 

Utah-Apex Mining Co.. Utah 933 

Company report 273 

Utah Consolidated Mines Co.. Bingham, Utah.. 68, 154. 195, 208 

Utah Copper Co., Bingham, Utah.... 122, 191, 208, 233 
_.,.. 386, 427, 458, 694, 898! 

Ditto Editorial 

Company report 

Flotation '. 'Editorial' 

Leaching . Editorial 

Sunday holiday Editorial 

Ltah Fuel Co., Clear Creek mines 

Utah Minerals Concentrating Co. Utah 

Uwarra Mining Co., mill, Candor, North Carolina 

Andrew Walz 





Valdez Creek Placer Mines Co., Alaska 156 

Valdez Creek Power & Mines Co 

Vallentine, E. J Tin mining in the Federated Malay 


Valuation of dredging ground James T. Dixon] . 

P>tto H. N. Herrick 

Ditto C. S. Herzig 

Ditto L. J. Hohl 

,, , D . itto E. Bryant Thornhill 

\aluing placer ground R. C. Jennings.... 

Ditto Donald Steel .... 

Vanadium and uranium, United States production 

Van Gundy alloy 

Van Roi Mining Co., Ltd., Silverton, British Columbia!!!!! 

Van Ryn Deep, Ltd., Rand 

Veins, True fissure W. Prince Catlin .... 

Vemilla mine, Nevada 

Venezuela, aerial tramway .....!!!! 

Imports and exports 

Mineral resources 

Mining ir 

Ventilating fan, New !!!!!! 

Ventilation in the iron mines of the Lake Superior district 

Edwin Higgins. . . . 

Vermont and Pennsylvania metal production 

Mineral production 

Vernal Mining Co., Goldfield, Nevada 

Victor and Glasgow claims, Idaho 

Victor lease, Tlntlc, Utah 

Victor Power & Mining Co. and Midas Mining Co.... 194. 

Victoria, Australia, dredging 220. 529, 

Dredging and hydraulicking 

Gold production 

Melbourne district, map of 

Tailing cyanldatlon 

Victoria Copper Mining Co.. Michigan 

Victoria Consolidated Mining Co., Eureka. Utah 

Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power Co. v. Langlaagte Con- 
solidated. Rand 

Victorian state coal mine, Australia 

Victorious mine, Ora Banda, Western Australia 

Village Deep, Ltd., Rand 223. 

Village Main Reef Gold Mining Co., Ltd., Rand, earth tremor 

Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co.. Cripple Creek, 

Colorado. .75, 231, 270, 423. 535, 575. 618, 700, 894, 931. 

And Granite, Colorado, v. Teller county 


Mill Horace F. Lunt 

Vinegar Hill Zinc Co. Wisconsin, new development 

Viol, Charles H Production of radium in America. . . . 

Vipond Porcupine Mines, Ltd., Ontario 70S, 


Virginia, coal production 

Manganese deposits 

Metal production 

Mineral production 

Mineral production, 1913 Thomas L. Watson.... 

Rutile production 

Virginia-Louise Mining Co., Pioche. Nevada 

Viscosity, water, and slime settlement 

Vogelsteln, L Stabilization of the copper market .... 

Vogel8teln & Co.. L . tin statistics 

von Bernewltz M. W Blasting by wholesale.... 

Vulcan Detlnnlng Co., company report 

Vyver, Francis, death of 













Wade, W. Rogers. .. .Mining district of Pinos Altr 


Wages, Russia 

Wagner-Azurite Copper Co., Nevada 536, 

Waihi Consolidated and Waihl Reefs. New Zealand 

Walhl Gigantic Reef Consolidation. Ltd 

Waihi Gold Mining Co., Ltd.. New Zealand 366, 613. 815, 

Company report 

Ore treatment 

Transmission line 

Waihl Grand Junction Gold Co., Ltd., New Zealand. 366. 613, 

Company report 

Electric power 

Ore treatment 

Waihl-Paeroa Gold Extraction Co., Ltd., New Zealand. 

company report 

Waihi Reefs and Waihi Consolidated. New Zealand 

Walotahl mine, New Zealand 

Waldorf Consolidated Mining Co., Colorado 

Wales, zinc smelter plans Editorial.... 

Walker, Edward Real estate in London.... 

Wallace, R. B Method of mining at Republic mine. 

Republic, Michigan 

Walz, Andrew. .. .Uwarra mill. Candor, North Carolina.... 

Wanakah Mining Co.. Colorado 350. S22, 931, 

Wander Gold Mines, Ltd.. Rhodesia 

War and antimony 369, 

And Calgary. Alberta, oil boom 

And California mining 

And Cobalt mines 

And code addresses Editorial. . . . 

And copper mining In United States 

And copper shipments 530, 








34 5 





Vol. 109 


War and Cornish tin mining Editorial: '.'.'. 391 

And cyanide supply Muul 733 

And gold mining. Porcupine y -- 

And Honduras mining c 31 

And Lake Superior copper mines ,.,„ 

And Leadville district, Colorado 4 J 9 





And London Metal Exchange 
And manganese 
And magnesite 

And metals TSMiVnHai 

And mines Editorial.... 

And New Zealand mining „• v 

And nickel, Ontario Editorial 

And SeHefV American citizens in Europe. Editorial '. \ 

And silver : • 

And Swedish and Norwegian mines 

And tin • ■ • • : 

And Transvaal gold mines . ■••••■• pAitn'r'ia'l 

And United States business outlook Editorial. . . . 

And United States foreign trade Editorial. . . . 

-Mid United States mineral reserves Editorial.... 

And zinc situation • ■ • • ■ • ■ • ■ • • • V ' 

As it looks in London 362 394 «4 4^2^54 7, 

As seen in France 324 

Contrabands iJ-V-iii 418 

Effect on Lake Superior copper district ...... ••■••■ }i° 

Effects in Australasia ........ ■■■■■■ F, d firi 731 

England and copper export problem . „ . 08O. 615. ^31, l(u 

„,„. Editorial.... 543, 829, 939 

European lessons ' . . Editorial .... 54g 

Stocks and 41 5 

Zinc. Broken Hill • •. „„ q 

Warrior Copper Co., Globe, Arizona "» 

Wasatch Mines Co., Alta, Utah '..'.'..'.'.'. 463 

Wash-houses,' Iliinois coal mines. . . .... • ■ • • ^6 

Washington, p. C, Alaska coal-leasing bill »« 

Leasing bill • -a ■ •.•„■-■ •/ q v * iri' 9V7 1002 

Mining legislation 308, 421, 498, i>52, J- I, i»u- 

Mining legislation and war •pdHorial 12V 191 

Petroleum legislation Editorial no, 1 

Washington, mineral district „ 7 

Mineral production ,„ 

Portland cement production • • ■ g9g 

Republic mines ••••••••••• V "r" Morse ' 435 

Republic mining and milling ^. C. morse |ao 

Ruby district • on- 
United States Geological Survey map »9o 

Washington Water Power Co., Washington g j^ 

Power-lines ••••■• g'2'2 1008 

WartK^Moftana, Waste -heat' Steam" generation ,. . ' 340 

Wasp No 2 Mining Co., Lead, South Dakota 463, ,02, 852 





Waste in mines 

Water viscosity and slime settlement 

Waterman. Augustus, death of • • - • • • • ■ • 

Waterman Douglas. .. .Selective mining of orebodies. . . . 

^SV - 0r . e . deP0Sm . 0n .A , nd?e n w C^aw^oT 1 :.? 

Watson, Thomas L.Mineral production of Virginia, 1913 

Waugh 12-A drill •_•■•,•• - i 

Wealth of Nations mine, New Zealand £** 

Company report - 2 6 

COStS ■ q'<)V Q37 

Wedee mine, Colorado • VYY>;'i "' -Sc 

Weighing minute spheres of gold and silver. .J. I. Blair. . . . o26 

Weights, compensating, and wear of stamp shoes 496 

Welch Max J Mexican labor and its peculiar ties. .. . 597 

Welfare work among mine workers.. L. F. S. Holland i-n 

Well guarded sheave j>" 

Welland canal, Canada .... •• ^■.•'"•JA Q74 

Wellington Mines Co., Breckenridge, Colorado............ 9(4 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., First motion electric hoist.. 390 

Wenatchee Gold Mining Co., Washington 

Weringer Mines Co., California 

Wernicke-Hatcher Pump Co., rotary air-compressor 

West Africa, gold production ..2i(, »n 

West End Consolidated Mining Co. Tonopah. Nevada. _, 

V Jim Butler, Nevada '.....'.619, 702, 932, 976. 1009 

•West Hill Mining Co., Wisconsin 457, 81/ 

West Kootenay Power & Light Co., British Columbia, com- 
pany report 

West Virginia, coal production 

Ditto imU ' ral : . Pr0d " CUOn . .'.'.'.'.'. '• '• '■ '.'.'.•'•'.■.' Editorial WV. 
Petroleum production 36, 


Western Federation of Miners at Butte . ... ., ••■•••• ■f.W\* * 61 

Western Mining Co., Wolftone property, Leadyille. Colo- <M 

Western d Stat'es' Mining' & 'Development Co. . 230 

Western Union Mines Co., Republic, Washington 976 

Last Chance mine, Republic, Washington 702 

Western Zinc Mining & Reducing Co....... ••• »'» 

Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co., motors for 

driving Hardinge mills <" 

An ,iln(4nv fan %» 


New ventilating fan D 


Westwood Oil Co., Utah ■ • • 

Wewissa mine, Colorado °" 

WhatVthe matter w'ith'prospecii'ng'?'. '. '.CharlW Moore'. '.i ! 
Ditto ,• upeiator 




Pottery production 


Wheaton Mining Co., Yukon .... »i' 

Whim Well mine, Western Australia 697 

Whipple, James Ray, death of »» M 

Whitcomb, George p., death of_.. lv .. ■ -v.V;Ai - V.V iii 

White Caps mine, Manhattan Nevada.. 

White, island sulphur deposit. . . . . . . „ . .„ . ^Uorial. _ _ 



. .385, 503, 932, 1009 


vv. t->. nuinauaj . . • . Mlo 

White Pine' Copper cb:,' Ontonagon, Michigan 192, 576 

Whiting hoist ••■••■•, 'wrflYnrlal ' " 981 

■Who's Who n Mining • • • ■ • • ■ ■ •• • • • Editorial 981 

Wild Vest Mining Co., Cherry Creek Nevada. ........ . 159 

Wierum. Howard F Experimental development of the ^ 







Hall process . RaU proces8 

Wild Horse mine, Cripple' Creek,' Colorado 75. 231, 423, 575 
Williams Robert Progress and working costs, Tan- 
ganyika copper mines ..... . 

Wilson Consolidated Mining Co.,, Utah . . . . . .. . •••■■•• • • *^" 

Wilson, President, letter at American Mining Congress... 

Winch ' new electric : ; • ■ • • • • • 

Winchell A N. correspondence course, microscopic study 

of minerals and rocks Editorial 

Wind stresses ■ • • • ■ • • • ■ • y B V 

Winona zaz > 41s - &UvJ - 

Wire rope, locked coil 

Rope, true diameter • ■ 

Wisconsin, Highland district ochre 

Lead production by districts 

Platteville district, smithsonite .... j~- v., ••!;.• .y,- S? 

Platteville ore market 70, 30», 456, 616, 817, 

University of, microscopic study of minerals and rocks 

correspondence course . .... Editorial.... 

Zinc production by districts .0. 306. 4o6, t>16, 817, 

Wisconsin Zinc Co., Wisconsin »}l 

New plant 4i " 

Witwatersrand — See Rand. 

Witwatersrand Deep, Rand, sand filling 804 

Wolfram, Argentina, Rosario district exports 648 

Queensland production »*i 

Siam production '"J 

Wolframite, England and war U«-i.VJ-- 

Wolverine Copper Mining Co^^Kears^rge.^Michigan. ._ 

Company report HJiY ••■■••• 

Work for mining law revision Editorial .... 

Workmen's compensation George E. Bigelow 

Compensation again Editorial. ... 

Compensation, California, and Mine Owners Casualty 
Indemnity Exchange Editorial.... 

Compensation, California, insurance fund 

Compensation, California, insurance rates tumble . . . 


Compensation insurance in California Editorial.. 

Compensation merit rating Editorial.. 

Compensation v. accident prevention 

Frank H. Trego. . 

Wrangell, Alaska, mining district E. E. Hurja.. 

Wyandot mine, Michigan 









Wyoming, copper production i»' 

Gold production ■ ■ ■ "i 

Petroleum production ■>»• »*2 

Silver production \\' 

United States Geological Survey map ;»; 

Wind and Big Horn rivers placers o- 5 ' 


Western' Australia company dividends 614 

Contract work ° n i 

Cyanide and explosives and war 6» . 

Geological Survey ,■•••: B 7? 

Gold mining, men employed ... ...... .... 815 

Gold production 25, 198 499 Sol, 972 

Gold production decline Editorial 661 

Government custom mills ' 1* 

Hoisting accidents • - ■ • • 

Kalgoorlie geology ■>■ L. 

Kalgoorlie, shaft cages 

Labor party setback ■ ■ ■ ■ • • • » '- 

Labor troubles 21. 155. 381 

Labor union proposals . . • • • ■ • ■ • • • 881 

Labor unions and Chamber of Mines Editorial 85 

Machinery driving methods 881 

Mine inspection 84 J 

Mineral production 381 

Unions and higher wages 853 

Workers' Compensation Act and insurance premiums.. 37S 
Wrstern Electric Co. lead consumption .................. 889 

Western Federation of Miners and Butte Mine A\ orkers 

Union •, • • • •, 1°2 

And United Mine Workers of America. ........... . 576 

I ijtto Editorial . ... 125 




Yankee Boy Mining Co., Idaho JO, 

Yankee Consolidated Mining Co., Eureka, Utah Hi, 

Year. End of the Editorial 

Y'ellow Aster Mining & Milling Co., California, battery 

stem guides 

Yellow Jacket Gold & Silver Mining Co.. Nevada.... 

Yellow Jacket. Idaho, and Mandarin Mines Corporation.. i£ 

Yellow Tiger Mining Co.. Nevada 8-3 

Y'ellowhead Pass Coal Co., Alberta, Canada •• »' 3 

Yosemite Dredging & Mining Co.. California, jigs in gold 

dredging James ■« . Neill »£» 

You Bet Mining Co., California l »y' 

Young Men's Christian Association betterment work (i* 

Yuanmi Gold Mines, Ltd., W r estern Australia ■•■ 1n 8 l 

Company report ' "*' 

Contract work 


Treatment of sulphide ore 

Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields. California '-" 


4 63 

Yuba No. 11 dredge, California, robbery . 

Yuba No. 14 dredge los . 

Yucca Mining Co., Arizona 

Yukon, Klondike gold production 

Kluane district *j' 

Lode mining %- 

Territory mining ^ - ' 

Wheaton district : °j" 


White Horse 

Yukon Gold Co 

Chicago Bench suit • ■ • ■ • • ; • 

Operations of Emil Edward Hurja 


Vol. 109 MINING PRESS 27 

Page. Page. 

Zinc. Nevada production 


New Mexico production 70 705 

Zellweger roasting furnace 46 Plattevllle o re market . . 70 305, 456, 616; 817 

Zinc and war 3S2 

Prices 34. 35, 80, 120, 161, 198, 199, 235, 274, 313, 353! 

!C hmu wii 00- 3S7. 3SS, 427, 456, 465, 539, 540, 5S0, 622, 662 704 739' 

Arizona production p^iY^ViVi n-t < 4S . 781, 826. 860, 898, 899 934 97s! 1012 

Belgium production Editorial 2,8 Production, annual 305 

Blende. Joplin district production 35i Relative natural and commercial scarcity of the metals 

California production 319. 929 Edwin C. Eckel.. is" 

Carbonate of, smithsonite, Plattevllle district. Wis- Retort smelting 300 

consin 693 Situation C. E. Siebenthal 354 

Colorado production 231, 1 0.i Smelters, Kansas and Oklahoma 530 

Curtailment Editorial.... 829 Smelting practice of the Middle West. . E. H. Leslie. .. . 

Double cvanid«, as solvent 529 44, 136. L >01, 280, 395, 475 

Dust. American smelters Editorial. ... 2, , Smelting. Progress in Editorial. . . . 469 

Dust prices 16.; Smithsonite, English and American meanings 

Eastern states production : > v Editorial. . . . 940 

England smelting 304 Spelter, manufacture and properties 

Exports !'26 George C. Stone .... 751 

Germany production Editorial.... 2,x Texas production si :• 

Idaho production 231 1'nit.d States production 454. S61, 921 

Japan production Editorial.... 16, Ditto Editorial.... 27x 

Joplin district and Australian ores Editorial.... 6 '5 Wales smelter plans Editorial.... 9S1 

Kansas production "05 Wet concentration recovery 3411 

Midyear spelter statistics C. E. Siebenthal.... 214 Wisconsin production by districts 306. 97" 

Missouri production 661 Zinc Corporation. Ltd., New South Wales, company report 

Montana production 30. 705 315, 707 

July 4, 1914 




If. W. von BERN'EWITZl 
THOMAS T. READ. New York - 
T. A. RICKARD. London - 


Assistant Editors 

Associate Editor 

Editorial Contributor 

- Correspondent 


A. W. Allen. 
Leonard S. Austin. 
Gelasio Caetani. 
Courtenay De Kalb. 
F. Lynwood Garrison. 

Charles Janin. 
James F. Kemp. 
F. H. Morley. 
,C. W. Purington. 
C. F. Tolman, Jr. 

Horace V. Winehell. 

READERS will find the table of contents formerly on 
this page, upon the second white page in the paper. 
The new arrangement will allow more space both for the 
table itself and for editorial matter. 

DECISION of the suit of the Kennedy Extension 
Mining Company against the Argonaut Mining 
Company has been rendered and is favorable to the 
Argonaut. The points at issue were briefly discussed 
in our issue of January 17, and a full summary of this 
important case will follow. 

Cabrera are prominent among these named at the 
Niagara Falls conference as possible successors of 
Huerta. As both are Constitutionalists, it is hardly 
likely that Huerta will accept them and as Carran/a 
has ambitions of becoming president, neither can count 
upon his support. 

/CALIFORNIA mine operators will welcome the an- 
^- 4 nouncement that the Mine Owners Casualty In- 
demnity Exchange has been organized in order to re- 
duce the cost of workmen's compensation insurance 
through cooperation of the mine operators. This is a 
matter in which we take much interest and that we 
propose to discuss fully next week. In the meantime 
inquirers can get full information at the offices of the 
new company in the First National Bank building. San 

ALASKANS were especially interested in the de- 
■**- cision of the case of Likaits t\ Johnson construing 
the Alaska placer act ami reported in our issue of .June 
6. The case arose over use of a power of attorney to 
locate placer ground. Another case -was that of Suther- 
land v. Purdy, reported in May. Briefly, the new law 
requires that power of attorney, to lie effective in placer 
location, must be recorded within the judicial district 
in which it is used and limits its use to two locations in 
any one month. In the one case the recording was not 
done until after the location was made, though before 
the second locator filed on the claim, a fact perhaps not 
made sufficiently clear in our abstract. The court held 
that the order of the acts was immaterial in view of the 
good faith shown and the climatic and geographical con- 
ditions faced. In the second case the record was im- 

properly made but has held to be good none the less. 
The judge held that, having in view the actual conditions 
in the field, when a locator deposits his documents in 
the proper recording office and pays the recording fee, 
later receiving the documents back bearing the endorse- 
ment of record, he is not liable for any errors or neglect 
of the recorder. These are sensible business-like de- 
cisions in line with the general rule that the mining law 
is to be interpreted in accordance with the conditions 
as they are rather than as they might be. 

r PIIE NATOMAS fiasco points again to the moral we 
-*- have often preached ; namely, the sound economic 
basis of the work of independent engineers. The men of 
the regular staff of the Natomas are highly qualified, but 
human nature is not to be denied, and as vendors we all 
see most keenly the strong points of what we have to sell. 
We have previously referred to mistakes made by the 
consulting engineer who in this case acted for the Lon- 
don bondholders. lie has replied in the Press and also 
in a special report to the stockholders by urging that he 
merely accepted figures given him by the men on the 
ground. The very fact that his having done so has in- 
volved him in the necessity of making elaborate explana- 
tions and excuses, is the best of arguments against an 
engineer in any such situation accepting critical data at 
second hand. 

/CREATION of a petroleum division in the I*. S. I!u- 
^ reau of Mines and appointment of Mr. W. A. Wil- 
liams to be its chief, is in some ways the most important 
move made by the United States government in its re- 
lation to petroleum production in many months. The 
new division is to have charge of all technologic work 
connected with oil on the public and Indian lam Is. As 
owner of large areas in the midst of productive fields. 
and of even larger tracts of potential oil land, the (Jov- 
crnment has a direct interest in securing the most 
economical development and the maximum yield. Waste 
of gas and flooding of oil sands is as serious when on 
public as on private land. In Oklahoma, too. the Secre- 
tary of Interior, as guardian for the Indians, has heavy 
responsibilities in connection with actual production of 
gas and oil. and if oil is to be produced from public 
lands by lease or otherwise for the navy, to say nothing 
of proposals that the Government should build pipe- 
lines, there is every reason why the Department should 


July 4, 1914 

have on its staff men who really know the oil business. 
Petroleum producers have complained, not without justi- 
fication, that in the past, government action has been too 
often uninformed, or based upon half knowledge. Mr. 
"Williams is a thoroughly competent oil man, a graduate 
of Stanford University and experienced through service 
with the Associate and General Petroleum companies. 
He has the confidence of California operators and may 
be expected to win that pf Eastern petroleum producers 
as they come to know him. It is understood that $60,000 
is available for beginning his work and an amendment 
to the sundry civil bill has been introduced increasing 
this sum to $200,000. 


Plans for relieving Natomas Consolidated of Califor- 
nia from financial difficulties have been worked out in 
London and were announced in San Francisco, June 
18. In the interest of the new plan, an appeal is 
being made to bondholders by a committee consisting 
of Messrs. Frank B. Anderson, Herbert Fleishacker. 
Percy T. Morgan, George E. Webber, and Curtis II. 
Lindley ; certainly a list of weighty names. Among 
those active in formulating the plan in London were 
Mr. Herbert C. Hoover and others of equal standing. 
Nonetheless opposition has appeared, being voiced by 
MeCutchen, Olney, and Willard, and a formidable re- 
volt on the part of bondholders is not improbable. When 
a company having a liberal number of conflicting secur- 
ities gets into financial difficulties, it is hardly to be 
expected that any plan for reorganization will be ac- 
cepted without protest. The very condition that makes 
reorganization necessary, implying as it does some fail- 
ure or miscarriage of plans, requires that there shall 
be some sacrifice in order to offset it. With security- 
holders having unequal interests, it is natural that 
each should try to save for himself what he can, and 
equally inevitable that the other parties in interest, if 
informed and vigilant, should protest. There is abun- 
dant room for difference of opinion, and it is possible 
to discuss these differences, we hope, without imputing 
to anyone more than the normal desire to save what 
he may for himself. 

It is proposed to organize a new company and to 
issue $3,000,000 in five-year notes; $16,500,000 in 20- 
year. 6 per cent, first mortgage bonds, using $4,500,000 
of these to secure the five-year notes ; $7,250,000 in non- 
cumulative stock; and $9,250,000 in common stock. The 
right is reserved to pay the first five years interest on 
the bonds in bonds of the same series, and $2,500,000 
of the issue is held for that purpose. A new English 
company capitalized at £600,000 is to be formed to 
hold the common stock. The securities are to be dis- 
tributed as follows: The Natomas Syndicate will buy 
the $3,000,000 issue of notes for $2,700,000. and the 
common stock. Each holder of $1000 of the first mort- 
gage bonds of the present, Natomas company will re- 
ceive $600 in the new bonds and $400 in preferred stock. 

Eacli holder of $1000 of second mortgage bonds will 
receive $500 in preferred stock and £5 in the stock 
of the English company. Each holder of $100 of stock 
in Natomas Consolidated will receive £1 in stock of 
the English company. The floating debt creditors will 
surrender their securities and take 90-day notes or the 
new five-year notes at 90 cents. Since the floating debt 
amounts to $1,088,000 and the debt to the Natomas 
Syndicate is $1,213,000, it is evident that but little 
additional cash will become available under this arrange- 
ment. The plan proposed is peculiar in that floating 
debt creditors and holders of junior securities, in return 
for the advancement of a relatively small amount of 
additional capital, are to be given preference over first- 
mortgage bond holders. The latter are asked to con- 
sent to receive further bonds in lieu of interest for 
the next five years. This payment of interest on bonds 
by issuing more bonds is strongly reminiscent of the 
nursery rhyme: 

Big bugs have little bugs to bite 'em; 

Little bugs have littler bugs, 
And so on ad infinitum. 

If, indeed, a plan has been found by which interest 
on debts can be met by merely creating more debts, a 
delightful field for financing is opened. Seriously, how- 
ever, this but postpones the day of reckoning and adds 
to the interest charge. In the meanwhile, the handling 
of the property will be in the control of those who 
have a minor interest, and in five years the best part 
of the most nearly liquid asset, the gold reserves, will 
be gone. Whether the market for land will have im- 
proved enough to offset this is a question. 

The serious matter, the one of general interest, is 
the light regard paid to the first mortgage bonds. Na- 
tomas bonds have been endorsed as suitable for in- 
vestment of trust funds by bankers standing high in 
the business world. Now they are swept aside to give 
piled-up security to those who advance money on short- 
time notes. Incidentally, it develops that by reason of 
the issue of reclamation bonds, the first mortgage bonds 
are in fact now junior securities. No wonder that it 
was found difficult to make this clear to British bond- 
holders. It is far from lucid to many nearer the home 
of the Company. 

The men and the banks that advanced money this 
spring to save Natomas from a receivership have a 
strong claim for preference in the reorganization. By 
certain of the directors at least, personal securities were 
advanced to save the Company credit. No adjustment 
can be satisfactory that does not take into account such 
claims. But the bondholders also have equities, and 
back of that is the public interest. There can be no 
question but that public confidence in Western securities 
will be seriously injured if Natomas bonds are set aside 
in this fashion. A bond should stand for something. 
If as a matter of fact it lias come to represent nothing 
definite, it will be hard hereafter to sell bonds, as it 
is now hard to sell stocks, and industry will suffer. 

It is difficult to determine the real present value of 

July 4, 1914 


the various Natomas securities. The concern is an un- 
usual enterprise. In part it is founded on gold-dredg- 
ing and in part it is a land reclamation scheme. How- 
ever, speaking in a large way, it is not the land dredged 
for gold that is being reclaimed by drainage and irri- 
gation. The scheme is much more ingenious than that. 
Briefly. 9501 acres of gold-dredging land, valued Decem- 
ber 31, 1913. at $14,433,532, and estimated by the Com- 
pany engineers to contain $10,250,634 net. forms the 
basis of a profitable industry which, with subordinate 
sums from sale of crushed rock and subsidiary enter- 
prises, has been paying interest on bonds issued to ob- 
tain funds for reclaiming valley lands immediately 
north of Sacramento. In the end it has been planned 
that the reclaimed lands should be sold at such prices 
as to afford a profit on the whole enterprise. 

The plan has many excelled features. Oold-dredging 
is a profitable but short-lived enterprise. A gold-dredg- 
ing field may be quickly equipped and brought into 
production, and, while the dredging ground lasts, the 
income will be sufficient to carry a large bond issue, 
such as is necessary to finance a reclamation project 
through the long lean years while the land is being 
brought under cultivation and sold. It has the inherent 
difficulty that it combines two dissimilar enterprises, 
both of which are speculative. A speculative enterprise, 
to assure success, requires special knowledge and 
close attention, and it is a rare thing for a manager, 
or even a group of managers, to handle dissimilar busi- 
nesses equally well. As noted by The Mining Maga- 
zine, there is even a movement now toward having 
boards of consulting engineers instead of one for com- 
panies' engaged exclusively in mining and closely re- 
lated industries, and it is a well known fact that min- 
ing companies only in the rarest instances make money 
from such agricultural lands as they chance to own. 
On the other hand, farmers as mine managers have 
become a byword. To combine gold-dredging and farm- 
ing is simply to invite disaster. 

And disaster came. "We have repeatedly directed at- 
tention to the fact that estimates made by the Natomas 
management and the Company's consulting engineer 
have proved sadly out. The gold-dredging ground 
owned by the Company has long been known to lie valu- 
able, but much of it is cemented and hard to dig. Build- 
ing a dredge to handle it, necessarily involved an on 
perimental element. It is true, probably, that, the final 
outcome is even yet not wholly certain, since the 
dredges, large and strong as they are, are subjected to 
unusually heavy strains, and it is too soon to say what 
their life will bo and what is a proper amortization 
charge. They arc magnificent dredges and are perform 
ing well, but operating costs for short periods are often 
deceptive. Delay in equipping the ground with a full 
fleet is the obvious cause of the disaster that has over- 
taken the Company; the gold has come from the ground 
too slowly and in too small amounts, while all the time 
interest charges were mounting and engineering expenses 
in connection with the land reclamation wen- to be 

met. Re-designing and re-building the dredges was in- 
evitable, although the main lines have not been changed ; 
this, together with a most unusual sequence of fire loss 
and wrecks, has been responsible for the delay. The 
fact that it was not anticipated, throws a shadow over 
the judgment of the engineers concerned and causes 
bondholders to question everything. This attitude is 
reinforced by such circumstances as that Mr. E. J. de 
Sabla, in speaking before the bond and stock holders in 
London in 1911, estimated the profit for 1913 at $2,000,- 
000; in fact the total was $1,151,887. The net yield 
from gold-dredging for last year was estimated at 
$1,350,000, and proved to be $992,366. It is a brave 
tale of optimistic venture, but a sorry one of estimates 
and performance. 

It is even more difficult to form an estimate of the 
value of the lands being reclaimed. In round numbers 
there are 28,000 acres of irrigated lands and 60,000 
of reclamation lands. Mr. de Sabla said, in the ad- 
dress quoted, that the land had cost about $25 per acre. 
This, however, makes but a small fraction of the amount 
realized from sale of bonds alone, about $8,500,000, and 
there are still heavy payments on land to be met. That 
reclamation of land is itself profitable as well as good 
for the state in which the land lies, has been abundantly 
proved; provided always that the land be well chosen, 
the engineering and the estimates sound, and the mar- 
ket reasonably certain and near in point of time. The 
best lands go begging at. times and in places, and in- 
terest on money spent in throwing up embankments 
and putting in drains and irrigating ditches may well 
eat up the profit on the work if the sale of the land 
be slow. 

Another factor that is not always sufficiently con- 
sidered is that mere reclamation of land is not all. The 
expense of preparing it for crops, the building of houses, 
barns, and fences is considerable, and must all be fig- 
ured into the cost. It must either be done by the ven- 
dor or its cost deducted from the price that would 
otherwise be paid by purchaser. It is not possible to 
sell land, in any large way, except upon terms that 
permit the purchaser to earn good interest on his in- 
vestment, and it is not always possible to sell even 
good land promptly. A recent investigation showed 
that in California the mere cost of selling lands absorbs 
4-0 per cent of the price realized, and the notable failure 
of California to attract settlers rapidly can undoubt- 
edly be laid to the absurd overvaluation of (lie lands 
on the market. An individual may make satisfactory 
returns from a few acres devoted to some special crop, 
but a state as large as France with only two-fifths of 
its population on the farms, must be content to attract 
settlers on an "alfalfa basis." Improved lands of equal 
value can be bought in Europe today. for less than is 
being asked in California, while in Canada. Australia, 
and other new countries settlers are offered the choice 
iif excellent lands at prices still lower. These are facts 
that must be taken into account when it is proposed to 
reclaim and market anv such area as SO. 000 acres. We 


July 4, 1914 

would not pose as an expert on agricultural lauds. We 
understand that some Natomas land is of high value; 
some doubtless is not worth the money spent reclaim- 
ing it. Such inequalities are inevitable when great areas 
are included in a single project. How much is good 
and how much bad, we do not know, nor are we aware 
of any certain information available to the public or 
the bondholders answering this question. According 
to the Natomas report of December 31, last, a few 
acres have been leased for a cash rental of $10 per acre, 
though the larger amount leased is at $2.64 per acre. If 
all the irrigated and reclamation land be leased at $10 
per acre cash rental, the return would still be less than 
enough to pay 6 per cent interest on the valuation 
placed on the reclamation lands alone. This would 
leave it necessary for the gold-dredging properties, val- 
ued by the directors at $14,000,000, but now estimated 
to contain about $10,000,000 net. of winch the present, 
value is perhaps half that amount, to care for amor- 

It is difficult to see how the bonds are ever to be 
paid in full except by the fortuitous influx of an un- 
heard of number of land buyers willing to pay top 
prices and do it quickly. This may be too pessimistic 
a view. If so. it is because adequate engineering studies 
either have not been made or their results are not avail- 
able to bondholders. Indeed, what is most wanted is 
more light upon the whole matter. The reorganization 
committee may indeed be proposing the only possible 
plan, but the Company is paying dear for a relatively 
small amount of money, and it is probable that if the 
whole property were examined and full information 
given, competition woidd be invoked and better terms 
could be made. At any rate, bondholders are now very 
much in the dark and are asked to act upon informa- 
tion that is entirely inadequate. They should look be- 
fore they leap. 


The movement of over $60,000,000 in gold bars and 
coin from the United States to European countries in 
the past six months has given rise to general interest 
and discussion. So far as this country is concerned, 
this unusual movement does not seem fraught with any 
profound or sinister significance. The gold reserves of 
the world are a fluid medium, flowing from the points 
where the pressure is higher to where it is less, and 
the movement in one direction at a given time may 
be speedily followed by a reverse flow a short time later. 
We buy large quantities of merchandise from foreign 
countries; we sell even larger quantities to them in 
return. Large sums must lie annually paid to Euro- 
pean investors for interest on their holdings in this 
country, and if the investors wish to leave the money 
here for investment in new securities, or it' they wish 
to 'take out in trade" our indebtedness to them, inter- 
national dealings will be marked by large exports of 
goods from the United States and small exports of 

specie. On the other hand, if European investors re- 
duce their purchases from us and show a desire to 
receive their interest return in specie for employment 
at home, merchandise exports will fall off and specie 
exports will increase. Such a situation exists at the 
present time. The uncertain effect of the basic legisla- 
tion affecting industry now under consideration at 
Washington, the possibility of a crisis this autumn 
when the movement of crops of record size makes its 
annual strain on the financial situation here, and the 
unfortunate experiences which European holders of 
American railroad securities have gone through in the 
past few years, all tend to discourage investment of 
European money in the Tinted States at this time, while 
imports of European merchandise have been stimulated 
by the recent decrease in the import tariffs. 

There are other factors in Europe which enter into 
the situation as well. The specie holdings of the banks 
in Russia have been increased by $92,500,000 in the 
past year, standing at $902,113,000 on May 21. The 
holdings in Germany have been increased to almost an 
equal amount and now stand at a sum approximately 
one-half that of the banks in Russia. The adjustment 
of the Balkan trouble resulted in the practical removal 
of Turkey from Europe, but at no marked advantage 
to Russia; a country which urgently needs to gain 
an outlet to the Mediterranean sea. through the absorp- 
tion of the territory which stands in her path, or 
otherwise. Russia has recently made a tremendous in- 
crease in the peace footing of her army, and there are 
those who see in these events the imminent possibility 
of war between Russia and Germany, the latter coun- 
try being a strong factor in the political readjustment 
recently concluded in the Balkan peninsula. This view 
is certainly not without the bounds of possibility, 
though we profess no such familiarity with the inner 
workings of the chancelleries of Europe as would per- 
mit us to express a well informed opinion. Austria 
has also made large increases in her specie holdings, 
possibly also in preparation for war, as Austria would 
inevitably be drawn into such a conflict. In France a 
national loan of $350,000,000 has been authorized to 
provide, among other things, for military expansion, and 
the French banks have been building up their gold re- 
serve in preparation. All in all. Europe does not seem 
at the present moment a desirable feeding ground for 
the dove of peace. In the face of these conditions, 
the reserves of the Rank of P^ngland have shrunk some 
$6,000,000 in the past year, although the receipts of 
bar gold and coin in England for the year ended in 
April amounted to $300,000,000. The view generally 
expressed in New York financial circles is that the pres- 
ent movement of gold to Europe practically came to an 
end with the shipments of specie which arrived in Eu- 
rope in time for the interest payments due on July 1. 
Those who think the business situation in America one 
of extreme difficulty have at least the consolation that 
the clouds on our financial horizon are not so threaten- 
ing as those on the other side of the Atlantic. 

Julv 4. 1!I14 


eftfiaodls ©if T@§ftiini£ Flaceir Gravels 


In the bonanza days of 'placer raining, when only 
such gravel tracts as were of 'picture book' value were 
worked, with a no greater monetary outlay than was 
necessary to build a few sections of sluice box and 
purchase tools, a very rough pan sampling sufficed to 
determine whether the gold was present in paying 
quantities. These days, however, have passed and the 
present day placer miner is forced to consider the lower 
grade gravels. To operate low-grade deposits at a 
profit requires the erection or purchase of plants cost- 
ins; many thousands of dollars. With large sums in- 
volved and the lowness of grade to be considered, the 
examining engineer of today has a much greater re- 
sponsibility thrust upon him. To meet these new con- 
ditions more scientific and accurate systems for testing 
have been evolved, which are the outcome of years of 
experiment and experience. Where, in the early days, 
assays were stated in dollars, they are now estimated 
in cents per cubic yard, and a few cents difference, one 
way or the other, may mean the success or failure of an 
enterprise involving the investment of large sums. 

On many occasions I have been asked such questions 
as the following: 'Of what degree of accuracy are 
gravel tests?' 'How closely will the estimated gravel 
value, as determined by examination, check with actual 
value, as found by operation?' To answer questions of 
this nature without an intimate knowledge of the tract 
to be tested is to a certain extent impossible. In such 

case, one can hut refer to the results of operating < - 

cerns. each operation having its own peculiar condi- 

Estimated and Actual Vai.ik 

Before proceeding with a discussion of this subject, 
it would probably be advisable to explain the sense 
in which the terms "estimated value' and 'actual value" 
are used. I'.y 'estimated value', is here meant the value 
per cubic yard of the gravel as determined by a series 
of tests. From this is deducted a certain varying per- 
centage for loss in operation, the result being the esti- 
mated value of the gravel in dollars and cents. "Actual 
value' is the value per cubic yard as computed from the 
gross bullion return and the yardage treated. 

Theoretically, 'estimated value' and 'actual value' 
should be the same, but in practice there is found to lie 
a varying percentage of difference. This variation is 
dependent upon many factors, one or more of which 
may be the determining cause of the variation in any 
given case, such as local topography, character of metal 
content, character of gravel, presence of water, and 
methods of testing. Yet. even with these changing con- 
ditions, a certain uniform ratio should be maintained 
by adapting the method of testing to local conditions, 
that is. the method of testing one tract of gravel would 

not necessarily apply to another. It is here that the 
personal equation enters into the question: the exper- 
ience of tlie examining engineer, together with his 
faculty for judging conditions, goes a long way toward 
reducing the difference between 'estimated' and 
"actual' value. I shall briefly review the several meth- 
ods generally used in testing placer deposits, and at- 
tempt to show what degree of reliability may reasona- 
bly be expected from each, as inferred from experience 
in placer mining examinations in both North and South 

Preliminary Tan Tkstixu i|""i 


This method is used primarily for determining the 
gold content of a gravel deposit to learn if it will justify 
further and more careful testing. 

The only tools necessary are a standard gold pan. a 
pick, a shoved, and a two-foot rule or steel tape line. 
The fundamental requirement, however, is one that the 
engineer himself must possess, namely, the knowledge 
requisite to estimate accurately by observation the 
number of pans of gravel that will equal a cubic yard 
in place. The number of pans, filled evenly with the 
top, which will constitute a cubic yard in place varies 
from 120 to ItiO, depending upon the degree of coarse- 
ness or fineness of the material. About loll or ItiO pans 
of sand are required to make a cubic yard, while for a 
very coarse gravel, not more than 20 or 30 are re- 
quired. An average gravel runs about 60 or 70 pans to 
the cubic yard. It is upon this point that the secret of 
obtaining accurate results largely depends, and this 
knowledge comes only from field experience and ex- 
periment. The bank in question may be dealt with ;is 
a whole and a figure representing the number of pans 
to the cubic yard determined, or if there is a very de- 
cided variation in the character of the material, as is 
sometimes the case, it may be treated by strata, in 
which event each stratum will have its own factor to 
he applied when that particular stratum is tested. 

The method of procedure is as follows: Clean off ;i 
face on the bank, say two feet in width and extending 
from bedrock to top, removing the gravel to ;it least 
li or 8 inches in depth. This is a precaution that should 
always be observed if accurate results are desired. In 

case of leaching or surfai iicentration, this method 

insures more correct results, and if there should have 
been an attempt to salt the gravel, it tends to prevent 
fraud. For this work - , in some cases, it will he conven- 
ient to have a ladder, or it may even be necessary to 
use ji rone, allowing one's self to be raised or lowered 
from above. If the test is to be rough, the samples may 
be taken in a succession of steps ;it easily accessible 
points. Should this method be used, care must lie taken 
not to skip sections of the bank or to overlap, a feature' 


July 4. 1914 

which it is especially necessary to guard against. Gold, 
owing to the manner of its deposition, has a very, 
marked tendency to lie in longitudinal streaks, more 
or less paralleling the bedrock. These streaks may 
sometimes be exceptionally rich and, yet be not more 
than one or two inches in thickness, hence missing or 
overlapping will give false results. It is advisable 
when removing the outside gravel to leave the face as 
smooth and even as the character of the gravel will 
permit, thus greatly facilitating the taking of the sam- 

Sam it. inc. 

"When the gravel face has been satisfactorily prepared, 
start on bedrock and measure up one foot, putting a 
small wooilen peg at that point, then, holding the pan 
on the bottom so as to catch all loosened gravel, start 
to remove the sample by means of a small pick, work- 
ing from the bottom up to the height marked by the 
pec The sample should be taken up and down the 
first foot section in as nearly a straight line as the 
formation will permit, care being taken that an equal 
quantity of the gravel is removed from all portions 
along the line of the cut. This method prevents ob- 
taining a false result which would ensue from taking 
too much or too little of any rich streak that might be 
present. Take sufficient gravel to fill the pan evenly, 
allowing all rocks which may be included to remain 
in the pan. 

The full pan of gravel is then taken to a convenient 
pool and carefully panned, colors being counted. 
Record the number of colors, position of the sample, 
and the estimated number of pans to the cubic yard for 
that particular stratum. Sample the next foot in a 
similar manner, continuing the work until the bank has 
been sampled a foot at a time. "When the sampling 
is completed, a small cut will have been taken from 
top to bottom. 

If the gravel in the bank is fairly uniform and is to 
be treated as a whole, the colors from each successive 
foot may be put together in a small vessel for weigh- 
ing, but if on the other hand, the bank has been divided 
into several strata, all colors from the same stratum 
should be put together, each stratum being figured 

The calculating of results is simple. The gold ob- 
tained is carefully cleaned and weighed and its value 
in dollars and cents determined. This sum is then 
divided by the number of pans taken and the result' 
multiplied by the estimated factor which gives the 
value per cubic yard for the bank. The following is 
an example taken from actual work. The bank in this 
instance was 10 ft. high, and from it 10 pans were 
taken. The gold recovered weighed 30.4 mg. with value 
for this locality of 1.76c. or 0.176c. per pan. 1 estimated 
70 pans to the cubic yard, giving a bank value of 12.3c. 
per cubic yard. The following may be given as another 
example in which it was found necessary to sample 
1he separate strata owing to a very considerable dif- 
ference in thi' character of the gravel. Height of bank 

35 ft. divided into two strata of 14 and 21 ft. in thick- 
ness; for the 14-ft. stratum 40 pans to the cubic yard 
was allowed and 70 for the 21-ft. stratum; weight of 
gold obtained from the 14-ft. stratum 160 mg. with 
value of 9.25c. ; fourteen pans were taken giving a 
value of 0.66c. per pan to which, applying the esti- 
mated factor of 40. gave a stratum value of 26.4c. per 
cubic yard. For the 21-ft. stratum the gold recovered 
weighed 64 mg. with value of 3.7c, giving a pan value 
of 0.18c, multiplying this by 70 gave a value of 12.6c. 
per cubic yard for the stratum. Now, to obtain a cor- 
rect bank value the above results are averaged taking 
into account value and thickness of strata as follows: 

14 X 0.264 : 
21 X 0.126: 

: 3.696 
: 2.646 

35 6.342 

6.342 --.- 35 = 18.12c. per cubic yard, value of the bank 
from top to bottom. 

This method of testing, while rough, if carefully done 
will give fairly accurate results, as evidenced by the 
following: On one occasion I sampled a 17-ft. bank 
by the above pan method, obtaining a value for the 
gravel of 6.5c per cubic yard. A few days later this 
same bank was tested with a carefully measured cut 
from top to bottom, washing, by means of a rocker 
127.8 cu. ft. of gravel (measured in place) from which 
was obtained a result of 6.0c. per cubic yard. On sev- 
eral other occasions where I have checked my testing, 
results have been obtained which checked within one 
or two cents, showing that a fair degree of reliance 
may be placed on this method of preliminary samp- 

Advantages of Pax Testing 

Pan testing is particularly useful in that it tends 
greatly to reduce the time and expense necessary for 
making a preliminary examination of an extensive 
territory. It enables an engineer to eliminate quickly 
those areas which are of too low grade to be considered. 
The saving in expense alone makes this method worthy 
of special consideration. I found, in the tropics, that 
with an assistant and possibly a native to carry pick 
and shovel. I could go over and test an extensive area 
of gravel in a single day. determining what parts 
should be abandoned and picking out those worthy of 
a more thorough examination. Often it would be 
found that whole areas did not deserve a second visit. 
To prospect this same area by one of the more elabor- 
ate methods would necessitate the transporting of rock- 
ers, tools, and other paraphernalia to the scene of the 
work, the employing of from five to ten natives with 
one or two extra white men to make the cuts and run 
the rockers, besides consuming from five to ten days 
in the performance of the work. The result of all such 
labor, time, and expense would merely prove that the 
gravel was not of sufficient value to warrant con- 
sideration. It is needless to demonstrate further the 
saving in dollars and cents that mav be effected bv 

July 4, 1014 


a thorough knowledge of the pun method of preliminary 

Among the more thorough and reliable methods of 
testing, the next in order is somewhat analogous to 
the pan method, though considerably more exact in its 
results. It is that of measured cuts. Under ordinary 
conditions, if carefully done, this method is probably 
the most trustworthy, giving results as accurate as 
those obtained from actual placer operations. By this 
method the gold contained in a known volume of 
gravel, measured in place, is ascertained by careful 
washing. There are no uncertain factors to determine 
or estimate, such as the expansion in volume of gravel 
out of place, and by reason of the fact that the figures 
for gold obtained are based upon the gravel deposit, 
in situ, dependable results are by no means so difficult 
to reach. 

Accuracy of the Method 

The degree of accuracy is commensurate with the size 
of the sample, yet judgment must be used to keep the 
volume of the sample in proportion . to the size of the 
bank exposure, with due regard also to the item of ex- 
pense. Beyond certain limits, the results from an exces- 
sively large sample may not be more accurate than 
from one of smaller proportions, while to handle the 
larger sample will entail considerably more expense. 
The size of the sample to be taken will also greatly de- 
pend upon the character and distribution of the gold 
content. The average assay of a gravel deposit in which 
the gold is fine and evenly distributed throughout, may 
be determined by a much smaller sample than one in 
which the gold occurs as nuggets which are perhaps 
widely disseminated. When there is a reasonable doubt 
as to the volume of sample to be taken, it is far better 
for the- examining engineer to take the sample too 
large than to run the risk of obtaining false results by 
taking too small a sample. 

The volume having been determined, the bank is 
cleaned off from top to bottom as in the method of pan 
sampling, a sufficient width being taken to leave a 
foot on either side of the proposed cut. The gravel is 
then removed for washing. Too much care cannot be 
taken in picking out the sample in order to keep the 
cut of uniform size and to prevent caving or break- 
ing of its sides. If the gravel is fairly compact and 
homogeneous, little trouble will be experienced. If. 
on the other hand, the gravel is loose, sandy, and in- 
terspersed with large sized rocks having a tendency to 
loosen easily and fall out, some difficulty may be en- 

Assuming that the bank to be sampled is 35 ft. in 
height and that it has been decided to take a cut from 
top to bottom 2 ft. in width and 1.5 ft. in depth, begin 
on bedrock picking out the gravel, working from the 
centre of the cut toward both edges, but not approach- 
ing to within more than 2 or 3 in. of the final width 
and depth. This work may be done rapidly. When 
a considerable quantity of the gravel has been removed 
begin with great care trimming. Little by little the 

gravel is removed until the exact two feet in width has 
been obtained with a depth into the bank of 18 inches. 
For accurate work it will be found advisable to make a 
templet from a piece of board. This, in the hands of 
a careful workman, will give very good results. Some- 
times in removing gravel a large sized boulder extend- 
ing partly into the cut may be encountered, a portion 
of it being firmly imbedded in the surrounding gravel. 
To remove this boulder would probably bring into the 
sample a quantity of excess gravel. In such cases, it 
is advisable to pick carefully around the part project- 
ing into the cut and allow it to remain, because, as can 
be readily seen, this will not in any way affect the re- 
sults of the test. In this manner proceed to the top, at 
all times keeping the depth of the cut exactly 18 inches. 
If the bank is higher than can be easily reached, a lad- 
der or rope may be used to work from. When taking 
samples from a high bank it will be found advisable 
to use a canvas sheet spread at the bottom, as the 
gravel dropping from such a height will have a ten- 
dency to scatter. Often it is a good plan to use two 
pieces of canvas, one at the bottom and the other hung 
on the face of the bank over the cut. This precaution 
confines the loose gravel to the cut and it will drop to 
the bottom as through a pipe or shoot. 

In some cases owing to configuration of the bank, it 
may be impossible to make a continuous cut from top to 
bottom in which event it can be taken in sections: care 
being used, as previously mentioned, not to omit or 
overlap any portion of the bank. 

The gravel as removed is carefully washed by means 
of a rocker. When all gravel has been washed and 
the cut carefully checked as regards accuracy of meas- 
urements, the recovered gold is cleaned, weighed, and 
the gravel value calculated, as follows: 

( ut 1.5 X - X 35 = 1(15 cu. ft. 
105 : 27:: 20.7 : X. 

X = 5.3c. per cu. yd., bank value. 

Results by this method are as reliable as any that 
can be obtained, if work has been carefully and scien- 
tifically done. A deposit of gravel tested by a suf- 
ficient number of these cuts so as to obtain a fair aver- 
age can be relied upon to yield results that will check 
very closely with those obtained by actual mining oper- 

Deposits Suitable to this Method 

The particular method of testing described above is 
only applicable to such deposits as have a fairly per- 
pendicular bank exposure from bedrock to grass roots 
such as may be found on the stream side of bench de- 
posits. Where no such exposures exist, resort must be 
hail to another form of the measured cut system — that 
of shaft sinking. Where accurate results are desired, 
this method is limited to such areas as have little or no 
bedrock water. To sink a shaft where from two to 
three feet of water may lie encountered on bedrock and 
to obtain results that will even approximate true con- 
ditions, is almost a physical impossibility: therefore. 



July 4. 1914 

when this condition exists, other methods which will be 
considered later should be adopted. 

When testing by means of shafts, one of two systems 
may be used. The shaft may be sunk to bedrock, keep- 
ing it to an accurately measured size and washing all 
the gravel obtained ; or, the shaft may be sunk to bed- 
rock and made of such size that it can easily be worked 
in. When bedrock is reached, measured cuts can be 
taken from top to bottom in the sides. If all the gravel 
is to be washed, it is customary to sink the shaft of 
such dimensions that every three feet in depth will 
represent a cubic yard in place. Circular shafts should 
have a diameter of 3 ft. 5 in., while rectangular shafts 
are made 2 ft. 3 in. by 4 ft. ; both of these sizes, 
while small, are sufficiently large for an experienced 
shaft man. Of the two styles, I prefer the circular 
shaft, as the gravel will stand better and there is less 
trouble from caving. Where timbering has to be 
done, the rectangular shape will, however, be found 
preferable. For the circular shaft, a templet made 
by nailing together in the form of a cross, two pieces 
of wood measuring 3.4 ft. in length is convenient. 
This templet may be suspended from the centre by 
a cord and can be raised or lowered in the shaft, 
thus keeping the shaft of a uniform size as sinking 
progresses. Care must be taken not to gouge the 
sides, but the shaft should be kept as symmetrical as 
possible at all times. When bedrock has been reached, 
it should be thoroughly and carefully cleaned. It is 
good practice to sink a foot or two into the bedrock in 
order to make sure that all gold has been recovered. All 
gravel as removed is carefully washed in a rocker. The 
washing should be kept abreast of the sinking in order 
that, by observing the returns, the depth and position 
of pay-streaks may be noted. The recovered gold is 
cleaned, weighed, and results figured. The depth of 
the shaft gives the yardage contained in the sample. 

Prospect Shafts 

When cuts are to be taken down the sides, make the 
shaft of such size that it will permit of rapid sinking. 
For this method the rectangular shape will be found 
more convenient than the circular. After the shaft 
has reached bedrock, carefully remove all loose ma- 
terial and pick down the sample from one of the sides 
or ends, keeping the cut to exact dimensions as pre- 
viously described. The sample is hoisted out by bucket 
and carefully washed, the value per cubic yard being 
determined as already described. If tin? testing is to be 
thorough, two cuts may be taken, one from either end. 
or one from a side and one from an end. or any such 
combination as the man in charge may elect. The work 
of taking the cut can be greatly facilitated if, when 
sinking the shaft, care is taken to keep the side or end 
from which sample is to be taken as true and uniform 
as possible. 

Of the two methods, that of washing all the gravel 
removed, is the more reliable, owing to the larger 
volume of the sample and the proportionate reduction 
in error clue to possible loss of gold. Against this, how- 

ever, must be considered the increase in time and ex- 
pense incident to the handling of a greater volume of 
gravel. Furthermore, if the gravel has a tendency to 
loosen and cave, it is sometimes impossible to pick an 
accurate cut down the sides; often a circular shaft, if 
quickly sunk, will stand sufficiently long to reach bed- 
rock and obtain the complete sample. In recent testing, 
in a somewhat loose and sandy gravel, I found in every 
case that a fairly uniform circular shaft could be sunk 
to bedrock and a complete sample obtained where my 
attempt to take a cut in the sides resulted in extensive 
caving and the ultimate loss of the shaft. 

Another form of testing which should be properly 
classed under the head of measured cuts, is that of 
bedrock driving. This is applicable to bench deposits 
where it has been determined that all gold lies in the 
foot or two of gravel resting on bedrock. To prospect 
such a deposit across the full width of the bench by 
pits, would entail the sinking of several very deep and 
expensive shafts, while much more reliable results can 
be obtained at much less expense by driving on bed- 
rock. Care should be taken in all such cases to have the 
drift at right angles to the line of flow, otherwise er- 
roneous results will be obtained. As samples of this 
nature arc necessarily large in volume, the same degree 
of care in washing and handling is not required as for 
those of lesser volume. To save time, the gravel may be 
washed by means of a small and carefully constructed 
series of sluice-boxes, the boxes being of sufficient length 
to ensure complete recovery. This method very closely 
approximates actual operating conditions. In obtain- 
ing results by this method, it is the general practice to 
base figures upon the value of gold recovered per square 
yard of bedrock uncovered, from which, when the aver- 
age height of gravel on bedrock along the line of the 
drift has been determined, the value per cubic, yard is 
computed. The one measurement to be watched in this 
work is the width of the drift. This should be uniform 
and great care should be taken not to gouge into the 
sides and thus obtain an excess of the rich pay-streak. 

The following case, from my experience, will serve as 
an example of the above method. There was a bench 
deposit which on the stream edge measured 24 ft. in 
height, increasing rapidly but uniformly to 39 ft. on the 
inside. The gold lay in a streak on bedrock varying 
from 18 to 24 in. thick, everything above this streak 
being practically barren. It was obvious that the most 
accurate and the quickest way of testing this deposit 
was by means of a bedrock drift at right angles to the 
line of flow. A drift of uniform width (4.5 ft. "i was 
maintained and all gravel removed was washed through 
sluice boxes Avhich were cleaned up every evening. 
After driving 52.5 ft. the other rim of the bench was 
reached. From this drift gold to the value of $131.40 
was obtained and 26.25 sq. yd. of bedrock uncovered. 
which yielded assays of approximately $5 per sq. yd. 
of bedrock cleaned. By survey over the line of the 
drift. 1 found the average depth to be 10.3 yd., which 
gave a value to the gravel in the deposit of 48.5c. per 
cubic yard. 

July 4, 1914 


For such gravel areas as are swampy, or that con- 
tain underground water, or in which the gravel is too 
fine and loose to admit of shaft sinking, the before de- 
scribed methods are not applicable and resort must be 
had to mechanical means for obtaining samples. The 
most widely used mechanical method adapted to this 
kind of work is that of churn-drilling. Much has al- 
ready been written regarding this method of testing 
gravel deposits, and the process will not be described 
in detail here. 

I'sk of Power Drills 

Briefly, the drill method consists of forcing a pipe or 
easing through the gravel to bedrock, removing the 
gravel from the interior as the casing descends, the re- 
moved gravel being carefully washed and gold recov- 
ered. For this work two sizes of casing are employed, 
of 4 and (i in. diameter, casing of greater diameter be- 
ing rarely used. The area enclosed by the cutting shoe 
on the end of a piece of 6-in. casing varies from about 
0.196 to 0.25 of a square foot, which is equivalent ap- 
proximately to the 0.000005 part of the area of an acre, 
an infinitesimal quantity. In the same way, the volume 
of gravel removed from a drill-hole is relatively very 
small as compared to the volume of gravel contained 
in an acre, which goes to show what a very small pro- 
portion of the metal contents of an acre one hole would 
give. Should the character of the gravel in the acre 
be entirely homogeneous, with gold distributed through- 
out every part and all particles of equal weight, then 
one hole to a given tract would afford an accurate de- 
termination of the gravel value for that tract, as every 
other hole put down would be but a repetition of the 
first. Such conditions unfortunately rarely, if ever. 
exist. A hole might descend into an almost barren 
region which would not, perhaps, l>e more than 7 or 8 
inches in diameter, while the adjacent gravel would 
be of high grade : or, on the other hand, the pipe in its 
downward course might enclose within its 0.25 sq. ft. 
of area the only existing nugget within the whole tract. 
In the one case a negative result would he obtained 
where it should be high, while in the other case, a high 
result where it should be low. This brings out a point of 
prime importance, namely, that the value of the gravel 
in any given tract cannot be determined by the results 
from individual holes but must be based upon an aver- 
age of results from many holes. 1 have in mind ,i 
piece of dredging ground now under operation which 
aptly illustrates the above. The gold in this property 
was coarse and nuggety, with areas of high and low 
value. During the dredging operation careful watch 
was kept to determine, as closely as conditions would 
permit, the degree of variation between the actual value 
as shown by the dredge operations and the estimated 
value as determined by the drill tests. It was found 
that this variation in a great many cases amounted to 
10c. to 15c. per cubic yard as shown by individual drill 
holes, yet the dredge returns for the whole area gave 
an average value per cubic yard whicli approximated 
within Ift of the average value of the gravel as com- 
puted from the drill tests. 

In a preliminary drilling it is customary to place 
holes in lines sometimes 500 or 1000 ft. apart with 200 
or more feet between the holes. This would mean an 
average of two holes or less to the acre. In the final 
drilling, holes may be placed 50 ft. apart with a dis- 
tance between lines of 200 ft. This woidd only make 
a possible 8 holes to the acre, yet such is the law of 
compensation that an average of all holes will give a 
fairly reliable idea of the gold content of the gravel. 
The average value shown by the eight boles to the acre 
would be far more accurate than that of the two to 
the acre. The degree of reliability of results obtained 
by drilling a given tract is largely dependent upon the 
number of holes drilled in that tract. 

Besides the above, another feature greatly affects re- 
sults and that is the amount of care and thought used 
in putting down holes. In drilling placer deposits, 
owing to their generally shallow nature, it is easy 
enough to put down a hole to bedrock, but to put that 
hole down in such a manner as to obtain at all times 
an accurate sample of gravel for every foot is quite 
another matter. Great care must he taken when in 
tight or hard driving ground, not to force or push out of 
the way gravel which rightfully belongs within the 
sample or. on the other hand, when in loose running 
ground, not to include gravel which does not belong in 
the sample. These are points which must be carefully 
watched and steps taken to prevent their occurrence 
or. if unavoidable, the excesses or discrepancies in 
volume noted and allowed for when final computations 
are made. It is here that the skill and experience of the 
examining engineer enters into the reliability factor. 

I'sk of the II and-Duii.i. 

Much consideration also must be given to the type of 
drill used. Some machines, because of their method of 
operation, naturally give more trustworthy results than 
others. Of the types now on the market, probably the 
most reliable, and one which more nearly approaches 
the ideal method of sampling, is the hand drill. This 
with its rotating cutting shoe, which bores into the 
gravel descending by its own weight, comes as near 
cutting out a true cylindrical sample of the gravel from 
top to bedrock as it is possible to obtain. Steam ma- 
chines which depend on heavy blows to drive down the 
casing, with the accompanying dropping of the heavy 
stem, cause such a loosening and disturbance in the sur- 
rounding gravel that an increase in the volume of the 
sample extracted is nearly always found. However, it 
has been demonstrated that in a carefully drilled piece 
of placer gravel, the estimated gold content in dollars. 
as based on drill-bole results, will approximate within 
less than 59? of the actual bullion value as extracted by 
the dredge. 

In conclusion, when asked tile degree of reliability 
to be placed on any placer examination, it is necessary 
to first know the general characteristics of the deposit 
to be examined, secondly, the method id' testing to be 
employed, and, thirdly, the eare and experience of the 
examining engineer. 



July 4, 1914 


IhhIhue R@^wsil iim the KeftcMs&im DnsftricL Alaska 


The Ketchikan mining district, southernmost of 
Alaska's mineral belts, comprises 9870 sq. mi. of terri- 
tory, of which about half is represented by islands. The 
largest insular body is Prince of Wales island, the next 
is Revillagigedo island, the one with an area of 2800 
and the other with 1120 sq. mi. Although prospectors, 
attracted by the Klondike and Juneau goldfields, have 
passed through the Ketchikan district for nearly two 
decades, no real exploration was done until about 
1900. So far as known, no attempt was made to seek 
mineral wealth during the Russian occupation of the 
territory. Charles Baranovich, a Russian merchant, is 
reported to have prospected for copper near Kassan 
village soon after the American occupation of Alaska, 
but nothing further is known. James Bawden. still a 
resident of Ketchikan, discovered workable deposits of 
gold on the eastern side of Annette island in 1892. 
William Barnard found gold and copper near Kasaan 
village in 1893 ; other discoveries were made in 1893 
and from 1899 to 1901 there was considerable mining 
activity. Many hundreds of claims were staked. 
Ketchikan is the supply centre for the entire district. 
It is situated on the west side of Revillagigedo island 
and on the east side of Tongass Narrows. It is 660 
miles northwest of Seattle and 240 miles southeast of 
Juneau. Salmon canneries, sawmills, fertilizer factor- 
ies and other minor industries supplement mining. Tt 
has a number of stores, is a port of entry, and has a 
poptilation of about 1500. 

Copper in the Ketchikan district occurs in irregular 
lenses and is mined generally by following the orebody. 
The bulk of the copper ore is chalcopyrite and cuprif- 
erous pyrite, accompanied by magnetite, pyrrhotite, 

and other sulphide minerals. Development has been 
slow and there are not many producing mines in tin- 
district. Abundant water-power is available on nearly 
every island, while the resources of hemlock, spruce, 
and cedar furnish ample timber for present needs. 

The oldest regular producer in the district is the 
Jumbo property near the head of Hetta inlet, on the 
west coast of Prince of Wales island. It is operated 
by the Alaska Industrial Co., of New York, of which 
Charles A. Sulzer is manager. A depth of 800 ft. has 
been attained on the orebody. with a winze put down 
200 ft. below the lowest working level, No. 4. Ship- 
ments to the Tacoma smelter are being made at the 
rate of 1000 tons per month. The Copper Mountain 
group of claims at Hetta inlet have been taken over 
by the Alaska Consolidated Mining & Smelting Co.. of 
Duluth, Minnesota, and are being developed under the 
direction of R. L. Kilpatriek, superintendent. A smelt- 
ing plant of 250 tons daily capacity has been idle since 
1907. Prospecting is being done on the Red Wing 
group of claims, near the entrance to Hetta inlet. Small 
shipments of ore from the vein deposit on the Red 
Wing claim have been sent to the smelter at irregular 
intervals since 1903. 

Kasaan Bay Claims 

Rush & Brown, operating on a group of claims near 
the head of Kasaan bay, have been shipping at intervals 
since 1906. Regular shipments are now made at the 
rate of 300 tons per month. A depth of 184 ft. on the 
orebody has been increased by 50 ft. during the past 
year. Ore is being mined from both the magnetite and 
sulphide orebodies. A railroad 3' j miles in length eon- 

July 4, 1014 



nects the mine with the ore bunkers and wharf. The 
Goodro claims at the head of Karta bay are being de- 
veloped. Native gold and chalcopyrite occur in the 
bornite ore mined from this property. A shipment is 
being prepared now for smelting. Devel- 
opment work on the Mt. Andrew prop- 
erty, at the head of Kasaan bay, 27 
miles from Ketchikan, was resumed in 
January, under the direction of W. J. 
Rogers, superintendent. The claims are 
being surveyed for [latent. The property 
is owned by the Andrew estate of Eng- 
land and has made numerous shipments. 
A cable tramway 3600 ft. long connects 
the mine with the wharf. Six different 
and irregular ore masses have been 

Due to the advent into the Ketchikan 
district of the Granby Consolidated M. S. 
& P. Co., work will be resumed on the 
Mamie group on Kasaan peninsula, near 
Hadley, 30 miles northwest of Ketchikan. 
The Granby company has bought and 
paid for the property, and has started to 
place the buildings and trams in condi- 
tion for a resumption of active develop- 
ment. A contract to explore the claims 
with a diamond-drill has been made. The 
o.ther acquisitions of the Granby company 
in the Ketchikan district are the It and 
Dean mines, near the head of Kasaan bay, 
three miles from Kasaan. The It prop- 
erty is equipped with a steam power- 
plant, ore bunkers, dock, and tram. The 
new owners expect to start work July 1. 
The Dean group, adjoining the It, will be 
worked in conjunction with the It. Four 
hundred feet of development work has 
been done on the DeaM and a depth from 
the surface of 80 ft. attained. 

The Valparaiso Claims 

Plans to resume work on a large scale 
on the Valparaiso group of claims, a mile 
and a half from Dolomi, and owned by 
the Princeton M. & M. Co.. have been 
completed and are being carried out un- 
der B. A. Eardley. manager. On June 
11, fifteen tons of machinery left Ketchi- 
kan for the property. Work on the 
claims was discontinued in the fall of 
1913 because of water; but during the 
winter a 600-ft. drainage adit was driven, 
so the mine again is unwatcred. A five- 
drill water-operated compressor will be used in supply- 
ing ore for the 10-stamp mill, which is operated in con- 
nection with a Chilean mill, giving a capacity of 50 
tons per day. The ore is a gold-bearing quartz in a 
fissure vein. 

The Alaska Venture Syndicate, Ltd., of London, a 
subsidiary of the Great Boulder Proprietory of 
Australia, has acquired the Old Glory group of claims 
on Smuggler's cove, Cleveland peninsula. 25 miles north 




nl Ketchikan, from .Martin Bugge and associates. The 
final payment was made in February. •]. T. Hollow, of 
London, engineer for the Company, is now at Ketchi- 
kan, preparing to install the prospecting plant on the 
claims. The improvements include a three-drill com- 



•July 4, 1914 

pressor and a dam for the power-plant. Forty thousand 
dollars has been allotted by the Company for prelimi- 
nary prospecting. Work 1ms been resumed 1000 ft. be- 
low the old adit. Fifteen hundred fe< t of adit has 
been driven and two small .low-grade oiebodies have 
been cut. The adit will be continued 600 ft., to cut 
the main oreliody. B. T. Leahy is superintendent for 
the Company. The ore is free-milling. The Alaska 
Venture Syndicate has taken an option on the Gold- 
stream mine on Gravina island, three miles from 
Ketchikan, and is preparing to resume development 
work on the claims. Owing to a lack of funds, the 
Moonshine silver-lead property, on Cholmondeley 
sound, owned by the Sunshine Alining Co., is idle. One 
hundred and fifty tons of ore is on the dump awaiting 

A thorough sampling and examination of the Julia 
group and Humboldt claims, on 12-Mile arm of Kasaan 
bay, 40 miles from Ketchikan, has been made by engin- 
eers of the Alaska-Gastineau company. The property 
is owned by M. K. and J. II. Rodgers and has been 
operated for a year and a half under bond and lease 
by M. M. Reese and II. Webber. The vein is from two 
to 12 ft. wide. A small compressor plant and a five- 
stamp mill, both operated by water-power, are at work 
on the property. Mr. Reese is now at Juneau, con- 
ferring with the Alaska-Gastineau company officials 
over the possible sale of the claims. 

The C'racker.jaoiv Property 

The Crackerjack group of gold claims, but recently 
out of litigation, and which has been idle for a number 
of years, is being developed by the owners, James 
Bawden and Morris McMicken. The property is a mile 
north of the Julia group. The vein has a width of 
from 2 to 14 ft. and assays from $8 to $15 per ton. 
The underground development work aggregates 2864 
ft. A preliminary sampling was completed last week 
by M. Nash, of Juneau, reported to be acting for foreign 
capital. Adjoining the Crackerjack is the Heady Bul- 
lion property, on which a five-stamp mill is operating. 
The property is owned by Webber & McKenzie. A new 
level has been opened up, at a depth of 170 ft. Three 
hundred feet of drift has been driven on the vein. 
Mill runs show a value of $30 per ton. The vein is 
narrow. The Cascade property, four miles from Hollis. 
has been examined by engineers and is under bond. 
The claims are owned by C. Radenbaugh, who has 
operated an arrastre and a two-stamp mill successfully 
on the property during the past two years. Eight 
miles from tidewater at Mollis, and west of the Cracker- 
jack group, is the Lucky Xell group, owned by (!. W. 
said Fred Gervais. Thirty tons of ore was shipped out 
last winter to the smelter. Forty-six dollars per ton 
was obtained, which netted $33 per Ion after smelting 
and freighting charges had been paid. Adjoining the 
Lucky Nell group are the Commander claims, owned 
by Gust Detlefson. Development in a small way is 
being carried on. 

O. Jaeobsen and E. Olsby are prospecting the Bruce 

group of seven copper claims, four miles from Sul/.er. 
The property has on it two 60-hp. boilers, one six-drill 
Kami compressor, and other machinery, as well as build- 
ings. Since the dock collapsed in 1913 when a 300-ton 
shipment of ore was being loaded on a ship, nothing 
has been done. Wright & Reynolds, working on 
N'utqua lagoon on the west coast of Prince of Wales 
island, have a vein varying in width from two to six 
feet. An adit 20(1 ft. long has been driven and 180 ft. 
from the portal, a winze sunk on the vein. Work on 
the big adit of the Northland Development company 
at its copper property 10 miles from Craig is progres- 
sing. Stoping on the orebody lias been started. B. 
Tucker is manager. 

A group of seven claims is owned by Richard 
Nuckolls and Gundar Nygard on Rcvillagigedo island 
at Thome arm. 25 miles from Ketchikan. Open-cut 
prospecting has uncovered a vein 15 to 30 ft. wide for 
a distance of 3000 ft. King & Gilmour are developing 
the Sea Level claim, one of the first in the district, on 
which a 30-stamp null was erected after 50 ft. of shaft 
bad been sunk. Development work on the Wild West 
group, owned by Mrs. Al. Smith, is going on. The 
Gold Banner claim, owned by Bert Steers, has an adit 
80 ft. long which cuts a vein six feet wide. The owner 
is prospecting on the surface at present. 

The Gold Standard was the first claim discovered 
in the Helm bay district, having been found in 1900 
by Johnson and Dyer. It is owned by Nuckolls. J. E. 
Chilberg, and C. E. Ingersoll. A test shipment made 
last month has shown a value of $5 per ton said to 
represent a face 130 ft. wide. Two miles north of the 
Gold Standard is the King & Elliott group, recently 
discovered and under bond- for $60,000. The group 
consists of four claims. Several shipments of low-grade 
ore have been made from the Gold Mountain group, 
owned by Richard Nuckolls. Three hundred feet of 
adit has been driven along the vein at a depth of 200 ft. 
The vein is 30 ft. in width. The tests show ore worth 
$6 per ton. Poison & Iekis have a copper and gold 
property on McLean arm, 40 miles from Ketchikan, 
known as the Yeta group. Two chalcopyrite deposits 
have been developed for a total distance of 265 feet. 

Marble Deposits 

In addition to copper and gold, marble forms one of 
the mineral resources of the Ketchikan district. The 
Vermont Marble company owns a total area of 703,246 
acres of land, and operates a quarry at Tokeen, near 
the northern end of Prince of Wales island. Edward 
Brown, an assayer, who has been in Ketchikan for 11 
years, says he has examined specimens of chrome iron. 
manganese, tin. scheelite. and platinum which were 
brought in by prospectors from different parts of the 
Ketchikan mining district. The United States recorder 
for the Ketchikan district reports that since 1902 a total 
of 4250 claims have been staked in the district, of which 
a larger portion has lapsed. Thirty placer claims have 
been recorded on the Funk river, about 60 miles from 

July 4. 1!M4 



Dunsft Qasunmlbeirs aft ftlbe AsMo 
Smelter, J&paura 

On June 15, 1!*12. the Imperial government of Japan 
passed a bill requiring the Japanese smelters to install 
equipment for the elimination of smelter dust and fume, 
which in many instances had become a menace to agri- 
culture and had destroyed the vegetation in the vicin- 
ity of the smelters. This bill affected five smelters in 
Japan, and equipment is now being installed at the dif- 
ferent plants to meet the requirements of this law. In 
the accompanying drawings there is presented two 
sections through the new reinforced concrete dust- 
chambers at the Ashio Copper Co. 's smelter and a part 
plan of the chamber building. This work, which is in 
course of construction, will probably be finished by the 
first of November. 

At the Ashio plant there are three furnaces in opera- 
tion, with an output of about 50.000 lb. of copper per 
day. From a charge made up of 11.5% Cu. 24.4% Pe, 
•13.8% S, 0.65% As, 30% Si0 2 , and 7% Al t O„ a 
04.4% extraction of the copper is obtained. The gases 
from the furnaces were formerly allowed to escape 
directly into the air. which has resulted in the killing 
of all vegetation within an area of one-half mile radius 
from the plant and permitting of but little vegetation 
within a mile from the plant. The volume of SO., escap- 
ing into the air is over 2400 cu. ft. per minute. The 
smelting plant is an interesting one since part precipi- 
tation of the SO, is effected by the use of lime water. 

The Hues and dust chambers are built of reinforced 
concrete with but little metal exposed to the action of 
the fumes. The gases from the furnaces pass through 
a dust separator as shown in the diagram. Here a spiral 
motion is imparted to the gases and a larjre per cent of 
the dust is deposited and drawn from the cone-shaped 
hopper in the bottom. From the separator the gas 
passes up an incline flue, in the lower end of which are 
several hoppers in which the dust collects. At the top 
of the flue the gas passes through a series of chambers 
before it enters the main chamber house. Up to this 
point and in the first few hoppers in the chamber house 
the dust that is collected in the hoppers will contain 
copper in sufficient quantity to make it of commercial 
importance and will be subsequently recovered. In the 
chamber house proper the dust will contain such a high 
per cent of arsenic, zinc, and other impurities that it 
will be of no value and will be discarded. 

The chamber house is subdivided into many compart 
ments and the gas as it passes through meets many 
obstacles in the shape of concrete partitions, bailies. 
and wires. Wires, as has come to be the common prac- 
tice in the United States, will be used in these chambers 
lor the separation of the dust from the furnace gas. 
The main building as shown in the diagram is 220 ft. 
long by 100 ft. wide The chambers are connected with 
four stacks, three of which will be in constant use, the 
fourth being held in reserve. As the <ras emerges from 



July 4, 1914 

the chamber room it passes through Hues to the stacks, 
which flues end in dome shaped structures as seen in 
the diagram, which have numerous openings causing 
the gas to be disseminated and mixed with the air be- 
fore passing to the open. The stacks are connected 
with fans as shown in the cross-section, which fan blows 
air into the stack around the openings from the flue, 
where it mixes with the escaping gases. Besides adding 
air to the gas before it passes into the open, it of course 
reduces the pressure in the chambers and forces the 
draft. The velocity of the gas through the chambers will 
be about three feet per second. Dampers are placed in 
the flues for the regulation of the flow of gas through 
the chambers. The chambers and stack are supported 
on concrete piles. 

Elninraiiini&ftiimg ftlh© Mosquito 

Effective methods of getting rid of mosquitoes can 
never be too generally known, and the following ac- 
count by Lloyd Noland, superintendent of the health 
department of the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co., 
Birmingham, Alabama, of the methods used by that 
Company, as reported in the Bulletin of the American 
Iron and Steel Institute, will be of interest. 

A. careful inspection of all streams, ponds, pools, 
and springs, both within and for a distance of one mile 
around each camp, was made early in the spring. 
Anopheles larva? were found in practically all places 
of this character. Culex larvae of several types were 
found in rain barrels, tin cans, fire barrels, septic tanks, 
collections of dirty water around houses, and even in 
mines at some points. 

The work accomplished consists in draining and fill- 
ing all pools and swamps, where practical: the weekly 
spraying with crude petroleum or larvacide of such 
pools or swamps as cannot be filled or drained; the 
clearing of vegetation in swampy spots; the mainte- 
nance of drainage ditches: and the installation of au- 
tomatic oil drips at the head of sluggish streams. All 
rain-barrels are destroyed or removed; tin cans and 
bottles are carefully removed from all parfs of the 
camp: and larvacide. manufactured by the Company, is 
added to water in fire barrels. General screening of all 
houses, while ideal as a protection, is too expensive to be 
considered. Screening has been resorted to only as a 
protection againsl mosquito infection in houses where 
there are actually cases of malaria. 

•Filling and draining of swamps and pools is by far 
the most logical ami economical method of destroying 
these breeding places. The first cost of such work may 
be a considerable item, but this is more than balanced 
when the yearly cost of oiling is considered. Oiling 
has been accomplished by the use of drip barrels or 
larvacide. The first, a closed barrel, containing 10 to 
15 gal. of ordinary crude petroleum, is equipped with 
an ordinary %-in. gate valve and mounted on a small 
platform at the head of such sluggish streams as arc 
found to contain larva 1 . The valve is cracked suffi- 

ciently to allow a regular drip, rapid enough to give 
a light film on all water running through the ditch. 
A surprisingly small amount of oil is required for 
this purpose. It is necessary with such streams to 
straighten the banks to remove obstructions such as 
trash, grass, etc.. that may hold back the descending 
film. Very little work is required to keep these drip 
barrels in operation, a weekly inspection and refilling 
being about all that is necessary. 

In the second method, isolated pools are sprayed with 
oil or larvacide, as the case may be. There are many 
sprays on the market of the knapsack type that answer 
excellently for this purpose. Pools of large size that 
are exposed to the action of the wind and that contain 
much vegetation are difficult to handle because of the 
fact that the oil film is frequently blown entirely away 
from a large part of the pool. In order to handle 
situations of this kind properly, a larvacide developed 
at Panama is used. This larvacide we manufacture in 
the following way: One hundred and fifty gallons of 
crude carbolic acid is heated in an iron tank having 
a steam coil at 50 lb. pressure. Two hundred pounds 
of finely crushed and sifted common rosin is dissolved 
in the heated acid, and 30 lb. of caustic soda dissolved 
in 6 gal. of water is added. A mechanical stirring rod 
attached to the tank is used constantly during the proc- 
ess. The product is prepared in a very few minutes. 
yielding about three and one-half barrels of larvacide. 
the cost being approximately 19c. per gallon. 

A dilution of larvacide of one to ten thousand is 
amply sufficient to kill all larva? in pools; a certain 
amount of care, however, has to be exercised, as this 
material is somewhat poisonous to stock and will 
quickly kill fish. Inspectors are required to have suffi- 
cient knowledge of mosquito larva? and of adult mos- 
quitoes to differentiate types. Careful inspection is 
insisted upon, and complaints of householders of the 
presence of mosquitoes is investigated. The work al- 
ready done has shown surprisingly good results, the 
number of cases of malaria being enormously reduced 
and the comfort of the people greatly increased. 

The following accounts of actual results attained, re- 
ported in the Bulletin, are encouraging. W. G. Kranz. 
manager for the National Malleable Castings Co., Sha- 
ron, Pennsylvania, reports that the greater portion of 
the Shenango valley at one time was swampy and ma- 
laria was very prevalent : but in recent years, as a 
result of the industrial development, the lowlands have 
been filled in and malaria has disappeared almost en- 
tirely. Walter Wood, managing director of R. D. Wood 
& Co., Philadelphia. Pennsylvania, states that in the 
ordinary development of the land around that plant 
they have naturally and properly made a point of fill- 
ing in all low spots. This has been so efficacious that 
the report comes from the Camden Works that "our 
wharf watchmen and various boat captains at the wharf 
state that they are not bothered at all" by mosquitoes. 
Many other successes of this nature have been reported 
from other parts of the country. ' 

July 4, 1914 



Aimsihmlikini Jamri smd th® Malay Tiim HedlMsitiry 

The recent arrival in San Francisco of Henry Jones. 
a well known jam manufacturer and mining man from 
Tasmania, brings to mind the relations of fruit can- 
ning to tin mining. The following notes, prepared 
mostly from a recent issue of The Daily Telegraph, 
Sydney, New South Wales, show how close the relation 
is. In the November and December issues of The 
Mining Magazine, notes were published on how exper- 
ience in the banana trade of Fiji qualifies anybody for 
the management of a copper company. The editor of 
The Mining Magazine could not see any relation, al- 
though a correspondent thought he could. In the case 
of jam and tin brilliant results in tin mining have fol- 
lowed the incursion of jam manufacturers into the 
Malay States. 

The world's production of tin in 1913 was 119,000 
long tons, of which 62,500 tons was from the Malay 
Peninsula. 24,850 tons from Bolivia. 17,000 tons from 
Banca and Billiton (Dutch East Indies'), 5800 tons from 
Cornwall, 8:200 tons each from Australia and South 
Africa, and 2450 tons from China. This is recovered 
mostly from placers in the Orient, from lodes in Bolivia. 
Cornwall, and South Africa, and by lode mining:, and by 
hydraulicking. and dredging in Australia. Although 
tin production in the United States is negligible, yet 
this country consumed 45.551 tons of the metal in 1913, 
equal to about 38% of the world's output. This is used 
mostly in the manufacture of so-called tin plate, which 
consists of from 2 to 2.5^ tin. the remainder heing 
sheet steel, and is used for making cans for jams, pre- 
serves, fruit, salmon, and other foods. The average 
price of tin in New York in 1913 was 44.32c. per pound. 

The I. X. L. Syndicate 

Nearly ten years ago B. T. Miles went to the Feder- 
ated Malav States with a commission to sell Australian 
jam. fruit, timber, and even old steamships, when Inn- 
era were offering. He had a little tin-mining ex- 
perience in Tasmania, and the Chinese who owned the 
Eastern Shipping Co. are said to have attracted his at- 
tention to the tin deposits of Tongkah harbor. Con- 
vinced of the suitability of the locality for bucket- 
dredging, and satisfied of the profitable character of 
the ground, he returned to Tasmania with the idea 
of forming a tin-dredging company among local capi- 
talists. Messrs. Jones and Peacock, two well known 
Tasmanian jam manufacturers, heard the returned 
traveler's tale, and were convinced. The high price of 
tin was the very bugbear of their existence as jam 
manufacturers, and they willingly found support for 
what came to be known as the I.X.h. Syndicate, taking 
the trade-name of the Jones jam factory products. The 
jam people are said to have actually found all the 
original capital. In November. 190fi. the Tongkah Har- 
bor Tin Dredging Co., N. L.. was registered in Tas- 
mania, with headquarters at Hobart. Its location is 

still jealously guarded there by the island capitalists 
who thus dared to pioneer what has become, or is rap- 
idly becoming, a great industry. The Tongkah Harbor 
is now a company of £150,000 capital, in £1 shares, all 
fully paid. A first dividend of Is. was paid in August 
1909. three ('amounting to 5s.) in 1911, four (9s.) in 
1912. and quarterly dividends of 2s. ever since. Six 
dredges are at work, and another under construction. 

jj 'i j LOWER 

= ; / ■', 
• l/t 


* '■■ */) ■■ DRfrbook Dredging ,N L 

S C SisnteseTin Cii vdgiocMd 
■ «* '<ntr*i>Br B Ratrut Basin Tin 







r i 



> i 






f Vv 

(, i 

- V 


x cK 




All were paid for out of profits. The latter amounted to 
178,304 in 1912. and to £80.024 in 1913. Put another 
way. the Company has returned its shareholders 28s. 
per share to date, or £217.500; and the market value of 
the shares is still today about 41s. (id. each. 

Melbourne jam men. including A. W. I'alfreyman. 
could not afford to let their Hobart rivals scoop up all 
the tin. With a certain amount of assistance from 
Sydney capitalists, they formed Tongkah Compound. 
N'.L., registering the Company in Victoria in 1910. The 



July 4. 1914 

capital authorized, ami issued, is £50,000, in £1 fully 
paid shares. The lirst dividend was paid in June, 1912, 
and regular distributions have followed since. The 
twenty-fourth was paid in May. Shareholders have re- 
ceived 49s. per share, or £122,500 in profits; and the 
Company's shares are still worth 66s., or well over three 
times their par value, upon the open market. 

Small wonder that Sydney mining men declined to 
leave the exploitation of this wonderful profit-produc- 
ing Malaya tin country to their Elobart and Melbourne 
friends. And it was only in accord with the earlier 
chapters that H. E. Pratten, a representative Sydney 
jam man, should pioneer Sydney operations. Mr. Prat- 
ten was one of the lucky original shareholders in the 
Tongkah Compound, and. realizing the potentialities of 
Malaya in the direction of Imcket-dredging for tin. he 
stayed there a few weeks en route to England, in 1911. 
Becoming interested, he returned there again in 1912. 
having, prior to his departure from Sydney, formed the 
Austral Malay Tin, Limited, with a nominal capital of 
£50,000, £20,000 of which has been called up, and the 
£1 shares in which are today quoted at 90s. The result 
of that English trip was the successful notation of the 
Kamunting Tin Dredging, Limited (London), with a 
paid-up capital of £130,000: Kampong Kamunting Tin 
Dredging, Limited (Sydney), capital paid up £130,000; 
Larut Tin Dredging, Limited (Sydney), capital paid 
up £50,000. Mr. Patten is president of the Xew South 
Wales Chandler of Manufactures. 

Dredging at Gnow 

Hut meantime events had been moving on the Malay 
Peninsula. Away up north in Siam. at a place called 
Renong, the English administrator of the Mines De- 
partment for Western Siam had been approached by 
English capitalists with a view to obtaining suitable 
dredging ground. He took up an area at Gnow. 10 
miles south from Renong, where a dredge with 7-cu. ft. 
buckets started work for the Siamese Tin Dredging 
Syndicate about 1909. That dredge has won up to 60 
tons of black tin per month, and held the record for 
production until last year, when the Tongkah Com- 
pound started its big returns. The Company is now 
erecting two dredges with 15-ft. buckets at a cost of 
£30,000 each. 

Following the example of the Siamese Tin Dredging 
Syndicate, another British company, Scotch people being 
largely interested, sent out a representative, who ac- 
quired other areas near Renong. They built their first 
dredge there in 1910, and while paying their share- 
holders 20% per annum they have also made sufficient 
money to buy two large dredges, which are in com- 
mission now. 

The Malayan Tin was the next English (London 
registered) bucket-dredging company of importance to 
start operations. It acquired ground which the natives 
had already worked in Kinta valley, near Ipoh, capital 
of the Federated Malay States. One dredge started 
in 1912. and a second was recently put into commission. 
The nature of the country in Kinta valley is entirely 

different from that of the more northerly areas. It is 
limestone country, and it remains to be seen whether 
bucket-dredging can be carried out successfully on the 
uneven botto mcominon to such formations. So far, the 
first dredge operated by the Company is doing fairly 

Dredging in Siam 

Australian associations were not nearly finished with 
the establishment of the Tongkah and Austral-Malay 
mining groups. Mr. Miles retired from his Tongkah 
associations, and struck out north in Siam during 
1912. He had no difficulty in securing backers upon 
that occasion, and, selecting concessions to the north 
of Renong. established the Deebook Dredging, Ltd., and 
Katoo Deebook companies. They each have a capital 
of £100,000 in £1 shares. The Deebook has issued 52,- 
000 fully paid shares, and 38,000, now paid to 19s. r 
holding 10.000 in reserve. The Katoo Deebook has is- 
sued 43,000 fully paid and 42.000 paid to 13s. The 
directors are worth noting as showing how the native 
element is alive to the importance of the new mining 
development in its midst. The directors are: E. T. 
Miles. A. W. Palfreyman, Khan Joo Chie (Penang), A. 
Temple Miles, and Khan Joo Tok (Penang). Khan is 
practically the native equivalent of mister or gentle- 
man, and Joo indicates a member of the native ruling 

Among the last, but by no means least, of the Austral- 
ian-controlled companies stands the Malaya Tin Cor- 
poration. Like its Sydney forerunner, Austral-Malay 
Tin. Ltd.. it was organized to promote the flotation of 
sub-concerns, rather than the working of mining areas. 
Originally the Malay Peninsula Syndicate was formed 
early in 1913 at the instigation of a visitor from Siam, 
who offered to introduce suitably any representative 
man who went back with him. with a view to obtaining 
desirable concessions. Ultimately, T. II. Martyn. a prom- 
inent member of the Sydney Stock Exchange, whose 
active association with Australian dredging companies 
is well and widely known, was induced to undertake 
the expedition. He personally visited Siam and Burma, 
and secured valuable interests in both countries. Some 
of these areas have been prospected with success, 
while one in particular, situated in the Renong valley, 
10 miles south of the Siamese Tin Syndicate leases, is 
said to have been proved to carry over 2 lb. of tin per 
cubic yard. According to official reports, about 150 
acres of that lease, known as the Basin property, have 
already been developed, and operations are being 
continued on an extensive scale with boring plants over 
the rest of the area. The Ratrut organization is a 
matter of the present time : but it is not a matter of flo- 
tation, at least, in the ordinary sense of the word. Hold- 
ers of shares in the Malay Tin Corporation are entitled 
to a preferential allotment of shares in the new Com- 
pany, five for one. pro rain to their present holding. 
The £5 shares of the Corporation, it has a nominal capi- 
tal of £42.000 in 8400 fully paid shares of £5 each, were 
quoted on April 28 at £12. 

July 4, 1914 



Other Australian concerns interested in Malaya, and 
worthy of more or less attention, include a Sydney 
venture known as the Kulim-Malayan Tin Syndicate. 
£10,000 in 1000 shares of £10 each, and a Melbourne 
company known as the Trong Tin Mining Co. The 
former is situated in the Malay state of Kedah. while 
the latter holds property about 25 miles south of the 
Larut. near the town of Bruas. The Trong has a 
capital of £80.000 in £1 shares, of which 30,000 were 
issued fully paid to the vendors, and 30,000 to sub- 
scribers at 5s. paid, leaving 20.000 in reserve. 

But, as The Daily Telegraph says, all is not gold that 
glitters. Many Australian syndicates have sent repre- 
sentatives to Malaya, and in not a few instances the 
results so far have not been satisfactory for sharehold- 
ers. There are. for instance, such Victorian concerns as 
Sungei Raia. Salak South, North Tambun, and the 
Hindu Chong mines. And there are others, not nearly 
all Victorian. The "wild-cat' is always present when 
mining successes have been achieved. It is for prudent 
investors to weigh every statement made. and. above 
all, rely rather upon the reputation of the promoters 
than the statements made by mining nonentities. 

New Bredt.ks 

A contract for the construction and erection of two 
largo bucket dredges, at a total cost of £40.000. for 
equipping the property of the Kamponjr Kauranting 
Tin Dredging Co.. mentioned above, has been placed in 
Melbourne. The specifications and design are the work 
of .1. S. Henry, and the dredges contracted for will, it 
is officially stated, be easily the largest ever built in 
Australia. The material and workmanship will be ;is 
far as possible Australian. The latest improvements 
found necessary as a result of tin-dredging experience 
in Malaya, including the most recent type of revolving 
screen, will be fitted in these dredges. Large tin-saving 
tables are another feature, the pontoon being specially 
large, namely. 130 by 44 ft. by 8V£ ft. deep to carry 
them. The boats will be fitted with close-connected 
6-cu. ft. buckets, which will have a theoretical capacity 
of 35,000 yd. per week for each dredge, and effective 
capacity of 20.000 to 25.000 yd. of tin-bearing material 
per week. The plant specified is designed to dredge 
45 ft. below water-level. The main engine is of 120 
hp.. and the pump installed for sluicing has a delivery 
of 6000 gal. of water per minute. The cost of the two 
dredges erected and in good working order at the 
property, together with the spares, tools, tin dressing 
sheds, and buildings, will exceed £40.000. The total 
weight of the dredges, with machinery, will be over 625 
tons, which is considerably over 100 tons heavier than 
the largest dredge yet sent from Australia to the Orient. 
The contract time for delivery for the first dredge is 
eight months, and for the second eleven months from 
the date of signing the contract. 

All tin recovered in the Malay States is smelted at 
I'cnang and Singapore. An export duty of 12. 5 r / is 
levied on the tin leaving the country, and in 1012 the 

Government, under British control, received duty 
amounting to about £1,300,000. 

From the above notes it must not be inferred that 
Australians are not paying attention to their own tin 
properties, as is shown by the work in sluicing at 
Briseis, and lode mining at the Anchor, Pioneer, Mt. 
Bischoff, and others in Tasmania, lode mining in 
Queensland, dredging in New South Wales, and lode 
mining in "Western Australia. 

Miiraainig im ftlae Airgeimtiira© 

Mining has made but little progress in Argentina. 
While copper, lead, silver, gold, wolfram ores, and borax 
salts, as well as small quantities of other minerals, arc 
scattered over the Provinces of Mendoza. San Juan, La 
Rioja, Catamarca, Salta. Jujuy, Tucuman, Cordoba, and 
San Luis in the northern consular district, great dis- 
tance from the coast and difficulty and expense of trans- 
porting supplies and ore make mining in most in- 
stances unprofitable. According to official information 
obtained from the Bureau of Mines at Buenos Aires. 

there are thn opper. one borax, one wolfram, one 

silver, one onyx, one lime and cement, and a petroleum 
company now operating in this district. Two of the cop- 
per mining companies, the Famatina Development Cor- 
poration, Ltd.. province of La Rioja, and the Compania 
Mineia N'ui'va Concordia. Territory of Los Andes, failed 
recently. From reliable private information it appeals 
that the only mining venture conducted on any con- 
siderable scale at present in this district is the [Tansa. 
Sociedad de Minas. which works valuable wolfram de- 
posits in the Province of San Luis. According to 
official statistics supplied by the Bureau of Mines, the 
following quantities, iu metric tons, of ore were ex- 
ported in 1913: onyx. 2S1 ; gypsum. 174: mica, ti : borate 
of lime. 058; wolfram. 536 : copper, 310: and lead. 7 
tons. These figures may be taken as indicative of pro- 
duction, as there is no ore reduction in the country. 
Practically all of the ore exported is mined in the north- 
ern consular district. The Sierra de Cordoba possesses 
rich stone deposits, the more valuable because of the 
small quantity in many parts of the country in building 
materials. According lo official statistics. 11 different 
companies are now exploiting quarries, principally 

granite and limestone in the provii of Cordoba, in 

addition to other smaller concerns. — Daihi Cuii.-itlar 
Hi port. 

The chief inspector of mines in India reports the 
output of coal in British India during 1013 as 15.4S6.- 
318 tons from the following districts: Bengal. 4.640.852 : 
Behar and Orissa. 10.226,380; Punjab, 51.0411; Assam. 
270,364; Baluchistan. 52.032; Central Provinces. 235.- 
651 : and Northwest Provinces, 00 tons. In addition. 
600.000 tons was imported. Exports were 3.000,000 
tons, leaving about 13.000.000 tons consumed in India. 
of which the railwavs look 4.500.000 tons. 



July 4, 1914 

A MkMg&m Sftopbg Meftkoxdl 

In the accompanying diagram, £ig. 1, is shown a 
peculiar condition which occurred in a Michigan mine. 
The deposit was being worked from the lower levels 
up, as it was discovered by a raise from lower work- 
ings, the orebody was irregular, but for the most part 
was 12 ft. wide and had a dip of 45°. With so shallow 
a dip, the stoping could be easily accomplished from 
one level to that above, by merely standing on the foot- 
wall, as is customary in mines of low dip. The slices 
for stoping were mined in several different ways, ac- 
cording to the nature of the ore. The raises were 
driven straight up the dip of the deposit, as shown in 
the lower portion of Fig. 1. But higher up in the ore- 

out by raises is convenient for the loading of tram 
cars on the level below, as ore-chutes can be con- 
structed at the bottom of the raises. In the method 
shown in Fig. 2, wheelbarrows are used in the stopes 
for getting ore to the raises, although some of the ore 
falls directly into the raises, when blasted. Sub-levels 
and raises are popular in many of the mining methods 
in the Michigan iron mines for soft and medium ore. 

Coal Pmdhuicftiioini of Wesft Vnrgiirana 

With a production in 1913 exceeding for the first 
time in its history a total of 70,000,000 tons, West 
Virginia became firmly established as the second in 
rank among the coal-producing states. According to 


Fig. 1 

body the dip became nearly vertical, so that a miner 
could not stand on the foot-wall to set up his drill. 
It would have been possible to let a large quantity of 
broken ore accumulate in order to stand on while work- 
ing, as is done in baek stoping, dry-wall methods, etc., 
but the manager did not want to tie up money by keep- 
ing, as is done in back stoping, dry-wall methods, etc., 
to make it possible to stand on the foot-wall, the raises 
were no longer put in along the dip, but diagonally, 
as shown in the upper part of Fig. 1. It is evident that 
any angle of raise desired can be obtained by driving 
foot-wall raises across the dip of the deposit instead 
of at right angles with the drift. Secondary vertical 
raises were also used, when desired for ore-chutes, but 
the men stayed in the inclined raises. This brings 
out the point that raises, in stoping methods, are used 
for two purposes, for men and timber and as ore-chutes. 
Thus in the illustration the men stay in the diagonal 
raises and blast ore down either the diagonal or the 
right-angled raises. In some mining methods the raises 
for men and timber are kept in good condition and are 
cribbed and no ore is dumped through them, except 
when driving them and in cross-cutting over to an ore- 
chute raise at their completion. 

In Fig. 2 a system of raises is shown which illustrates 
some of the variations used in an iron mine at Negan- 
nee. Michigan. With one-man stoper drills in soft or 
medium ore. raising is not expensive, and getting ore 

p]dward W. Parker, of the U. S. Geological Survey, 
the production in 1913 was 71,308.982 tons, showing 
a gain of 4,522,295 short tons, or nearly 7% over the 
output of 1912, up to that time the record tonnage. 
The increased production was accompanied by a con- 
siderably larger gain in value, which showed an in- 
crease over 1912 of $9,079,931. or 14.46%. The value 
of the output in 1913 was $71,872,165. The average 
value for the first time in ten years exceeded $1 per 
ton. The production increased in 1913 in spite of the 
facts that the labor troubles in the Paint Creek and 
Cabin Creek districts of the Kanawha field, which 
began in the early part of 1912, were not settled until 
well into the spring of 1913, and that the unprece- 
dented floods in the Ohio valley in the spring reduced 
shipments to the west for a considerable time. A 
few of the mines that were closed by the strike were 
not reopened during 1913. and the total production 
from the two districts affected was much below the 
normal output. The increased production was well 
distributed over the state, there being but three coun- 
ties out of thirty where decreases were shown. 

According to the Bureau of Mines, the number of 
fatal accidents in the coal mines of West Virginia 
showed a decrease of 22, from 359 in 1912 to 337 in 
1913. although there was an increase of nearly 10 r 'r 
in the number of men employed. Labor troubles 
caused the less of 377.405 working daws. 

July 4. 1914 



Readers of the Mixing & Scientific Press are invited to use this department for the discussion of technical 
and other matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor welcomes the expression of vieics contrary 
to his own, believing that careful criticism is more valuable than casual compliment. Insertion of any contribu- 
tion is detennined by its probable interest to the readers of this journal. 

SIinrajpliiFncaftloini ©if GoH Or© Tirsataemift 

The Editor: 

Sir — Probably the most refractory 'versus' in con- 
troversial metallurgy is 'crushing in water and amal- 
gamating v. crushing in solution without amalgamation.' 
In the Press of .May 30. A. W. Allen cites data to prove 
that crushing in solution without amalgamation in- 
volves excessive precipitation with consequent fouling 
of solution. He instances the Dome and Hollinger mills. 
and probably no better opportunity has ever been af- 
forded for comparison. As Mr. Allen points out, these 
mills are working side by side on ore differing essen- 
tially only in grade, the Dome crushing in water and 
amalgamating, while the Hollinger is crushing in solu- 
tion without amalgamation. Both have been dropping 
40 stamps on about the same tonnage, and both started 
during the summer of 1912. Mr. Allen's comparative 
table refers to approximate data of mill operations ob- 
tained in August 1912 while both mills were in the 
tuning up process, and hence should not be considered. 
The results during the first part of 1913 are also affected 
by the fact that the companies were fighting a serious 
labor disturbance which entailed erratic work in the 
mills. Hence the only figures which are of any possible 
value for comparisons are those from the working of 
the mills during the latter part of 1913 and during the 
present year. Accurate figures from Hollinger opera- 
tions for 1913 and 1914 to date are given in the fol- 
lowing table, and also those approximating closely the 
Dome present practice, as well as Mr. Allen's tabula- 
tion : 

Hollinger Mill: 
( Exact figures from 
records, i 
Treatment. 1913. 1914 to date. 

Solution precipitated per ton of ore... 3.16 2.67 

Zinc consumption per ton of ore 0.66 0.59 

Cyanide consumption |>er ton of ore. . . 0.46 0.46 

Cyanide added Tube-mill feed. 

Total recovery 96.10 96.00 

It will be noticed that Mr. Allen's figures are suffi- 
ciently incorrect to prove his point, but that by apply- 
ing his own line of reasoning to the actual figures, the 
exact reverse is proved, namely, that in this instance 
i- rushing in solution without amalgamation is superior 
to '-rushing in water and amalgamating. 

A point of which .Mr. Allen seems to lose sight is that 
tons of solution precipitated per ton of ore ('precipita- 
tion ratio' i is a factor of the grade of ore. I quote 

from Mr. Allen (referring to the Esperanza) : "and the 
amount of solution precipitated is only 3 tons per ton 
of ore as against twice or three times that amount in 
cases where ordinary stamp-milling is practised." Now 
at the Hollinger 2.7 to 1 is being precipitated, against 
1.7 to 1 at the Dome, while the grade of the Hollinger 
ore milled is about three times that of the Dome. As- 
suming that we were amalgamating at the Hollinger and 
that we could make the same extraction by amalgama- 
tion that the Dome makes, our cyanide 'heads' would 
still be three times those of the Dome, and a precipita- 
tion ratio of ."> to 1 (3 times 1.7) would be .justifiable. 
In other words, we would be precipitating about twice 
what we do now. Again assuming that the Dome ore 
was crushed in solution and not amalgamated, the 
cyanide 'heads' would be one-third of ours, so that the 
precipitation ratio should be one-third that of the Hol- 
linger or 0.9 to 1. Thus the Dome is precipitating 
twice what would be necessary were they crushing in 
solution and not amalgamating. 

At first sight it would look as if Mr. Allen's point is 
well taken, and that if the gold going into solution can 
be reduced, the precipitation ratio can be reduced pro- 
portionately, but actually the reverse is the case. On 
account of crushing in water, an excess of solution is 
made and a corresponding amount must be precipitated 
and thrown away. This precipitation of 'waste' solu- 
tion added to the high-grade solution precipitation, 
makes the precipitation ratio greater than it would be 
were cyanide solution instead of water used in crush- 
ing — at the Dome twice as great. Discarding any solu- 
tion from the mill other than with the tailing is poor 

Dome Mill: 



Hollinger. Dome. 


4.n 2.00 


0.S 0.25 



iefore agitation. 

Before precipitation. Before agitation. 


93.0 95.00 

practice if it can be avoided. One never knows whether 
a careless operator on night shift is not habitually 
opening the wrong valve and allowing good solution to 
get away; especially with zinc-dust a sudden loss of 
precipitation may run up the grade of the 'waste' solu- 
tion : the cyanide loss is greatly increased and it may be 
necessary at any time to have to charge up a herd of 
sheep or a dozen cows to operation. The only point 
which Mr. Allen can make in favor of 'waste' solution 



July 4. 1914 

is that fouling is reduced, and 1 must say that to pre- 
cipitate and throw away solution is a crude method of 
avoiding this difficulty. There is always a loss of solu- 
tion in the tailing, so that new solution is being made all 
the time sufficient to offset fouling with careful opera- 
tion on normally clean ore. I say most emphatically that 
the slogan of a good mill superintendent should be 'Not 
a pound of water into the mill without getting a wash 
with it, and not a pound of solution out of the mill 
except with the tailing.' If a recovery of about 80% 
is possible by crushing and amalgamating in water, as 
at the Ilomestake, I admit that this principle does not 
apply ; but with only 60% as at the Dome, it does apply, 
and I should say that with about 63%, which Mr. 
Allen's figures show to be the Band recovery by amal- 
gamation, T would even risk a charge of heresy in hint- 
ing that it is mighty close. 

NoEr, Cunningham. 
Timmius. Ontario, June 14. 

[That it is extremely difficult to draw parallels be- 
tween the practice? at any two mills, it goes without 
saying. The innumerable factors which enter into the 
making of an economic ore treatment differ so widely 
at different properties, even in the same locality, that 
to state that the practice at one mill should be recog- 
nized as standard and another as deficient is mislead- 
ing, even though results would seem to warrant such 
a statement. The discussion on 'Simplification of Ore 
Treatment' has been a most interesting one, in that 
the subject is one toward which all metallurgists are 
making efforts, but we believe that only a very gen- 
eral simplification is possible of attainment in metal- 
lurgical practice. Those details and refinements which 
go to make up individual efficiency will continue to 
depend entirely upon local conditions which cannot be 
changed. The questions, however, which have been 
raised in this discussion have been timely, ami we trust 
may lead to a better understanding of the subject. — 

PlaftmMim Assay 

The Editor: 

Sir — Before rational steps can he taken to conserve 
our platinum resources and to recover that metal from 
the usual run of commercial ores, it is essential to 
develop simple and accurate methods for the deter- 
mination of the metal that may be successfully applied 
by general commercial assayers with the limited equip- 
ment usually at hand. I would, therefore, direct at- 
tention to certain difficulties in the three methods 
published by you in tabular form on page 814 of the 
May lb' issue. 

The first method requires the use of a reagent, 
Hj,0 2 , which is not ordinarily carried by assay offices. 
I may also add that perhaps the limits of accuracy of 
this separation when considerable relative quantities 
of An are to be separated from small amounts of Pt 
have not yet been sufficiently worked out. In the sec- 
ond method there are two points where great care 

and attention to details are required to secure any- 
thing like a clean separation. To dissolve the Ag in 
UNO.; and to leave the Pt undissolved requires ex- 
tremely close work, which cannot ordinarily be given 
in a commercial assay office, while it is practically 
impossible so carefully to adjust the strength of acid 
and temperature as completely to dissolve the An in 
aqua-regia and leave the Pt unattacked. As to the 
third method, some tests made in the New York assay 
office have shown that Cd does not always prevent the 
solution of some of the I't in assay buttons and this 
separation cannot he relied on. 

Fkedkrio P. Dewey. 
Washington. 1). ( '.. -May 26. 

DiffiLnsioira ©f Or© D@p<o>§lft§ 

The Editor: 

Sir — R. A. I'. Penrose's valuable paper on "Certain 
Phases of Superficial Diffusion of Ore Deposits' in the 
January number of the current volume of Economic 
Geology, reealls a .matter in which I have been inter- 
ested for some years. The secondary enrichment of 
orebodies by the downward migration of salts of the 
metals formed in the gossan is only one phase of a gen- 
eral process. From the miner's point of view it is per- 
haps the most important phase: but. as .Mr. Penrose 
points out, the emphasis which has been placed upon 
it for practical reasons should not blind us to the more 
general aspect of the process. The diffusion of ore- 
bodies throughout a larger volume of rock than that in 
which they were formerly contained is doubtless of 
common occurrence. In 1910 I called attention to the 
diffusion of ores at a meeting of the San Francisco 
section of the Mining and Metallurgical Society of 
America. The summary report of my remarks is as 
follows : 

"1. The ore at Ely is a secondary- deposition due to 
downward leaching from pre-existing orebodies at 
higher levels, now removed by erosion. These vanished 
orebodies may have been more concentrated as regards 
copper content than the present ores, which may he 
due to a process of diffusion rather than concentration. 

'"J. The mode of occurrence of the massive ore- 
bodies in the rhyolite of Shasta county indicates how 
such a derivation of the Ely ores could come about. 

•'3. These Shasta ores are chiefly massive bodies of 
pyrite with admixtures of ehalcopyrite. If these, by 
erosion and favorable relation to the groundwater, 
should have come into the /.one of active oxidation, the 
copper might well have been carried to lower levels and 
diffused as chalcocite and pyrite through the rhyolite. 
and the resulting gossan might subsequently have been 
removed, leaving a disseminated porphyry ore of the 
Ely type and no trace of the massive ore of the Shasta 

At the Toronto meeting of the International Geo- 
logical Congress. 1913. I again called attention, in the 

*M. & M. S. A., Bull. No. 23, May 1910. pp. 263. 264. 

July 4. 1914 



section dealing with questions in economic geology, to 
the need of recognizing by an appropriate name the 
general process of which both secondary enrichment 
and diffusion are but particular phases. Another phase 
of the process is that which is concerned with the pri- 
mary concentration of ores from the minutely dissemi- 
nated particles in both sedimentary and igneous rocks, 
in accordance with the view held, for example, by many 
geologists as to the origin of the zinc-lead deposits of 
the Mississippi Valley. I am satisfied that many of 
the shallow, rich ore deposits of Nevada are due to a 
process of concentration from decomposing igneous 
rocks. The rocks from which these ores are abstracted 
may, in a sense, be regarded as the gossan of an ex- 
tremely lean ore from which the salts of the metals are 
carried down by permeating waters to be deposited in 
favorable situations, determined by fractures, gouges, 
etc. The process is identical with that usually de- 
scribed as secondary enrichment and yet this term can- 
not be applied to it, since it results in primary concen- 
tration. This phase of the process realizes some of the 
ideas involved in the old theories of ore deposition 
from descending waters and by lateral secretion, but it 
differs from both. The important matter, as it seems to 
me, is that we should regard secondary enrichment, 
diffusion, and certain primary concentrations of ore. as 
phases of a general process the importance of which has 
not yet been fully recognized in economic geology. 

Andrew ('. Lawsov. 
Berkeley. California. .June 23. 

Rewsnomi off ftlhve Mmimig Law 

The Editor: 

Sir — Regarding the question of the 'Revision of tin- 
Mining Law.* 1 think it would be well for tile mining 
world to first analyze our present mining laws thor- 
oughly and find out why they arc inefficient. The pres- 
ent claim of 600 by 1500 ft. is just as good as a claim 
would be if it was 660 by 1820. I think a claim fol- 
lowing the dip of the vein is better than one with per- 
pendicular lines in so far as it has a tendency to keep 
a miner from locating unnecessary surface land with 
no outcrops, lint in revising a law that would make 
vertical lines, let it apply only to such lands as are 
known to have mineral or a possibility of mineral with 
no outcrop and then let the claim l>e 1500 by 1500. 

If one looks into the present mining laws, there is 
nothing much to condemn, excepting that there should 
be some regulation regarding assessment work. 
and the mineral lands should lie classified; that is, gold 
and silver. A claim under the present law should 
cover all that a prospector could ask for. If he can- 
not do an honest $100 worth of work per year upon 
such claims, he should forfeit them. 

• >n copper and baser metals, when a prospector holds 
from 6 to 12 or more claims as a group, I think $25 
per year of honest work performed should be sufficient. 
The miniiiL' law is plain and concise, but it has never 

been upheld or enforced. A man must make a valid 
discovery, he must have mineral in place, he must tie 
his claim to permanent monuments and objects, lie 
must stake his property. Now what more can you ask .' 
Hut the law is not carried out, and why not? Why lias 
the Government been so slow in asserting its right to 
the mineral upon all grant lands? Why has it allowed 
timber claims to be located on mining claims and min- 
eral lands, thus giving the miners' territory away.' The 
reservation of the Government's mineral right upon 
grant lands has never held. I know that the old canal 
grant in the Lake Superior country had about the same 
recognition that the railroad grants have had. An in- 
dividual buying land always found that exception in 
the deed, but mining corporations somehow obtained 
the land and mineral. Is it this that has caused the 
Government to be so slow about asserting i1s right to 
the mineral on railroad grants, from the fact that there 
was hundreds of millions at stake in the Lake Superior 
country ? 

One can forget the old canal grant, but it is time 
for the mining public to get together and not only 
recover the mineral upon all subsequent land entries, 
but to demand that which is theirs, that is. the min- 
eral on srrant lands and timber lands. Then frame 
laws that will not have a tendency to land monopoly. 
The law says honest discoveries must be made, but you 
cannot enforce these laws to the letter when the Gov- 
ernment has been a half century trying to find out 
it' they have the mineral on grant lands, which they 
explicitly specified they did have: yet officials seem 
afraid to reclaim that which belongs to the public. 

Do not reserve anything more from the poor home- 
steader unless you take that which belongs to us from 
the grant lands. The farmer and miner have both 
been imposed upon. They are willing to meet on an 
equal footing. There has never been any trouble be- 
tween them, and you will find if the miners will get 
together and demand the mineral belonging to them 
the old homesteader and farmer will be right at our 
backs making as much noise as any old prospector, 
miner, engineer, or miiiiiij; professor. 

I oppose an annual lax of $10 per claim; alter a 
man patents he miirht be able to pay tax. but while 
he holds his claim under location, I believe in annual 
work — $l(l() per claim on precious metals and $25 per 
claim upon semi-precious metals. Let this be done upon 
the property. When patent is granted, it should be 
at $2.50 per acre and carry annual work of $25 per 
claim on precious-metal claims and $12.50 per claim 
on semi-precious claims: or privilege to pay the amount 
to state or Government. *>n failure to pay or work 
for a period of three years, let the land go bark to the 
state, to work, sell, or open for relocation. Bach state 
should be divided into mining districts and cadi dis- 
trict have a recorder of all transactions in mining. 
Only claims on record should be valid. 

('. .1. Fky. 

Ilutton. California. January l!l. 



July 4, 1914 


Most of these are in reply to questions received by mail. Our readers are invited to ask questions and give 
information dealing with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

Carbide lamps are rapidly displacing other types in 
Lake Superior iron mines. 

The mass of the sun is 332,800 times the mass of the 
earth, the respective diameters being 865,000 and 7918 
miles. A body weighing 100 lb. on the earth's surface, 
would be about 3000 lb. on the sun. 

An alloy composed of from 85 to 87% of aluminum, 
9 to 11% of zinc, 2 to 4% of lead, and 1 to 3% of a 
strengthening element has been patented by Charles P. 
Van Gundy, of Catonsville, Maryland. 

To feed an average of 800 natives at the Lonely Reef 
mine in Khodesia, in 1913, with bread, beans, mealies 
(corn), monkey nuts, rice, green vegetables, rations, 
salt, meat, sugar, cocoa, kaffir corn, milk, and maizena, 
cost a total of $36,500, equal to about $46 per head per 

Electric power generated by mine power-plants of 
the St. John del Hey Mining Co., Brazil, during the past 
financial year, averaged 3314 hp. per day, at a cost of 
3.2c. per 24 hours. The total output was 26.429.006 hp. 
hours. The mine used 60% of the power, and the mills 
and machine sbops 36.81 per cent. 

A process for the separation of bismuth and copper, 
which consists in reducing the bismuth copper product, 
consisting chiefly of bismuth and copper, to a fine state, 
intimately mixing therewith a suitable compound con- 
taining combined sulphur, smelting said mixture to pro- 
vide crude bismuth and copper matte, and separating 
the copper matte from the said crude bismuth, has been 
patented by William Thum, of Hammond, Indiana. 

Tubing for boilers consists of three classes, lap-weld 
charcoal iron, lap-weld steel, and seamless steel. For 
tubes to withstand corrosive action, lap-weld steel 
tubes are satisfactory, they being manufactured by a 
process known as roll-knobbling whereby the steel 
receives a kneading action, making it uniformly dense, 
in beinL' worked down from the bloom to the plate. 
By this process it is more resistant to corrosion. The 
well known 'National' tube is made this way. 

Dust-fall in 'the neighborhood of cement plants has 
become a matter of considerable importance of late, as 
a result of litigation between certain cement companies 
and owners of land in the vicinity. According to J. 
P. Mitchell, of Stanford University, tests made at dis- 
tances of from 1.2 to 2.8 miles from a plant showed the 

amount of cement dust falling varied from 0.4 to 10.4 
lb. per acre per day, and field dust from 0.3 to 0.9 lb. 
per day. 

'Picking-up bottoms' is a phrase used in mining to 
describe the operation of removal of the last slice of ore 
in a stope, that is, the ore lying immediately under a 
level and forming the back of the overhand stope. The 


. CAufe ; 
La 'inttrnd, 

■'.' •.'■'"■ .'{ 

iJir •?• : ; *. : •-••" 



if 1 ' ' 

v. -. . .>..;-; ,i ' ;.v-> 


i'^L^S 1 ' £»'■• •-' '•'•'•'-•- 

f G*/rftr*y\ 






figure herewith illustrates a method of mining this ore 
adopted at Broken Hill and described by Andrew Fair- 
weather. Since the slice supports the bottoms of the 
level above, its removal necessitates picking them up; 
hence the phrase and its use in this connection. 

Many mine officials, foremen, or bosses who have 
spent years at a single mine do not see readily the 
necessity for mine signboards ; because they are entirely 
familiar with the mine workings, it does not occur to 
them that the average miner cannot in a short time ac- 
quire the same familiarity with conditions. In the 
United States today, both metal and coal miners are 
largely of a roving disposition. Many of them are 
foreigners who are more or less ignorant of English. 
As a class, they require guidance in the matter of pro- 
tecting themselves from accidental injury. Mine sign- 
boards are in use in many mining districts of the United 
States, according to Edwin Higgins and Edward Steidle 
of the Bureau of Mines. Although in no part of the 
country has the practice become general, there are 
isolated mines that have worked out an elaborate sys- 
tem of signboards. There has been no concerted action 
looking to the adoption of certain universal symbols or 
signs, although there are manufacturers of signs, and 
some local mining organizations now working toward 
this end. 

July 4, 1914 




Present Condition of the Mining Industry, and Factors Con- 
tributing to Important Development. — -Mr. Champion, 

TOWN Area. 

Mining development in the Leadville district this summer 
shows a marked increase over that of the past several years. 
Three new factors have helped to this end, which combine 
to form the beginning of another of the great revivals that 
have occurred periodically in the mineral activities of this 
area, namely: (1) two outlying districts, which for a num- 
ber of years have been considered as barren ground, are 
now producing a large tonnage of high-grade gold and silver 
ores; (2) a plant for the manufacture of zinc oxide from the 
lower grade carbonate ore is being constructed by the West- 
ern Zinc Mining & Reduction Co.: and (.'!) a leasing consoli- 
dation for unwatering the flooded area known as the 'down- 
town mining district' is rapidly nearing completion, and a 
similar enterprise is being promoted for pumping the water 
from the old famous Fryer Hill territory. 

In the Lackawanna area and the upper Half-Moon gulch, 
several new mines have been opened within the past year. 
The Mt. Champion property is now one of the largest gold- 
producing mines in the Leadville district. It is situated about 
IS miles from the nearest railroad, in a locality that has 
long been looked upon as most unpromising. Obstructions of 
every kind confronted the men who knew they had a mine, 
and were determined to develop it. A good road, eight miles 
long, had to be built, and machinery had to be transported 
to the ground, and buildings erected in a district that is 
noted for its severe winters and short summers. After the 
mine had been opened, and shipping had l>een under way for 
a few weeks, it was found that the character of the ore de- 
manded mill treatment in order to obtain the best results. 
A 50-ton mill was then erected at the foot of the range, about 
five miles from the mine, and a tram constructed to carry 
the ore. It seemed impossible that a mine could be made 
a success under such conditions, but it is now working steadily 
with a force of 75 men, and producing regularly 50 tons of 
ore per day which averages between 30 and 50 oz. gold. The 
mine is now developed by three adits, all on the vein at 
various depths, and the manager stated recently that there 
was $100,000 worth of ore blocked out. Other properties are 
showing equally favorable results, and it will be only a ques- 
tion of time until there will be several large producers in 
this district. 

The Sugar Loaf territory is the other 'no good' ground which 
has come prominently to the front within the last several 
months. Three important tunnel companies are now operat- 
ing In this district, and each of them is shipping a good 
tonnage of silver ore. The Dinero is the most productive at 
present, 100 tons per day being shipped, all of which con- 
tains rich silver-lead content. The Siwatch tunnel has opened 
a large body of lower grade material which Is being produced 
as fast as possible. The Virginias Consolidated properties 
recently developed the most important orebody that has been 
tcund for some time. A large vein of silver-bearing ore which 
assays np to thousands of ounces per ton was opened last 
month, and a steady tonnage Is now being shipped. Other 
smaller properties are being developed, and it appears that 
a numtx-r of them will soon be in the producing list. The 

interest of mining men all through the state is centred on 
this and the Lackawanna country, and men who know the 
district say that the recent discoveries in these localities will 
cause a revival of mining in Leadville that will rival the 
palmy days of the early eighties. 

The construction of the zinc-oxide plant is probably attract- 
ing more widespread attention than any other work in the 
district. This smelter, when finished, will handle carbonate 
of zinc which contains as low as 14% zinc. It will give a 
much more satisfactory market for the ore, and allow a more 
favorable contract to miners of the camp. The plant will 
be erected in units of 50-ton capacity each, and the first is 
about completed. As soon as it is in good running order, 
and the management is satisfied as to its efficiency, the other 
units will be erected as rapidly as possible, until a complete 
plant of 200-ton capacity is reached. The last two units will 
be equipped with roasting furnaces to deal with sulphide ores, 
and there is little doubt that if the industry proves as profit- 
able as it is expected to be, other concerns will enter the 
field with similar schemes. All this tends to throw a bright 
light on the zinc mining of the future. Leadville is for- 
tunate in its deposits of zinc ores, both in the carbonate and 
the sulphide zones. At present, several of the properties that 
have been idle for a score of years are being put into shape 
to resume operations in their zinc stopes, and as the demand 
srows the mining industry will keep pace with it. 

The third and perhaps the greatest factor in the advance 
of mining In the Leadville district is the proposal to dewater 
the mines of the down-town district. This territory covers 
an area one mile square, within which boundaries some of 
the largest mines of the district have been found. All of the 
properties have been worked out down to water-level, but 
heretofore no effort has been made to get at the orebodies 
that are known to exist below thiB point. Jesse F. McDonald, 
ex-governor, together with a number of Eastern capitalists, 
has secured a lease on all the ground within the basin, and 
is now preparing to start the actual work of unwatering and 
developing the formations at a depth of 1000 ft. Machinery 
is now being manufactured for the work, and all of the oper- 
ations will be done along the most modern lines. This enter- 
prise will do more to advance the general prosperity of the 
district than any other now under way. It will cause the 
reopening of numerous idle properties, and will give employ- 
ment to probably 1000 men. The success of this undertaking 
will induce the final agreement for the unwatering of the Fryer 
Hill territory, if it is not done before, and the two together 
will make a new Leadville. 

Dredges at Work, and Others Phohahi.e.— Colorado, Keystone, 
and Syndicate Mills. — Iron Mining. — Proposed Tax on 
Mine Output. — Bureau oi Science Work. 

Regardless of whatever else may be said regarding business 
in the Philippine Islands, the mining industry continues its 
steady development. With the starting of the new Umirai 
dredge, and of the new dredge on the Malaguit river, Para- 
cale, there are now six dredges at work in the territory. 
Some attention has been attracted lately to the Bued river, 
where that river debouches into the central plain. Here 
prospecting has been conducted with encouraging results. 
One California mining man recently said that If the prop- 



July 4, 1914 

erty were in the Sacramento valley there would be no diffi- 
culty in securing capital to put several dredges on it at once. 

An Australian, Mr. Murray, who has a patent device for 
saving black sands which collect on dredges, is visiting these 
districts. In several places black sands have been found to 
carry good gold content. August Heise, well known in Phil- 
ippine mining fields, has returned from the United States 
with engineers to examine his placer properties on the Hi- 
bong branch of the Agusan river, northeastern Mindanao. 
Mr. Humphries, the engineer in charge, brought a steam 
drill with him. 

Most encouraging reports come from the new Syndicate 
mill on the island of Masbate, as well as from the Keystone 
and the Colorado. The output of the Colorado is said to 






R. R completed R. R.under camrructron or prajec red 


be a large increase over previous years. The Syndicate mill 
is now being enlarged. 

Gold mining is still the most promising phase of the In- 
dustry, but in the Angat iron-ore district conditions are 
favorable for a much greater production of iron and the 
establishment of that industry on a sound basis. On Calam- 
bayanga island, at the mouth of Mambulao bay, Mr. Cavender 
is erecting a cupola to smelt the iron deposits found on that 
island. This deposit is one of the most favorably situated 
of all those found in the Philippines. 

Mining men have been deeply concerned lately with the 
attempt of the collector of internal revenue to place a 
tax of %% on the gross output of the mines. Many conver- 
sant with the condition of the Industry have felt that this 
is unjust, and would seriously cripple the industry at this 
time. The proj>osed tax was rejected by the commission. 
Failing in this, the collector has tried to class gold bullion 
as merchandise and thus bring it under a tax of 1.5%. A 
meeting of protest was recently held, and plans are under 
way to form a permanent mining association in the Philip- 
pines. It is fortunate in one way that this incident hap- 

pened, as it has revealed the necessity for cooperation on 
the part of the mining men. 

The Division of Mines, Bureau of Science, has recently 
lost the services of F. T. Eddingfield, mining engineer, who, 
after five years' service, now returns to the United States. 
The mining industry has profited considerably by his service 
in the islands, and appreciates the work he has done. Paul 
R. Fanning, metallurgist for three years in the division, is 
another good man whom the Bureau lost when the economy 
wave of the Democratic administration struck the islands. 
The two most important pieces of field work carried on by 
members of the Division of Mines lately are one by Warren 
D. Smith, chief of the division, who spent two months in 
north central Luzon making reconnaissances in hitherto geo- 
logically unexplored territory; and one by Wallace E. Pratt, 
who spent a long lime on the Caramuan peninsula making 
silimar reconnaissances. During Mr. Smith's work, consid- 
erable mineralization was noticed in the region just east of 
the Cordillera Central. Whether these lodes will prove to 
be profitable remains to be seen. 

Development work on the gilsonite deposits of Leyte has 
been actively started by the Bryan Landon company of Cebu 
and Iloilo. Fred Burdette, manager for the Camiguin North 
Mining Co., has begun operating on his sulphur property 
on the southern end of the island of Camiguin, north of 
Luzon. Some fine specimens of sulphur were recently exhib- 
ited by him at the Second Philippine Exposition in Manila. 
Mr. Seymour, a Wyoming coal operator at present in Manila, 
is looking into the coal situation. 

Labob Again. — Geology and the Need eor Moke In- 
vestigations. — Edna May. — Golden Hokse-Shoe Affaibs. 

The labor unrest, which appears to be general in Australia, 
was in evidence in this state at the end of April. A dispute 
at the Edna May mine, as to whether the ground being worked 
was wet or dry. was settled by the manager, who agreed to 
wet wages: that is, above the usual rate for dry ground. 
Then the shovelers on the Trans-Australian railway went on 
strike for $3.20 per shift, the wage being paid by the con- 
tractors at the head of the line; but, though the Common- 
wealth Government offered an increase of 20c, from $2. SO to 
$3 per shift, the men are still out. The latest phase of the 
unrest is represented by the fact that the committee of the 
Federated Miners' Union unanimously passed a resolution 
that on and after May 1 no unionist was to work where non- 
unionists were employed. This step was taken in sympathy 
with the employees of Millars Karri and Jarrah Co.. who are 
out on strike because four non-unionist carpenters are em- 
ployed. The members of the Employers' Union promptly re- 
taliated by passing a resolution that they would employ the 
best men offering, regardless of their politics or creeds, and, 
if any of the various unions withdrew their men on May 1, 
all employers of the state, in whatever industry engaged, 
would simultaneously close down and lock out all employees. 
The result of this prompt action was that the Federated Min- 
ers' Union held a general meeting on April 26, and decided 
to leave the question to be settled by the Australian Labor 
Federation at its meeting in Melbourne on May 11. It has 
just come to light that in two cases in which workers ceased 
work and broke the Arbitration Court's award, and were 
fined $48 and $4S0, respectively, by the magistrates, no fines 
had been paid. On this leaking out early in May, the West- 
ern Australian Government first stated that the fines had 
been paid, but finally admitted that they had not. Eventu- 
ally the first sum was collected, but the larger one was reduced 
to $24 by the executive. So much for labor governments. 

Ever since Malcolm Maclaren's visit to these fields in 1910. 
the Chamber of Mines has been urging on the state govern- 

July 4, 1914 



ment the advisability of increasing the geological staff, with 
the view to making an exhaustive examination of the gold- 
bearing areas to aid prospectors. To meet this demand, the 
government appointed five extra field geologists in 1911: but 
instead of attacking new ground, most of their investiga- 
tions have been confined to old workings, or merely follow- 
ing prospectors to new finds, and drawing deductions from 
the few 'pot-holes' sunk. The Chamber of Mines now says 
that "what it wants is a systematic geological survey, as 
careful, as thorough, as exhaustive, and as good as money 
can buy, and the best qualified, the best equipped, and the 
most widely informed expert obtainable to draw the deduc- 
tions from the data obtained." Most of the best known geol- 
ogists of the world have at one time or other inspected our 
mines, but only one of these visitors, Malcolm Maclaren, has 
published the conclusions he drew from the data obtainable. 
Against this we have had the experience of H. P. Woodward 
and S. Goeczel, who joined the government mines department 
in 1887 and 1890, respectively, and had mapped out the gold 
and mineral areas of Western Australia by 1893. In his 
Handbook of the Gold and Mineral Fields of Western Aus- 
tralia,' published in 1894, Mr. Woodward wrote of the Great 
Fingall lode: "This mine is called the Day Dawn, after the 
first clatm taken up on it. The stone is of a bluish mottled 
appearance, and the 'reef is of great size and well formed. 
It is a true fissure vein, but does not follow any definite 
course, striking west-northwest, then north-northwest, and 
so on to the north; but this is not of the least consequence, 
as from its well defined walls there is very little chance 
of Its cutting out." This mine was turned down in 1897 
by the Day Dawn Co. of Adelaide, after producing £75,000 
from 30,000 tons from a lens above 150 ft. It was then 
taken up by the Consolidated Murchison of Ixindon, and in 
1898 passed on to the Great Fingall company as a derelict. 
A second lens was found at 460 ft. and cut out at 1370 ft., 
and a third at 1700 ft. which still continues. Mr. Woodward, 
in his 'Handbook,' pointed out in 1894 regarding the Golden 
.Mile: "There is a large break in the country consisting prin- 
cipally of coarse-grained diorite extending over six miles from 
north-northeast to south-southwest, near the township of Kal- 
goorlie. Diabase (dolerite) dikes seem to have played an Im- 
portant role in the gold deposits here, and it is most probable 
that the gold emanation in the rich and extensive Kalgoorlie 
district took place in the period following these diabase erup- 
tions." The Kalgoorlie district is the only one mentioned 
by Mr. Woodward and Mr. Goeczel as containing this quartz- 
diabase, or dolerite, and none of the other geologists who 
have visited the country has ever mentioned the presence of 
a similar area elsewhere in the state, and until that is found 
a second Kalgoorlie is unlikely to eventuate. 

Since starting milling a year ago, the Edna May mine at 
Weston'B. over 100 miles west of Kalgoorlie, has produced 
$364,000 from 16,766 tons of ore and paid $103,000 in divi- 
dends. As the residue contains $5 per ton of recoverable metal, 
the output and profit will shortly be materially increased 
when the sand and slime plants start operation. The present 
trouble is the fact that successive intrusions of granite even- 
tually cut off the lode in the adjoining Greenfinch mine on 
the west, and similar intrusions are being encountered in the 
Kdna May. The first bar appeared in the shaft at 124 ft., and 
the second has now been encountered at 200 ft. The first was 
only 18 in. thick, but the second is proving considerably 
thicker. The lode is erratic in strike, underlie, and thickness, 
but is wonderfully consistent in gold content, and is from 5 to 
45 ft. wide in a generally east and west direction. Several 
adjoining claims on the east are looking promising, but the 
eranite Is making speculators shy of investing in them. No 
i'overnment geologist has visited the district, but other geolo- 
gists wisely shake their heads and say nothing after inspect- 
ing the Edna May and Greenfinch. 

In spite of the excellent developments recorded at the 2630 
and 2780-ft. levels of the Golden Horse-Shoe mine, the Com- 
pany continues to get deeper into debt. On January 1, 1913, 
the credit balance brought forward was $160,000. Since then, 
to the end of March 1914 the net profit earned was $105,000, 
a total of $265,000. Debenture interest has absorbed $25,000, 
debenture redemption $56,000, and dividend paid in October 
$288,000, a total of $369,000. This leaves a debit balance of 
$104,000. The position is unfortunate, and the London man- 
aging director. E. Protheroe Jones, is on his way to this 
country to investigate matters at the mine. 

March gold returns from all mines in the state totaled 
$1,967,000, and dividends $578,200. 

Ciii-okination Applied to Complex Sulphide Ores. — Univer- 
sity of Utah Solves Metallurgical Difficulty. — Chris- 
tknsex Process. — Hoi.t-Dern Furnaces. 

In the treatment of low-grade ore deposits Utah has long 
been in the lead, being the pioneer in the development of 
the porphyry deposits. At present it is solving the question 
of treating the low-grade ore containing a combination of 
lead, silver, copper, zinc, and gold. By July 15 there will 
be three mills in the state treating these ores by means of 
chlorination. The process is by no means new, but the meth- 
ods employed are. They were worked out in the University 
of I'tah experimental plant something over two years ago 
by N. C. Christensen. a post-graduate student, and T. N. Holt 
of the University staff. The first practical use made of the 
work was at the Mines Operating Co. plant at Park City, 
where George H. Dern and associates have a 10-year lease on 
the old stope fillings above the 900-ft. level of the Ontario 
mine. Here a great deal of experimental work has been 
carried out, especially in the mechanical end of the work. 
At present the Mines Operating Co. plant is running success- 
fully on ore that will assay about 12 oz. silver, 2 to 4% lead, 
and 0.5 to \% copper. A saving of 80% is being made. Re- 
cently a plant was built for refining the gold and silver on 
the ground. The second plant is at Silver City, where Jesse 
Knight is backing N. C. Christensen in a plant that is using 
the same method of treatment. The operators are just get- 
ting this mill over mechanical difficulties which caused it 
to run intermittently. The third plant is that of the Park 
City Milling Co., which, under the management of George 
H. Scibird, is remodeling the old Grasselli mill at Park City 
lor the purpose of handling ores from the American Flag and 
custom ores. This plant it is expected will be in operation 
by July 15. 

The method is a simple one. The ores are given a chlorid- 
izing roast by means of a mixture of salt and coal. The 
fumes from this roast are drawn into a condensing tower 
and later used for leaching the roasted ores. The chief 
trouble thus far encountered has been with the roasting fur- 
nace. As there was no one on the market that was satis- 
factory, it was necessary to devise a roaster for the occa- 
sion. At the Mines Operating Co. plant, hand-fed furnaces 
have been used which have been unsatisfactory in result and 
in economy of fuel. At the Knight-Christensen mill a round 
furnace with a flat revolving grate, heated by means of oil 
jets and a downward draft, is being tried. The roaster for 
the Park City Milling Co. mill has not been selected. 

A new roaster known as the Holt-Dern furnace has been 
used for the past three months successfully at the Mines Oper- 
ating Co. plant. This experimental furnace has 10 tons capac- 
ity, but has demonstrated that it eliminated dust or any 
volatilization of minerals. Resides that, it is declared it 
will save 50c. per ton in fuel. A new furnace along this 
line is being designed, and it is probable that all the furnaces 
at the Mines Operating Co. plant will, in the future. !»' 



July 4, 1914 

Holt-Dern machines, although it is declared that Dwight- 
Lloyd sintering machines can be used. The Holt-Dern ma- 
chine it is declared roasts more evenly than any other, and 
actual tests have shown that a 10% greater extraction can 
be made from the ore. The furnace that is being designed 
will have a capacity of about 40 tons of ore per day. It is 
8 by 10 ft., and has a depth of approximately 5 ft. The 
chief feature is the grates. The grates are about a foot wide 
each and extend the width of the furnace. Each grate is 
made up of iron strips or bars half an inch wide and set half 

of the grates is set in motion and the ore drawn off from 
the hopper. Everything has been so arranged that the fur- 
nace is as nearly automatic as possible. One man can care 
for the feeding, the shaking, and the taking off of the roasted 
ore. The ore from the roaster is placed in open tanks at the 
Park City plant, while at Silver City it is removed to barrel 
tanks. The barrel tanks have a filter at one end through 
which the chlorine solutions are washed out. The barrel is 
then tipped the other way and the waste is placed on a con- 
veyor belt and sent to the dump. The solutions pass through 


an inch apart. The upper edge of the bars are equipped with 
half-inch teeth. Each grate is fixed to move over a roller 
bearing. The base for the bearing is also slotted so that 
the material drops down. Attached to each grate is an eccen- 
tric which has a movement or drag of 1% in. The eccen- 
trics are run by the same shaft. When these are set in 
motion the roasted cake is practically filed off, falls down 
through the grates and into the hopper below. The grates 
are set a half-inch apart and adjacent grates have an alter- 
nate motion. Suspended through the centre of the length 
of the hopper below is the air-pipe which supplies the blast 
for the furnace. The feed is from the top, and the roast is 
made at the rate of about one foot per hour. Arrangements 
are also made for the automatic feeding of the furnace. At 
the top of the furnace, which has a movable cover, there is 
a flue through which the fumes are drawn off. This is operated 
by an exhaust fan. 

The furnace is started by covering the grates with several 
inches of ore over which is spread chips soaked in oil. As 
soon as this is well under way, the feed, which is ore mixed 
with salt and coal, is started. This makes a continuous 
operation, with about four feet of ore and roasted material 
resting on the grates. As roasted ore is needed the shaking 

launders to precipitating tanks. The leaching by the barrel 
tanks takes about five hours. 

Gold Mining in Guysbobocgh County. — Water Power Avail- 
able. — New Railway. 

Within the last few months, gold mining in this province 
has received a little more impetus from the steady yet 
quiet success of one or two operating companies situated 
mainly in Guysborough county. During the last year a total 
of 7324 tons; of ore was mined and crushed, yielding on the 
average $6.14 per ton treated. This is about the same return 
as the previous year. Most of the gold extracted was ob- 
tained from four mines, and of these, three, the Beaver Dam. 
Caribou, and Gold River, had a profitable year, the yield 
being $12. $14.50, and $15 per ton, respectively. In compar- 
ison with these results, the remainder of the mines in oper- 
ation show a low average return. Nineteen companies in 
all were at work throughout the year or during part of it. 

A scarcity of fuel and the transport difficulties have al- 
ways been drawbacks to gold mining northeast of Halifax. 

July 4. 1!»14 



In the general advance of systematic management, atten- 
tion has been drawn to the water-power of the province; and 
although most of the catchment areas are limited, on account 
of the topography of the country, still an attempt is being 
made to use it to advantage, to overcome in some measure 
the growing scarcity of wood fuel and the high cost of coal. 
At the mine of the Goldenville Mining Co., a dam has been 
built at the Liscomb falls, which gives a head of 40 ft., and 
this together with one of about 15 ft. provides approximately 
500 hp., used mainly in pumping and crushing operations. 

The building of a branch railway to pass through the min- 
ing districts of Halifax and Guysborough. running from Dart- 
mouth on Halifax harbor northeast, and passing the heads 
of all the harbors on the coast of Canso and Guysborough. 
on the Straits of Canso, has been started. When finished, 
this line will be a great boon to the mining companies in 
regard to the easy transport of machinery and supplies. 

Nohp of the recent discoveries of tin, tungsten, manganese, 
and antimony ores have proved to be of any great value. On 
the tungsten area, only about 10 tons of scheelite was ex- 
tracted, although considerable development and prospecting 
work was undertaken by the company. Operations have ceased 
entirely on the antimony areas at West Gore. The discovery 
of manganese, recently reported in Guysborough country, is 
still unproved. The ore is a fine-grained pyrolusite. 



King, Adam, Web Foot, and Mable Claims. 

Sixty-five tons of silver-lead ore, assaying $250 per ton 
has been hauled from the Silver King claim to Mayo landing 
on the Stewart river, for shipment to the Consolidated Mining 
£ Smelting Co.'s smelter at Trail, B. C. The Silver King is 
situated 28 miles northeast of Mayo landing. The vein where 
0|)ened is 4 ft. wide, striking approximately south 15 west 
with a dip of 62' east. Both walls are well defined. The ii;tnu 
ing wall is schist, and the foot-wall quartzite. Development 
work is being done through an incline shaft, which has reached 
a depth of 70 ft. The owner of the property, H. W. Mc 
Whorter, intends to continue the shaft to the 300-ft. level this 
summer. On the Adam claim, 2300 ft. from the shaft on the 
Silver King. Mark Evans has uncovered a vein 5 ft. wide, with 
two bands of galena in it, varying from l'j to 3 in. wide, 
which assay high in silver. As he is prospecting nearly in 
line with the strike of the Silver King vein, it is no doubt 
a continuation of the same. Owing to there being from 10 to 
20 ft. of frozen gravel (glacial drift) to sink through before 
reaching solid formation, and which makes prospecting for 
the vein both slow and expensive, Jack Alvinson and .1. E. 
Ferrel, owners of the Web Foot claim, adjoining the Silver 
King on the northeast, have fitted up a churn-drill to prospect 
with. Grant Huffman, on the Mable claim, has a shaft down 
28 ft. and Intends to drive and try to cross-cut the vein. 
Fifty-four claims have been staked and recorded in the vicinity 
of these properties; not having a summer road, quite a num- 
ber had provisions and supplies hauled in before the snow 
melted and will prospect during the summer. The Yukon 
Council has voted for an expenditure of $17,000 for roads in 
this district this summer, $5000 of which will be spent build- 
ing a road to the silver-lead properties. The appropriation 
of $17,000, while not sufficient to build many miles of wagon 
road in a country like this, is evidence, however, that the 
Dominion Government will be willing to do more as develop- 
ment of the district proceeds. The opening of rich silver ore 
has attracted a great many prospectors, and quite a number 
are out in the hills mound here this summer. The outlook 
for the future is bright for this district. A stampede is 
neither expected nor desired. As yet the properties arc in 
the earliest state of development. A prosperous and steady 
producing mining camp will be here in the near future. 


Connecticut Cobi-ohation and Chattanooga Coppeb Co., 
Two New Companies.— Mobe English Capital in Colo- 
rado. — Litigation. 

.Midsummer is always unproductive of news in New York, 
and the events of the week are of no great significance. 
The Connecticut Zinc Corporation of Wyandaugh has been 
incorporated, with a capital of $1,000,000, to mine zinc ores 
in New York and Missouri. The incorporators are William 
G. Phillips, who has promoted other zinc mines; Michael 
.1. Riordan, a Democratic politician of Brooklyn; and Hugh 
.!. Moran, of Port Richmond, Staten Island. The significance 
of Wyandaugh is not clear; the nearest approach to the 
name is the village of Wyandanch, not far beyond Hicks- 
vills, on Long Island. 

The Chattanooga Copper Co., capitalized at $500,000, has 
been organized. J. I. Carter being president; John Stagmeier, 
first vice-president; G. H. Miller, second vice-president; S. 
E. Whitaker, secretary: and P. B. Carter, treasurer. The 
Company owns 200 acres of land a short distance northeast 
of the Ducktown Sulphur. Copper & Iron Co.'s property in 
the Ducktown district, Tennessee, which it has been explor- 
ing by diamond-drilling. Evidently the results have been 
sufficiently encouraging to justify further exploration. The 
Ducktown district is an old one, and it would be interesting 
if a new producer should be developed there. Those in- 
terested in the new Company are, as the name indicates, all 
business men in Chattanooga. 

An American property of which we hear little on this 
side is the St. John Mines (Colorado), Ltd., on the west 
side of Glacier mountain, about one and one-half miles south 
of Montezuma, Summit county, Colorado. Last year E. J. 
and 10. L. A. Munby sold a group of 19 claims containing 
silver-lead and zinc ores to English investors, who have 
formed this Company. E. H. Piatt has estimated that the 
ore reserves amount to 93,000 tons of probable ore, and 
23,00(1 tons ot stope-filling which can be milled. The mill- 
ing ore is said to contain a gross content of $30 of silver- 
lead and zinc, while the high-grade ore now being shipped 
to smelters is said to yield $35 per ton net. Development 
work is reported as showing good ore. The mill is being 
remodeled. The Company is capitalized at £75,000, and 255,000 
nut of the 300,000 shares have been issued. For the prop- 
erty, £3000 in cash and £30,000 in shares was paid, while 
120,000 cash and £5250 in shares was paid to the promoters. 
Several large companies have bad a good deal of trouble 
wilh litigation lately, and the minority stockholders in the 
Alice Gold & Silver Mining Co. have started a suit against 
the Anaconda under the Sherman anti-trust law, as men- 
tioned in this journal of June 27. Probably nothing much 
will come of the suit itself except to relieve the 'psychologi- 
cal depression' In the legal industry. E. A. Wall has with- 
drawn his petition for a receiver for the Consolidated Cop- 
permines, and the reports which are always circulating as 
lo the plans of that Company now say that an experimental 

flotation plant will be built. W. O. Allison has succeeded 

in his attempt to oust F. A. Heiuze from the Ohio Copper 
Co. New rolls are being put in the Ohio mill, and its capac- 
ity after July 15 is expected to be 3000 tons per day. Just 

now 2000 to 2300 tons per day is being milled.- The Old 

Dominion litigation still drags on its weary way. Not long 
;igo the Court of Errors and Appeals of New Jersey, the 
highest court in the state, issued a decision permitting the 
Old Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co. to pay a spe- 
cial dividend of $10 per share, amounting to $1,620,000, out 
of the proceeds of its action against A. S. Bingham. God- 
frey Hymns, who sought to prevent this payment, is indefat- 
igible in litigation, however, and will doubtless at once bring 
fresh suits. 



July 4. 1914 


The news of the week as told by our special correspondents and reflected by the local press. 



Recent arrivals at Dawson state th;it there is nothing being 
found at Chisana outside of last year's discoveries. Wood 


costs $100 per cord. It is doubtful whether there will be 
over 60 days' sluicing for the season. 


A new dredge is being constructed on Otter creek for Riley 
and Marston. 

Cochise County 

Large crushing machinery has been delivered at the Junc- 
tion shaft of the Calumet & Arizona property. It will be 
ready for work in a month or so. and will handle about 
1400 tons of sulphide ore per day from this and the Briggs 
shaft. Later on the Hoatson ore will be sent to the plant 
also. Cutting of the large pumping station at 1800 ft. in 
the Junction shaft is proceeding satisfactorily. This station 
will probably drain the Denn area, as well as upper levels 
in the Junction. The company will add to the electric equip- 
ment of its plant a belt-driven General Electric generator. 
2400 amperes at 24 volts and 4800 amperes at 12 volts, with 
direct-connected exciter. 

Through Walter Douglas, the Phelps-Dodge company has 
bought the Tombstone mines for $500,000 from the receiver 
in bankruptcy, A. L. Grow. This was the only bid for the 
property. Heavy flow of water has hampered work at these 
mines in the past. 

Gila County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Underground work in the In- 
spiration mine has been hindered by shortage of air. Another 
compressor is now at work supplying 3000 cu. ft., making a 
total of 7500 cu. ft. per minute available. At the new mill 
the trestle should be finished in a few days. A composition 
roofing material is being laid on the main mill building. A 

good deal of riveting remains to be done on the concentrate 
bins. Work is in progress on the concentrator transformer 
and distributing station. The latest addition to the test-mill 
is five Metals Recovery Co.'s pneumatic flotation machines 
and auxiliary equipment, which are to be given a thorough 
test to compare their efficiency with • Minerals Separation 
process. Although the two processes depend upon the same 
basic principle, the means of acquiring the final result are 
quite different. As soon as the necessary parts are received 
from the East, a series of experiments are to be started with 
the Bradley preliminary crushers, to determine the best steel 
for rolls and dies. These machines, which gave good results 
on a dry brittle ore. were found to wear excessively in crush- 
ing the Inspiration damp ores, but with a change to one, 
or a combination of modern steel alloys, it is thought that 
much better results will be obtained. Work is proceeding 
on the power-plant at the smelter site. Foundations for the 
turbo-generator have been poured. As the new 25-ton slag- 
pots, recently received, are not designed for fast haulage 
around sharp curves, the idea of obtaining slag from Globe 
for the reverberatory bases has been abandoned. Instead, 
a blast-furnace obtained from the Old Dominion smelter is 
being erected on the furnace site, so that the slag can be 
made as required. The furnace will probably be ready within 
a week, and the foundations will be poured as soon as pos- 
sible, as this work is already far behind. 

Miami, June 28. 

Santa Cruz County > 

In the lengthy suit of F. J. Heney for a third share in the 
Three R. mine, the court at Tucson awarded him $200,000 on 
June 29. Full details of this case have been published in 
The Oasis of Nogales. 

Yavapai County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Good gold-bearing veins have 
been opened by prospectors on Curry creek, and Granite 

creek. Two feet of galena ore has been cut at 400 ft. in the 

Swastika mine. It is similar to the ore shipped some time 
ago, and which contained up to 800 oz. silver per ton. 

Mayer, June 25. 


Amador County 

(Special Correspondence.) — In the suit of the Kennedy Ex- 
tension Mining Co. v. the Argonaut Mining Co. for $1,000,- 
000 for wrongful extraction of ore and other claims. Judge 
Fred H. Wood gave his decision on June 29 in favor of the 
Argonaut company. The latter Company is entitled to retain 
the gold recovered from ore from the vein in dispute. The 
principal issue was as to the ownership of the Argonaut vein. 
The plaintiffs claimed that no vein apexed in the Argonaut 
from end-line to end-line, and that the orebodies in dispute 
were not on the Argonaut vein at all, but on a vein apexing 
in the Muldoon claim, owned by plaintiff. The defendants 
upheld the continuity of the Argonaut vein, showing that it 
could be followed from the north end-line, underneath a lava 
cap, southerly through the claim beyond a point where it 
would cover the orebodies in dispute. They were also able 
to show that continuous stoping had taken place from the 
bottom of the Argonaut mine up to the 280-ft. level, and that 
from there to the claimed apex underneath the lava-capped 
lode line the vein could be followed all the way, although not 
of large or high enough value to justify further stoping. 

Julv 4. 1914 



The plaintiffs attempted to offset this demonstration of the 
continuity of the Argonaut vein matter by an elaborate 
theory of faulting, claiming first an overthrust fault, the 
existence of which was practically conceded by experts for 
both sides, and in addition to that a normal faulting of sev- 
eral hundred feet which they claimed would destroy the vein 
continuity of the Argonaut. The opinion of the court is not 
available for examination at this time. The case was tried 
for the plaintiff by Messrs. Perry and Dailey, and for the 
defendant by Messrs. Curtis H. Lindley and William R. 

Colby, all of San Francisco. A recent cable to London 

showed that the Plymouth Consolidated equipment was as 
follows: 20% of shaft guide in place, mill 65' i completed. 
and buildings 70% completed. 
Jackson. June 30. 


The Guggenheim interests, through their manager, O. C. 
Perry, have acquired a large area of ground on Butte creek, 
five miles from Chico. This was owned by the Drexler people. 
One of the Company's dredges at Oroville is to be dismantled 
and rebuilt on the new site this summer. The dredge operat- 
ing on the American river near Auburn is returning good 

Nevada County 

The North Star Mines Co. has declared its second quarterly 

dividend, of $50,000, for the current year. The Brunswick 

Consolidated has also declared a dividend of Oc. per share. 

amounting to $1K,000. The annual meeting of the Zeibright 

Mining Co. was held in Nevada City on June 2.1. Develop- 
ment is to be commenced on its property in Bear valley. 


The copper deposits on the west slope of the east range 
of the Sierra Nevada, to the northeast of Indian valley, and 

i < 

Mm. ^s^q Q 




embraced in the claims of the Engels Copper Mining Co., are 
described in Economic Oeology for June, by H. W. Turner and 
A. F. Rogers. The nearest railroad point is Keddie on the 
Western Pacific line, 30 miles distant by wagon road. Tin- 
ore in the main Kngels mine occurs in a fresh massive 

dioritic rock. The most abundant metallic minerals are 
magnetite, bornite, and chalcopyrite. Pyrite is conspicuously 
absent. In the Superior mine, three miles away and owned 
by the Company, the copper minerals are chiefly along joint 
planes, and appear more like veins. The ore is bornite and 
chalcopyrite in a gangue of a green fibrous hornblende. A 
150-ton mill employing the Minerals Separation flotation 
process is being erected to treat these ores. At present 65 
men are employed under the direction of E. E. Paxton. 

Sierra County 

(Special Correspondence. ) —A good development was made 
recently in the Motor gravel mine, in the Port Wine district. 
The gravel so far averages about $10 per cu. yd. Operations are 

conducted through a 1100-ft. adit. A. M. Davis is manager. 

The Iowa drift mine, in the Scales Diggings district, is to be 
developed by San Francisco and Oakland people. An adit 
2000 ft. Ions will be driven to cut the lava-capped channel. 
Win. C Pershbaker is consulting engineer. 

Port Wine, June 25. 

The Kate Hardy mine, on Oregon creek, is developing well. 
High-grade ore was cut recently in a raise above the main 

A very rich shoot of gold ore was opened in the Tightner 
mine at Alleghany on June 29. For several days the mine 
was producing about $1000 per day, and the new shoot has 
yielded $10,000 so far. \k County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The Omega mine has been 
bonded to Mrs. M. A. Capell and Mrs. A. D. Ireland, of Salt 
Lake City, and operations will begin immediately under the 
direction and supervision of Joseph Loney. The property has 
been extensively developed by C. W. Ayers, and is equipped 
with modern mining and milling machinery. It is rated among 

the most promising mines in the Rawhide ditsrict. Rich 

ore is being extracted from a mine near Steven's bar bridge 
by Fred Klein, owner of the property. Good results arc 
obtained by grinding the ore in an arrastre, but this method 
may be abandoned and a mill erected if prospects contirrtre 
good. The vein is about 8 ft. wide. — — Development work 
has been in progress for several months at the Louisiana mine. 
n< ar Tuolumne, and within a few days the milling of ore 

will begin. A large compressor has just been installed. 

The shaft of the App mine, at Stent, is being repaired, pre- 
paratory to active mining operations. The property is in 

cbarge of Alex. Chalmers. The vein at the Wheal Hough. 

near Soulsbyville. has been cut 300 ft. below the surface, and 
driving east and west will be commenced at once. The vein 

assays well where cut. The adit which is being driven to 

drain the Springfield Tunnel & Development Co.'s mine, and 
which will be more than a mile in length, is in 1300 ft. 
W. M. Hall, of San Francisco, and S. Bogle, of Tacoma, two 
of the directors of the Company, have just returned to their 

homes from a visit to the property. The new 5-stamp mill 

ai the Hope mine, near Sonora. has been in operation for 
several days, and it is reported that the ore is yielding 
satisfactory returns. 

Sonora, June 27. 

The old Sugarman mine, on Bald mountain, is yielding its 
owners some rich pockets of gold ore. 


Gilpin County 

After being shut down for about six months, operations 

ate to be resumed at the du Pont-Kelley syndicate mines at 

Quartz hill, the German, White-Kirke and Belcher, which 

produce high-grade uranium ore. Forbes Rickard is manager. 

Montrose County 
Korty tons of carnottte ore averaging 12', uranium oxide. 



July 4, 1914 

and worth $43,200, was shipped from Salida to New York 
on June 23. It came from the Paradox field. The cost of 
mining and delivering a ton of this ore averages $65 per ton, 
of which $32 is for mining, and $25 for transport. County (Cripple Creek) 
It is expected that preliminary work on extensions of the 

Roosevelt drainage tunnel will be finished in a few days. 

The Howard shaft of the Mary McKinney company is to be 
sunk from 600 to 750 ft. Regular ore production is coming from 

this shaft. Eighteen inches of ore worth $40 gold per ton, 

and containing seams of sylvanite, has been cut at 100 ft. in 

the Gold Bond mine on Gold Hill. Rich float' ore has 

been found on some fractional claims on the south slope of 

Beacon hill. The Golden Cycle company has completed a 

station on No. 17 level, and is now cross-cutting to the ore- 
shoots. The shaft is being sunk 125 ft. deeper. The electric 
pumps at No. 16 level are raising 450 gal. of water per minute. 
The Company is mining 5000 tons of ore, and 25 sets of lessees 
are extracting 2000 tons per month. Dividends totaling $270,- 
000 have been paid this year. 


Idaho County 

A good deal of interesting work is under way in the Elk 
City district. A 5-stamp mill is working at the Black Pine 

mine. H. B. Supplee is manager. Development is being done 

steadily at the Colonel Sellars, and Mrs. M. A. Parr intends to 

erect a mill. In the Strong claims is 8 ft. of $8 to $17 ore. 

A 20-ton mill is operating at the Mascot. A. Kincaid has 

given a bond to Theodore L. Lammers of Spokane for the 
Evergreen Consolidated and Dewey groups, consisting of 14 
claims, about eight miles from Grangeville, on the Clear- 
water river. The bond includes all equipment on the prop- 
erty, also a fine assay office, and water for 250 hp. from this 
river. About 7000 ft. of development has been done on the 
property in the last 15 years, and large bodies of gold-copper 
ore are opened. The equipment will be installed by Spokane 
manufacturers, and will first operate on the high-grade free- 
milling ores from the St. Patrick claim. 
Shoshone County 

The Yankee Boy Mining Co. shipped 271 tons of ore worth 
$35,461 in 1913, making a profit of $10,915. Profits of all 
this county's mines last year now totals $4,787,690. 

The Bunker Hill & Sullivan company paid dividend No. 
202, of $81,750, on July 3, making a total of $15,301,500 to date. 

Men are overhauling the Blackhorse concentrator, in the 
Murray district of Idaho, to be used for milling the ores 
of the Paragon Consolidated mine, of which L. W. Stedman 
is manager. New rolls and a Harz jig have been installed, 
and it was expected that the alterations would be completed 
last week. The Paragon ores contain lead and zinc, and it 
is said the Blackhorse mill does good work separating 

both, paving approximately 75% of the metal content. Work 

has been resumed at the St. James mine, adjoining the Sun- 
set mine, on Sunset peak, near Wallace, owned by W. A. 


One of the worst storms of recent years was raging on 
Lake Superior at the end of last week. Many steamers were 
reported in trouble and there were rumors that three sank 
on the north shore. All telegraph and telephone wires are 
down. The large steel steamer Mataafa stranded on the 
breakwater piers while trying to enter Superior harbor on 
June 27. She was released and towed to the Great Northern 
ore docks. 


Jasper County 
The Clifford Dry Concentrating Co.'s plant at Duenweg is 

being dismantled, after experimenting for over a year. A 

flotation plant is being operated by Hays & Thomas on the 
Underwriters' lease, west of Joplin. The process is a secret' 


Montana's mine output of gold, silver, copper, lead, and 
zinc in 1913, according to Victor C. Heikes, of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, was valued at $61,900,546, against $64,754,613 
in 1912, a decrease of $2,854,067, due mainly to the decreased 
output of gold and copper. The value of silver, lead, and zinc- 
combined was $3,771,202 greater than in 1912, while the 
value of the gold and copper was $6,625,269 less than in 1912. 
The production of gold in 1913 was valued at $3,493,432, as 
against $3,625,235 in 1912. The production of silver in 1913 
was 13,819,201 oz., against 12,731,638 oz. in 1912. Copper 
decreased from 309,738,873 lb. in 1912 to 287,828,699 lb. in 
1913. Lead increased from 7,446,749 lb. in 1912 to 10,935,827 
lb., in 1913. Montana's zinc ores In 1913 yielded 88,673,083 
11). of spelter, against 26,918,881 lb. in 1912. 
Cascade County 

Work on the new power-plant of the Montana Power Co. 
at Great Falls, on the Missouri river, is so far advanced that 
it is likely that part of it will be in operation by January 1, 
1915. At the dam, 50,000 cu. yd. of concrete has been poured, 
the daily rate being from 1300 to 1400 yd. Power-house foun- 
dations above water-level are finished. Six 15,000-hp. units 
are to be installed. About 500 men are employed in the 
camp. Six miles upstream, at Rainbow falls, the Company 
has six 6000-hp. units at work. At Thompson falls, on Clark's 
fork of the Columbia river, a plant of about 40,000 hp. is 
being constructed. The St. Paul railroad will probably take 
65,000 hp. from the Great Falls plant. 

Sii.verbow County 

The Edith May vein has been cut at 2800 ft. in the North 
Butte mine, where it is 3Va ft. wide, assaying 12.5% copper 

and 13 oz. silver per ton. The Anaconda company will add 

to the electric drive equipment of its plant 19 induction motors 
ranging from 25 to 50 hp.. all of which have been ordered 
from the General Electric Company. 

Churchill County 

The Nevada Hills Mining Co. reports as follows for May: 
Ore treated, 5300 tons; average value, $7.99 per ton; loss in 
residue, 80.5c; net profit $5251; development, 548 ft.: cost, 
$1.08 per ton; total resources. $220,893. Profits were reduced 
by shaft sinking and other work. 

Eureka County 

Following the addition of a toothed roll crusher, ball-mill, 
classifiers, a 14 by 24 -ft. Oliver filter, and other apparatus, the 
Buckhorn mill is now treating 300 tons per day. which is 
almost full capacity. 

Esmeralda County 

The Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co. acquired 87%, or 592.- 
000 of 680,500 issued shares of Aurora Consolidated, which 
is capitalized at $1,000,000, the basis being $877,000 valuation 
of the entire property, including the mill which has a capacity 
of 500 tons per day and has just commenced operations. This 
price is $225,000 less than stipulated in the original option. 
The Knight directorate has resigned and George Wingfield 
was elected president. A. H. Howe, secretary-treasurer: other 
directors: Albert Burch. .1. H. Miller, Charles E. Knox. Frank 
Manson, and Henry M. Hoyt. The mill was designed by Kirk 
and Leavell of Salt Lake City. Mr. Leavell, who remains in 
charge several months, will lie succeeded as manager by L. H. 
Metzger, who has been with the Goldfield Consolidated six 
years, latterly as mine superintendent. 

The Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co. reports as follows for 
May: Development totaled 2388 ft. at a cost of'$6.91 per foot. 

July 4. 1914 



Royalty from lessees amounted to $3491, less cost of milling 
and transport. There was nothing of importance to report 
from the Combination, Clermont, and Red Top-Laguna mines 
The 35 sill on the new level in the Sheets-Ish section of the 
Mohawk mine was extended to the north, and produced 88 
tons of $10 ore. On the first level in the Francis-Mohawk 
section, the 111-KX sill was extended and produced 112 tons 
of $18 ore. On the second level the 248-B sill in the Mohawk 
vein was extended and produced 250 tons of $10 ore. Develop- 
ment on the second level in the Mohawk Jumbo vein produced 
188 tons of |14 ore. The 410-U sill on the fourth level in the 
same section produced 133 tons of $10 ore. Development in 
the Mohawk vein near the old 407 stope, between the third and 
fourth levels, produced 460 tons of $14 ore. 

There was 30,181 tons of ore treated yielding a net profit 
of $155,049. Total costs were $5.81 per ton, including $3.07 
for mining and development, $1.68 for treatment, and 5c. for 
examining the Aurora mine in Mineral county. 

Humboldt County 

Samples from the Seven Troughs Coalition mine at 1150 
and 1200 ft. depth vary from $91 to $2787 per ton. On the 
former level 10 in. of rich ore has been opened for 190 ft. A 
small car of concentrate recently returned $383 per ton. 
Nye CorxTY 

It is reported that the large property of the Commercial 
Mines & Milling Co. is under option to outside capitalists. 
The claims included are the Crescent, Reilly Fraction. Jump- 
ing Jack, Stray Dog. Little Grey, Indian Camp, and Chipmunk, 
also share interests in the Mustang, April Fool, and others. 

with control of the War Eagle 20-stamp mill A 50-ft. 

head-frame has been erected at the White Caps. The vertical 

shaft is to be sunk from 210 to 310 ft. At the Associated 

mill, the Consolidated will use 10 stamps, a tube-mill, and 
cyanide plant. 

During the week ended June 27 the mines at Tonopah pro- 
duced 11,806 tons of ore worth $301,765. On July 21 the 

Tonopah Mining Co. will declare a dividend of 25c. per share, 
amounting to $250,000. Profits for the last three months 

total $330,915. At 1020 ft. in the new shaft of the Extension 

mine, the Murray vein is 23 ft. wide, averaging $20 per ton. 

Of this, 4 ft. of sulphide ore is worth $100 per ton. At 980 

ft. in the Merger, the ore-shoot is 10 ft. wide for a length of 
200 ft.; at 1070 ft., 480 ft. long, of great width in places; and 
at 1170 ft.. 685 ft. long, the first shoot of 400 ft. being worth 
$20 per ton. Shipments in 1914 to the end of May totaled 
322.3 tons worth $57,611. 


Baker County 
The Independence mine, near Granite, has been unwatered. 

Cyaniding tailing at the Red Boy will be continued until 

November. Mill machinery is being hauled from the Psyche 

to the Last Chance mine in Cable Cove. There will be 

drilling contests between miners from the Mammoth and 

Columbia mines on July 4. Work at the Buck Gulch placers 

has been stopped for the season. Work is to be started at 

the Mayflower claims north of Sumpter. A new company 

has been formed at Baker to work a limestone deposit in 
Pleasant valley. 

Ferby County 

(Special Correspondence.)— At 400 ft. in the San Poil Con- 
solidated mine, a new orebody assaying $15 per ton has been 
opened. In the south end of this level a drift is being ex- 
tended to cut ore developed at 300 ft. The mill is treating 
95 tons of ore per day, about 30 tons coming from the Knob 
Mill mine. A new assay office has been built. The Knot) 
Hill is also sending three or four cars of ore per week to 
smelters. More litigation has been started in this camp, as 

the Chicago Title & Trust Co. and W. E. Reiley of Detroit, 
Michigan, are suing the North Washington Power & Reduc- 
tion Co. to foreclose a mortgage for $1,600,000. The case is 
part heard, but it looks as if the presiding judge of the 
court will hold that labor liens and other creditors would 
be considered before the mortgagee, and all creditors be com- 
pelled to share alike. 
Republic, June 20. 


Alberta . 

(Special Correspondence.) — Dark oil is reported in the 
Monarch well, section 5, T. 32 N. R. 6 W. on Red Deer river. 
A little dark green oil was brought up in the bailer and 
drilling stopped until tankage could be provided. This well 
started near the base of the Edmonton shale and at 820 ft., 
where stopped, should be in the Bearpaw shales, near the top 
of the Montana formation. 

Calgary, June 22. 

British Columbia 

According to J. M. Wolbert, representing Spokane, Nelson 
and Kaslo people, a dredge costing from $125,000 to $175,000 
will be constructed on the Lardo river at Goldhill this sum- 
mer. A railway runs near the site, so transport will be easy. 
At present, a Philadelphia syndicate is working a drag-line 
dredge in this district, and obtaining 75c. per cubic yard from 
12 to 15 ft. depth. 


Official returns of mineral production of the province for the 
first quarter of 1!»14 show the following results: Gold ore 
treated, 112,826 tons yielding $10.65 per ton. of which Porcu- 
pine produced 104,880 tons averaging $10.95 per ton; silver ore 
Healed from Cobalt (94.4'i of the total). Gowganda, South 
Lorrain, and Casey, 16:1.055 tons, which yielded silver worth 
$490. SH4 less than the same period of 1913. 


Trenching on the Tough-Oakes ground uncovered a new 
vein near No. 3. The latter averages about $120 per ton over 
10 in. width for 500 ft. High-grade ore is being crushed in 
the mill. Metallurgical tests are being made on the ore. 

Canadian Klondyke Co.'s dredges produced ::;{. r .l oz. gold 
<lniing the second week of June. 


American employees of the Creston-Colorado, in Sonora. 
and El Rayo and Dolores mines, in Chihuahua, of the Mines 
Company of America, have returned to their respective prop- 
erties for the purpose of resuming operations, or carrying on 
development work. No effort is being made to resume opera- 
tions at La Dura, as this property is situated in the Yaqui 
territory, and in a district where it will be impossible for the 
Constitutionalists to give as good protection as in the case 
of the other properties. 



July 4, 1914 



H. K. Welch has gone to Alaska. 

C. C. Derby was in San Francisco. 
S. J. Kidder is back from Honolulu. 

A. R. Ledoix has returned from Europe. 

D. W. Brunton is visiting friends in the East. 

F. C. Alsdorf is in Washington examining mines. 

A. G. Chableton left London for Norway on June 27. 
C, W. Merrill has gone to Lake Tahoe for the month. 
Charles F. Rand has returned to New York from Cuba. 
Thomas T. Read is visiting the Lake Superior copper mines. 
Theodore J. Hoover has returned to London from Burma. 
John C. Ralston has been in New York for the last few 


C. C. Broadwater was in New York last week, returning 
from Europe. 

F. J. Basedow was in San Francisco going from Ray to 
Salt Lake City. 

.1. A. Holmes will be at Fort Bayard, New Mexico, for the 
next few months. 

J. E. Spubr examined the Tonopah Mining Co.'s property 
■ in Nevada last week. 

Marshall Draper, who has been examining mines at Nevada 
City was in San Francisco. 

Walter H. Weed is in Butte, testifying as expert witness 
in the Anaconda-Pilot Butte lawsuit. 

B. .1. Padshah and C. P. Peri.n, who were in San Francisco 
last week, have sailed for the Orient. 

C. A. Browx and J. A. Holmes, Jr. are taking motion 
pictures of striking mining and metallurgical scenes through 
the western states for the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

C. M. Means, of Pittsburgh, has been appointed consulting 
electric engineer with the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 

Harry R. Johnson, W. R. Calvert. Ralph Arnold, and' 
Leon J. Pepperberg are among the oil experts at Calgary, 

Edgar Rickard has been elected president of the Mining 
and Metallurgical Club of London. H. Livingstone Sclman 
is vice-president, and Sidney H. Farrar, treasurer. 

W. G. Carpenter has resigned from the Goldfleld Consoli- 
dated mill staff and has accepted a position with the Syndi- 
cate Mining Co., Aroroy, Masbate, Philippine Islands. 

Albert Burch will have the management of the Aurora 
Consolidated property as well as the Goldfield Consolidated 
Mines Co., now that the Goldfleld Consolidated has acquired 

Artih-r L. Walker has been visiting metallurgical plants 
in Michigan and Montana and will sail on July 9 from Van- 
couver for a holiday visit to Japan and China, returning by 
way of Suez. 

Lcnwio Dieiii. has had the title of 'professor' conferred on 
him by the Prussian government, in recognition of his six- 
teen years' work in advancing the metallurgy of gold and 
silver, through the use of tube-mills and other apparatus. 

H. W. Hardinge left New York on June 22 for the Cobalt, 
Porcupine, and British Columbia districts of Canada, and 
Alaska. In returning he will visit most of the Western 
mining states. Mr. Hardinge will be gone until about the 
second week in August. 

Karl Bernson, construction engineer for the General 
Electric company of Salt Lake City, has gone to Miami, Ari- 
zona, to superintend the installation of new equipment in 
the mills of the Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co. and the 
Miami Copper Co. He will later go to Superior. Arizona, to 
superintend the starting of the new mill of the Magma Min- 
ing company. 

Northern California and Southern Oregon Mining Con- 
gress, Ashland, Oregon 9-10 


American Institute of Mining Engineers, Salt Lake City 10-14 

British Association, Adelaide, South Australia 8 

Canadian Mining Institute, Rocky Mountain branch, 


Lake Superior Mining Institute, Marquette, Michigan.. 17 

American Chemical Society, Montreal 15-18 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers not fixed 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver 3 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 9 

American Iron and Steel Institute 23-24 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver 3 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 13 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver 7 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 11 

American Museum of Safety 11-20 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers 7-8 


The University ok North Dakota Quarterly Journal con- 
tains a good deal of interesting reading matter in its 70 pages. 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology' has published a 
bulletin giving names of graduates of the class of 1914, and 
titles of theses written by them. 

The Colorado School ok Mines has issued its Quarterly, and 
also a book of views of this institution at Golden. The publi- 
cation deals with the college calendar, the faculty, description 
of the school and plant, and courses given. The summer 
school lasts from July 20 to August 29, and the first semester 
of 1914-15 starts on September 8. 

Old Fbeibergers in America met in New York City on June 
13 in honor of Dr. Fried rich Kolbeck, rector of the Freiberg 
Bergakademie, Saxony, Germany. Dr. Kolbeck came to this 
country to represent the Royal Mining School at the fiftieth 
anniversary of the School of Mines, of Columbia University. 
Dr. Kolbeck said that as he had come over to help celebrate 
this anniversary he hoped to see a number of former students 
of Freiberg back to celebrate the one hundred and fiftieth 
anniversary of the Bergakademie in 1916. 

The Institution of Mining Engineers held its meeting in 
London on June 4 and 5. It was the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of the federation of the seven constituent institutions, namely. 
Manchester Geological and Mining Society, North of England 
Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, Midland In- 
stitute of Mining, Civil and Mechanical Engineers, South 
Staffordshire and Warwickshire Institute of Mining Engineers. 
Midland Counties Institution of Engineers, North Stafford- 
shire Institute of Mining and Mechanical Engineers, and the 
Mining Institute of Scotland. The total membership is 3338. 
The president. Sir William Garforth. who received the medal 
of the Institution, stated that the Duke of Northumberland 
was the president-elect. 

July -1, 1914 




Weekly Summary of Prices of Shares and Metals 

Stocks amid Bounds 


(San Francisco Stock and Bond Exchange.) 
June 29. 

Lilted. Bid 

Associated Oil 5s. 8 98J 

NatomasCon 25 

General Petroleum 6s.. 381 



Unlisted. Bid 

Natomas Consol * 

Pac. Port. Cement 8s... 100 
Santa Cruz Cement 6s„ 86 
Union Oil 861 


Amalgamated Oil. 

Associated Oil 

Du Pont, pfd 

GUnt - 

Pac. Cat. Borax, com... — 

Sterling O. 4 D — 

Union OIL 69 











West Coast, pfd — 


General Petroleum 4 

Noble Electric Steel 50c 

Pac. Port. Cement. 60 

Riverside Cement — 

Santa Cruz Cement — 

Stand. Port. Cement ... — 


(By courtesy of San Francisco Stock Exchange.) 

June 30. 

Atlanta 1 .15 

Belcher .27 

Belmont fi.75 

Con. Virginia .14 

Florence 40 

Goldfleld Con 1.40 

Goldfleld Oro 08 

Halifax •«■-> 

Jim Butler Sfl 

Jumbo Extension 21 

MacNamara 01 

Mexican _ .52 

Midway .21 

Mltpah Extension 23 


(Latest Quotations.) 
Bid. Ask. 

Argonaut 13.50 .... Kennedy 

Brunswick Con.... 1.50 .... Mountain King 

Bunker Hill 1.30 South Eureka 2.i 

Central Eureka... 0.12 n.13 


(By courtesy of J. C Wilson. Mills Building > 
July 2. 


Nevada Hills 

North Star 


Pittsburg Silver Peak ... 

Round Mountain 

sierra Nevada 

Tonopah Extension 

Tonopah Merger 

Tonopah of Nevada 



West End 

Yellow Jacket 








..8 60 

.. .32 




. |8.00 



Allouez 8 *»i 

Art*. Commercial 4} 

Butte A Superior 3«i 

Calumet A Arizona 641 

Calumet A Hecla 405 

Copper Range 35) 

East Butte MJ 

Franklin 4 

Granby 78j 

Greene Cananea 30 

Isle Royale f-H 

Mass (Topper 4J 

Mohawk 43J 

(By courtesy of J. 





Nevada Con 

...1 13) 



North Butte ... 

... 251 



Old Dominion 

.. 4K 



.. 7i; 




... Wi 




... 5 

;, 1 


Superior A Boston 

... li 




... 34; 



United Verde .. 

.. 80 



U. s. Smelting, 

com . 

. :n; 



Utah Con 

... li 







... 40 



C. Wilson. Mills Building.) 
July 2. 



A. 8. ft R., com... 
Calif. Pet., com... 

.8 60| 

. 311 
... 621 
.. 181 

< I, mi., 401 

Guggenheim Ex 53 

Inspiration 17} 

Mexican Pet., com 68J 

Ask I Bid Ask 

09] I Miami 121] 22 

S1J Nevada Con 13J 14 

(Bj Quicksilver, com 1 2 

19| I Ray Con 20} 21 

40j Tenn. Copper 33 331 

54 U. 8. Steel, pfd 100 10S»| 

171 U.S. Steel, com 6li «H 

61 Utah Copper 68} 681 


(By courtesy of E. F. Hutton & Co, Kohl Building.) 
July 2. 

Braden Copper... 7 V2 
B. C. Copper 1 % 

Con. Cop. Mines. 


First National. . . 


Iron Blossom . . . 

Kerr Lake 

La Rose 

Mason Valley . . . 



1 M 





7 3 . 
l 7 i 


5 Vt 

Am. . 

Mines Co. 


Ohio Copper 
Stand. Oil of Cai 

Tri Bullion 


United Cop. com 
Yukon Gold 









cable, through the courtesy of Hollister. Lyon & Walton. 
New York.) 
July 2. 

Alaska Mexican 1 

Alaska Treadwell 8 

Alaska United 3 

Arizona 1 

Camp Bird 

Cobalt Townslte 1 

El Oro 



Kern River Oilfields 
















Mexican Ea§le. com 1 

Mexico Mines 4 

Messina 1 


Pacific Oilfields 

RIoTlnto 68 

Santa Gertrudis 

Tanganyika 2 

Tomboy 1 









©tt&l Prices 

San Francisco is not a primary market for the common 
metals except quicksilver. The prices quoted below therefore 
represent sales of small lots and are not such as an ore pro- 
ducer could expect to realize. Ore contracts usually call for 
settlement on the basis of Eastern prices, less freight and 
treatment charges. The prices quoted are in cents per pound. 
except in the case of quicksilver, which is quoted in dollars per 
flask of 75 pounds. 

San Francisco, July 2. 

Antimony 9 — 9 "<ic 

Electrolytic copper 15 — 15V4C 

Pig Lead 4.15— 5.10 

Quicksilver (Mask) $38.50 

Tin 39 — IOV2C 

Spelter 6%— Z\c 

Zinc dust, 100 kg. zinc-lined cases, 7 " 2 to 8c. per pound. 


(By wire from New York.) 
NEW YORK, July 2. — As mentioned in the 'New York Metal 
Market Review' of this issue, repeated statements as to the 
depressed condition of the markets become monotonous, yet 
metals remain practically at the same price. Copper is firmer, 
with more business doing, giving lietter tone. June exports 
totaled 35.182 tons against 27. SOS tons in June 1913. Granby's 
May yield was 1.669.334 11). Calumet & Hecla has paid a divi- 
dend of $5. and Tennessee Copper 75c. per share. In the suit 
of Sidney Norman, representing minority interests of the Fed- 
eral Mining & Smelting Co. v. the American Smelting & Re- 
lining Co., the New York Supreme Court gave its decision 
against the plaintiff. Lead and spelter are quiet. In St. Louis 
these metals are weaker at 3.37% and 4.45c. respectively. Bar 
silvei In London Is steady at 26 'id. (52.25c.). 


Below are given the average New York quotations In cents 
per ounce, of fine silver. 


June 25 56. 37 

26 56.7.", 

'■ 27 56.50 

2S Sundav 

29 56.62 

" 30 56.50 

Jlllv 1 56.75 

Average week ending 
May 20 5S.3I 

•• 27 57.1 -' 

June 3 . . 56.52 

•• 10 56.4S 

" 17 56.5.; 

" 21 56."' 

Julv 1 56/ - 



July 4, 1914 




58 70 


59 32 










1913. 1914. 1913. 1914. 

Jan 63 01 

Feb 61.25 

Mch 57.87 

Apr 59.26 

May 60.21 

June 59.03 


Quotations on copper as published in this column represent 
average wholesale transactions on the New York market and 
refer to electrolytic copper. Lake copper commands normally 
1-5 to l-4c. per lb. more. Prices are in cents per pound. 

Mew York Metal Review 








. . .13.35 
. . .13.30 

13 25 

Mav 20 

week ending 
14 00 

. .13 98 

■• 10 

" 17 

" 24 


. . .13.65 

. .13 55 




Julv 1. 








cents per 



. . . .14.21 










pound or dol 




. . , 15 OS 

ars per 1 
week enc 







is quoted in 
New York de 






June 3 

. . . 3 90 


" 10 

. 3 90 


" 17 











4 02 

Julv 1 

. . . 3 90 




... 4 60 








. . , 4.16 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 
open market, and, as quoted weekly In this column, is that at 
which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the carload can 
usually obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting but a flask 
or two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. Average 
weekly and monthly quotations, in dollars per flask of 75 lb., 
are given below: 

Week ending I June 18 38 50 

June 4 39.00 " 25 38.50 

" 11 38.50 I July 2 38.50 

Monthly averages. 

1913. 1914. 

Jan 39.37 39.25 

Feb 41.00 39.00 

Mch 40.20 39.00 

Apr 41.00 38.90 

May 40.25 39.00 

June 41.00 3S.60 


July 41.00 

Aug 40.50 

Sept 39.70 

Oct 39.37 

Nov 39.40 

Dec 40.00 



Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, St. Louis 
delivery, in cents per pound. 







1 75 




Jan 6. 88 

Feb 6.13 

Mch 5.94 

Apr 5.52 

Mav 5.23 

June 5.00 

Average week ending 

May 20 4.95 

" 27 4.93 

June 3 4.90 

" 10 4.88 

" 17 4.85 

" 24 4.85 

July 1 4.75 

Monthly averages. 



July 5.11 

Aug 5.51 

Sept 5.55 

Oct 5.22 

Nov 5.09 

Dee 5.07 


New York prices control in the American market for tin. since 
the metal Is almost entirely Imported. San Francisco quotations 
average about 5c. per lb. higher. Below are given average 
monthly New York quotations, in cents per pound: 
Monthly averages. 

1913. 1914. 

Jan 50.45 37.85 

Feb 49.07 39.76 

Mch 46.95 38.10 

Apr 49.00 36.10 

Mav 49.10 33.29 

Juno 45.10 30.72 


July 40.70 

Aug 41.75 

Sep.t 42.45 

Oct 40.61 

Nov 39.77 

Dec 37.57 


Continued reports of the depressed state of the metal trade 
become monotonous, but the truth permits no deviation to 
the side of more cheerful reports at present. One deduction 
that augurs well for the future, however, is the unquestion- 
able fact that stocks of all sorts are in a depleted state, and 
any revival of business, especially in the metal-working 
trades, must be felt without delay by the producers and 
sellers of raw materials. The freight rate decision, now 
expected daily, will help in this direction: but of greater 
force yet is the fact that this great country is constantly 
wearing out enormous quantities of finished products, and 
these must be replaced. There is a limit to the patching 
which can be done. Prices may have to be kept lower than 
is desirable, in order to ward off too great an influx of 
foreign-made goods, but the United States is going to keep 
on making the bulk of what it uses, the production of which 
must support its people. June brought lower prices in cop- 
per, tin, spelter, and the products in which these materials 
enter. It has been a quiet month all around. Lead has 
been dull but steady. Tin is exceptionally low, and buying 
is only from hand to mouth.' Of antimony there is an over- 
sufficiency in stock. Aluminum is unchanged. 


If evidence were needed as to the present dullness and 
low prices of the metals it might be supplied by an announce- 
ment made on June 15 by the Ansonia Brass and Copper 
Branch of the American Brass Co., wherein it was stated: 
"In view of the decline in the prices of raw materials, we 
beg to withdraw all prices on brass and bronze sheet, wire, 
rods, brazed tubing, angles, and channels, and to submit 
herewith a new schedule taking effect on all orders received 
June 15, 1914, and after." The new schedule indicated that 
sheet copper was reduced Vic to 19c. per lb. base, and that 
there were reductions of %c. per lb. on sheet brass to 15Vsc: 
brass wire to 14%c, and brass rods to 14%c. per lb. base. 
Copper wire in carload lots, mill shipments, was at the 
same time reduced to 15 ',<-. per lb. base. Between June 1 
and 25. the copper market declined about u,c. per lb., and 
the dullness was without relief. The quotation for electro- 
lytic on June 1 was 14.12'1-c. cash New York, while on June 
25 it was 13.62 'ic. cash New York, with a tendency toward 
still lower prices. Of course, there was some business dur- 
ing this period, but it was mostly in small lots for prompt 
shipment to meet current requirements. Consumption is esti- 
mated as being between 60 and 70% of normal. In the first 
day or two of the month the offerings at substantial con- 
cessions outnumbered the takers, with second bands, rather 
than the producers, pressing for business. European buying 
slackened up considerably, although exports against old 
transactions kept up well, those for May having totaled 
30,777 tons. The June exports, up to the 27th, amounted to 
29,388 tons. The May report of the Copper Producers' Asso- 
ciation, out June 8, showing that stocks had increased 14.005,- 
640 lb., was construed as unfavorable, and the electrolytic 
market at once dropped Vsc. In this instance, and again 
later in the month, the producers did not publicly announce 
a reduction, but the price came down, nevertheless. Toward 
the end of the month the market could only be described 
as stagnant, buyers showing no interest, and there being 
no pressure to sell on the part of either producers or second- 
hands. Prime Lake shared the decline, though it did not 
come down in proportion to electrolytic. On June 1 it was 
quoted at 14.37%c, while 24 days later it could have been 
had at 14.12V.C. ca8 h New York. Inferior grades of I.ake 
were to be had at 14c. and lower. Early in the month, prime 
Lake was sold at 14.25c, and other grades not regarded as 
prime, at a shade under 14c. 

July i, 1914 



The apparent consumption of copper in the United King- 
dom, as per the Board of Trade returns, in the first five 
months of this year, was 53,319 tons, as compared with 
45,633 tons in 1913. 


Dull, but steady, sums up the lead market in June. Prices 
were unchanged at 3.90c. New York and 3.80c. St. Louis. 
Toward the end of the month the patience of sellers was be- 
coming exhausted, and they complained of the lack of orders. 
Just at the end of May a good sale was reported, a New 
England ammunition maker taking 1000 tons on a basis of 
3.95c. delivered. Early in June there were reports that in- 
quiries from Europe had resulted in sales, but the business 
could not b-' traced. Despite the quiet, there was little or 
no disposition to shade prices, and the market was in all 
respects a waiting one. 


While the request for spelter was quiet, there was promise 
of a better demand from the sheet mills, which toward the 
end of the month began to feel a disposition on the part of 
their customers to buy sheets for the third quarter. This 
was offset, however, by the prospect of trouble between the 
sheet mills and their employees over the wage scale for next 
year. A conference which was held at Atlantic City did not 
bring any agreement between them, and the situation was 
left with the possibility of a shut-down of about 22% of the 
sheet-mill capacity of the country unless further conference 
was successful. I'ntil near the last of the month, quotations 
were unchanged at 5.10c. New York and 4.95c. St. Ixniis. 
then five points were lost, making the price 5.05c. New York 
and 4.90c. St. Louis. Of course, the metal was adversely 
affected by the slack business of the brass mills. 


The market ranged between 30 and 31c. from June 1 to 
June 27, with buying light at all times. Nearly all of 
such activity as prevailed was in comparatively small lots 
for prompt or very early delivery, an evidence of the de- 
pleted state of consumers' stocks. Deliveries continued good, 
principally because of the large consumption of the tin-plate 
mills. In May. deliveries totaled 3800 tons. On June 2, the 
London price dropped £5, causing a break here of over ' ■_.<■.. 
and about 150 tons changed hands as a result. The London 
market at this time was in a more or less demoralized state, 
because of a lack of support which left it at the mercy of the 
l>ears. In New York, conditions were not pleasing either, as 
some of the metal taken June 1 by consumers under con- 
tract, had cost them 40c, while the quotation on that day 
was 31.25c, and the next day it dropped to 30.45c. It was 
noted that dealers lost no time in making deliveries on such 
contracts. Abroad, the unsatisfactory condition was 
attributed to the world supply statistics, the shipments from 
the Straits having been 788 tons larger in May than those 
of the same month last year. In five months of this year 
the Straits shipments were 1774 tons greater than those of 
the same months in 1!U3. The middle of June brought no 
betterment, either in the number or character of sales, and 
a serious development at this time was a failure to take cer- 
tain deliveries against an old contract. On June 15 there 
was a sale, under the rule, on the floor of the New York 
Metal Exchange of 25 tons, ex-steamer Atholt. which brought 
29.50c, the lowest price in years. Spot supplies were closely 
concentrated. As the month drew near its close, consumers 
seemed to have but little faith in the market, were showing 
no interest in futures, and all sides seemed to be awaiting 
developments. The arrivals in June, up to the 27th, 
totaled 3200 tons, and there was afloat 2308 tons. In five 
months of this year deliveries decreased 450 tons as com- 
pared with the same time last year. The total visible world 
■apply June 1, was 17,862 tons, as compared with 13.710 

tons June 1, 1913. On June 25, London declined between 

£4 and £5 and the New York price dropped to 29.87 % cents. 


The demand has been poor and the supply over-sufficient. 

Stocks in bond, June 1, were reported at 1,361,354 lb., as 

against 4,445,599 lb. on the same date a year ago. These 

amounts cannot be compared, however, for the reason that 

a year ago a change in tariff was impending and all the 

-metal was carried in bond, whereas now a great deal is 

stored in private warehouses. With but slight changes the 

following prices ruled through the month: Hallett's, 6.87'i; 

to 7c: Cookson's, 7.12L1. to 7.20c, and other grades. 5% to 

6c. per pound. 

Cwreiraft Prices fiw Oik aurad Cauradles 

(Collected monthly by Standard Oil Co., California.) 
All prices are f.o.b. San Francisco except where otherwise 
specified, and are subject to change without notice. 

Granite Mining Per set. 

Candles. cents. 

6s-12 oz.-40s S\ 

6s-12 O7..-20S 9 

6s-14 oz.-40s 9>4 

Granite Mining Per set. 

Candles. cents. 

6s-14 oz-20s 9 V4 

6s-16oz.-40s 10 

6s-16oz.-20s 10 V 4 

Extra hard lc. per set higher than the above. 
The following prices are for oils (Calol) in wood barrels; 
rases (2-5 gal.) 3c. per gallon higher. 

Per gal., 

Compressor oil 40 

Amber gas engine oil 40 

Castor machine oil 20 

Dynamo and motor oil.... 24 

Kngine oil 24 

Gas engine oil 26 

Heavy gas engine oil 45 

Heavy red engine oil 19 

Heavy red journal oil 21 

Ice machine oil 28 

Per gal., 

Light gas engine oil 28 

Red compressor oil 26 

Red engine oil 17 

Turbine oil 35 

Turbine oil. heavy 35 

Diesel engine oil 40 

Cylinder oil 37 

High-pressure cylinder oil. 50 
Low-pressure cylinder oil. 37 
Valve oil 50 

Tlu' following prices are for oils in iron barrels, cases (2-5 
gal.) 7c. per gallon higher, eJ ?ept on Eocene, which is 8c. per 
gallon higher. 

Per gal., 

Pearl oil 9 

Headlight oil 10 

Eocene oil 11 

Per gal., 

Red Crown gasoline 14 V« 

Engine distillate 7 

Aroturps 23 


Star fuel oil. f.o.b. Richmond Hennery $1.00 

Per ton. 

Petrolastic cement X $12.00 

Petrolastlc cement XX 11.00 

Asphaltum $5.50 to 12.50 

Cwremift Prices f©r Ores aumd Minerals 

(Corrected monthly by Atkins. Kroll & Co.) 

The prices are approximate, subject to fluctuation, and to 
variation according to quantity, quality, and delivery required. 

They are quoted, except as noted, f.o.b. San Francisco. Buying 
prices marked •. 

Min. Max. 

Antimony ore. 50%, per ton *$is.nn $20.00 

Arsenic, white, refined, per lb 0.03 0.04 

Arsenic, red, refined, per lb oils 0.08 >/ 2 

Asbestos, chrysotile :150.00 

Asbestos, amphibole 5.00 10.00 

Asphaltum, refined, per ton 1 1.50 20.00 

Barium chloride, commercial, per ton 10. 00 42.50 

liarium sulphate (barytes), prepared, per ton. 20. on 30.00 

Tilsmuth ore, 15%, per ton '250.00 upward 

China clay, English, levigated, per ton 15.00 20.00 

Chrome ore, according to quality, per ton 10.00 12.50 

Cobalt metal, refined, t. o. b. London, per lb.. 2.50 .... 

Coke, foundry, per 2240 lb 12.00 15.00 

Diamonds (according to size and quality): 

norts, per carat 2.00 1 5.00 

Carbons, per carat 55.00 80.00 

Feldspar, per ton 5. flu 25.00 


Silica, per M 50.00 55.00 



•Julv 4. 1914 

Snowball, per M 40.00 45.00 

Flint pebbles for tube-mills, Danish, per 2210 

lb 21.50 22.50 

Fluorspar, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Fullers earth, according to quality, per ton... 20.00 30.00 

Gilsonite, per ton 35.00 40.00 


Amorphous, per lb 0.01 V z 0.02 % 

Crystalline, per lb 0.04 0.13 

Gypsum, per ton 7.50 10.00 

Infusorial earth, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Iridium 55.00 

Magnesite, crude, per ton 5.00 7.50 

Magnesite, dead calcined, per ton 20. 00 25.00 

Manganese ore, oxide, crude, per ton 10.00 15.00 

Manganese, prepared, according to quality, 

per ton 30.00 70.00 

Mica, according to size and quality, per lb.... 0.05 1.00 

Molybdenite, 95% MoS-. per ton 750.00 1000.00 

Monazite sand (5% thoria), per ton 150.00 200.00 

Nickel metal, refined, per lb 0.45 0.60 

Ochre, extra strength, levigated, per 100 lb... 1.60 2.00 

Osmiridium, per oz 25.00 .... 

Platinum, native, crude, per oz 30.00 45.00 

Silex lining for tube-mills, per 2240 lb 35.00 45.00 

Sulphur, crude, per ton 15.00 25.00 

Talc, prepared, according to quality, per ton.. 20.00 50.00 

Tin ore, 60%, per ton 425.00 450.00 

Tungsten ore, 65% 400.00 425.00 

Uranium ore, 1 0% min 25.00 per unit 

Vanadium ore, 15% V 2 O r .. per ton 150.00 180.00 

Wolframite (see tungsten ore). 

Zinc ore, 50% up. per ton * 15.00 20.00 

Cunirreiralt Prices for Clhiemncals 

(Corrected monthly by Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co.) 
Prices quoted are for ordinary quantities in packages as 
specified. For round lots lower prices may be expected, while 

in smaller quantities advanced prices are ordinarily charged. 
Prices named are f.o.b. San Francisco and subject to fluctuation. 
Other conditions govern Mexican and foreign business. 

Min. Max. 

Acid, sulphuric, com'l, 66°, drums, per 100 lb..$ 0.80 $ 1.10 

Acid, sulphuric, com'l, 66°, carboy, per 100 lb.. 1.25 1.75 

Acid, sulphuric, C. P., 9-lb. bottle, bbl., per lb. 0.13 0.18 

Acid, sulphuric, C. P.. bulk, carboy, per lb.... 0.09 % 0.12 

Acid, muriatic, com'l. carboy, per 100 lb 1.60 3.00 

Acid, muriatic, C. P.. 6-lb. bottle, bbl., per lb... 0.15 0.20 

Acid, muriatic, C. P., bulk, carboy, per lb 0.10% 0.15 

Acid, nitric, com'l, carboy, per 100 lb 5.50 6.50 

Acid, nitric, C. P., 7-lb. bottle, bbl., per lb.... 0.16 0.22 

Acid, nitric, C. P., bulk, carboy, per lb* 0.12y 2 0.15 

Argols, ground, bbl., per lb 0.10 0.20 

Borax, cryst. and cone, bags, per 100 lb 3.38 4.50 

Borax, cryst. and cone, bags, per 100 lb 3.00 4.35 

Borax, powdered, bbl., per 100 lb 3. 38 4.50 

Borax glass, gd. 30 mesh, cases, tin lined, per 

100 lb 10.50 13.50 

Bone ash, 60 to SO mesh, bbl., per 100 lb 0.50 6.50 

Bromine, 1-lb. bottle, per lb 0.55 0.65 

Clay, domestic tire, sack, per 100 lb 1.50 2.00 

Cyanide, 98 to 100'a. 100-lb. case, per lb 0.18 0.22 

Cyanide. 98 to 100%, 200-lb. case, per lb 0.18 0.22 

Cyanide, 129',;, 100-lb. case, per lb 0.22 0.25V4 

Cyanide, 129%, 200-lb. case, per lb 0.22 0.25 

Lead acetate, brown broken, casks, per 100 lb. 9.00 10.50 

Lead acetate, white broken, casks, per 100 lb.. 10.50 10.75 

Lead acetate, brown broken, casks, per 100 lb. 9.00 10.50 

Lead acetate, white, crystals, per 100 lb 12.50 13.25 

Lead, C. P., test., gran., per 100 lb 13.00 15.00 

Lead, C. P., sheet, per 100 lb 15.00 18.00 

Litharge, C. P.. silver free, per 100 lb 11.50 13.50 

Litharge, com'l, per 100 lb 8.00 9.50 

Manganese ox., blk., dom. in bags, per ton.... 20.00 25.00 
Manganese ox., blk., Caucasian, in casks, per 

ton (85% MnO~ — %% Fe) 35.00 50.00 

Nitre, double ref'd, small cryst., bbl., per 100 lb. 7.00 8.00 

Nitre, double ref'd, granular, bbl., per 100 lb.. 6.50 7.50 

Nitre, double ref'd, powdered, bbl., per 100 lb. 7.25 8.00 

Potassium bicarbonate, cryst., per 100 lb 12.00 15.00 

Potassium carbonate, calcined, per 100 Hi 7.50 9.00 

Potassium permanganate, drum, per lb 0.10% 0.13 

Silica, powdered, bags, per lb 0.03 0.05 

•Extra charge for packing nitric acid for shipment to con- 
form to regulations. 

Soda, carbonate (ash), bbl., per 100 lb 

Soda, bicarbonate, bbl.. per 100 lb 

Soda, caustic, ground, 98%, bbl., per 100 lb. 
Soda, caustic, solid, 98%, drums, per 100 lb. 

Zinc shavings, 850 fine. bbl.. per 100 lb 

Zinc sheet, No. 9 — 18 by 84, drum, per 100 lb 




Petroleum ProdtMefcioini ©f th 
Usunftedl Sft&ftes 


After making a complete investigation of this industry, 
the U. S. Geological Survey has compiled the following table. 
The totals are only 2.5% different from preliminary estimates 
published by the Survey eight days after the close of the 
year 1913. The Survey is the only statistical agency which 
prepares a statement of the value of the crude oil at the 
wells. The principal feature was the gain in value over 
1912, namely, $72,908,141. although the output was only 25.511,- 
186 bbl. greater. Every state except Colorado showed an 
increase in the value of the oil. 
Quantity, Av. price 

Stale or region. barrels. per bbl. 


California S7,272,593 

Colorado 206,052 

Illinois 28,601,308 

Indiana 970,009 

Kansas 1,592,796 

Kentucky 484,368 

Louisiana 9,263,439 

Michigan (') 


New Mexico 

New York 





874.1 28 1.604 

5,013,1 10 


Total Ohio .. .. 8,969,007 $1,347 

Oklahoma 51,427,071 0.674 

Pennsylvania 7,837,948 1.644 


Northern 5,275,529 0.779 

Coastal 6,459,528 0.934 

Total Texas... 11.735,057 $0,754 

West Virginia 12.12S.962 1.643 

Wyoming 1,572,306 0.507 



Quantity. A 


barrels, per bbl. 

( > 







































Total U. S. ...222,935,044 $0,737 248,446,230 $0,954 


Appalachian 26,338,516 $1,626 25,921,785 $2,458 

Lima and Indiana. 4,925,906 0.932 4,773,138 1.380 

Illinois 28.601,308 0.851 23,893,899 1.296 

Mid-Continent 65,473,345 0.692 84,920,225 0.951 

Gulf S.545,018 0.742 8,542,494 0.936 

California 87,272,593 0.454 97,764,525 0.467 

Colo, and Wyo 1,778,358 0.561 2,595,321 0.525 

Other "34.843 1.930 

Total 222,935,044 $".737 248,446.230 $0,954 

'Included in Other.' 

California production in 1913 subject to revision. 
'Included in Lima, Ohio. 
'Includes Michigan. 

"Includes Alaska, Michigan, Missouri, and New Mexico. 
The total values of the respective years was $164,213,247 and 

July 4, 1914 




The report of this Company, operating at Marmato, Colom- 
bia, deals with the year ended March 31, 1914. In the Colom- 
biano mill of 40 stamps, Cien Pesos of 22 stamps, and Inflerno 
of 10 stamps (now 20), owing to a shortage of water, only 
25,494 tons of ore was treated, yielding $7 per ton in gold. 
A plant is being erected to treat the sand, which averages 
$8 per ton. The value of gold recovered was $240,000, an in- 
crease of $48,000 over 1912. Ore reserves in the different mines 
are estimated at 13G.344 tons averaging $10.50 per ton. Good 
progress has been made with the new mill at La Palma. It 
consists of rock-crushers, 40 stamps, two Dorr classifiers, three 
tube-mills, two Dorr thickeners, six Paterson agitators, and 
10 Dehne filter-presses. Labor and transport arrangements 
continued satisfactory. 


During January of the current year, it was proposed to 
amalgamate this great Rand company with the Crown Mines. 
Ltd., but shareholders objected to this being done. The re- 
port for the year ended December 31, 1913, contains the fol- 
lowing information: Owing to the gradual reduction in the 
number of stope faces capable of supplying large quantities 
of the higher-grade ore, the increased tonnage was made up 
from development ore from surface dumps, and Main 'reef. 
This resulted in a fall in yield of $1.90 per ton milled, and a 
decrease in working costs of 38c, with a reduction in working 
profit of $390,000. A small amount of development was done 
on the lowest levels, disclosing good ore in each reef. The 
development of the mine is now practically completed. Ore 
reserves are as follows: Leader, 349,000 tons of $10.20 ore 
over a stoping width of 82 in.: South reef. 189,200 tons of 
$11.1 ore over 65 in.: and recoverable from old workings, etc.. 
469,100 tons. There is also estimated to be in the Main reef. 
772.900 tons of $4.30 ore. Sand-filling of stopes was done for 
al.-out nine months. 

Results were as follows: 

1913. 1912. 

Ore mined, tons 700,149 673.05S 

Ore from surface dumps, tons 26,734 

Sorting done, per cent 8.1 13.8 

Ore milled, tons 668,900 577.300 

Yield per ton $ 8.58 $ 10.4s 

Total yield 5.750,000 5,900,000 

Working profit 3,500.000 3.940.00(1 

Working cost per ton 3.38 3.76 

Dividends paid 2.010.000 2.970.000 

Transvaal Government tax on profits 312.000 

Balance unappropriated $2,490,000 

The report of litis New South Wales Company covers the 
half-year ended March 31, 1914. Development totaled 1112 ft. 
At the beginning of the term the management adopted the 
policy of confining all development work to the upper levels. 
from the 615 ft. level upward. No work was done in the 
lower levels, except making necessary repairs, and providing 
an emergency escape from the 1215-ft. level into the neighbor 
Ing Proprietary mine. The main drift at 615 ft. followed the 
ore for about 200 ft. southwest, and it looked as if it would 
connect with the western ore body discovered in the Central 
mine. But It turned almost due east, with the result that at 
311 ft. the ore passed over the boundary of the Centra! mine 
at a point within a few feet of the Block 10 old main-lode 
workings ' Ore reserves are about 22S.900 tons. 

The new mill did good work in treating 48,739 tons of ore, 
yielding 6752 tons of lead concentrate. Metal recoveries were: 
Lead 74.8%, -and silver 47.8%. A total of 73,809 tons of concen- 
trate, current by-products, dump tailing, slime and middling 
was sold, the total revenue being $410,000, and net profit $31,- 
000. A dividend of $144,000 was paid, and the surplus re- 
duced from $485,000 to $440,000. Costs were as follows: Mine 
development, 34c: ore extraction $3.S4: milling, treatment, 
and transport. $1.44: and general, 24c, a total of $5. Si; per ton. 


The eighty-third annual report of this Company, operating 
in Brazil, covers the year ended February 28, 1914. The 
superintendent, George Chalmers, commented as follows on the 
work done: The average number of native men and women 
employed was 2408, and of officers and English employers 
there were 170. Early in 1912. labor troubles started, and the 
climax was reached in September and October, 1913. Efforts 
at recruiting labor in Brazil and other countries were not suc- 
cessful. While the government was prosperous, and paid good 
wages for work being done, men kept away from the mines; 
but when rubber and coffee prospects were poor, it retrenched, 
and men returned to the mines. A rise in wages was 
necessary and increased the costs considerably. Among the 
attempts to help the labor difficulty was the importation of 
107 Japanese. They arrived on August 30, 1913. They were 
a sturdy lot and well disciplined, and great consideration was 
shown them. Rut only 40' ', of them would go underground, 
in spi'e of patience of the mine staff. In October, they started 
to desert, and at the end of the Company's year the in? Japa- 
nese had gone. The experiment was therefore a failure. The 
mine is a fairly hot one, and this is a reason for men not 
liking to work underground. There were five fatal accidents 
in the mine, mostly due to the mens' own carelessness. The 
general health of Morro Velho was good. The medical officer 
treated a total of 24,755 patients, most of whom consulted on 
trivial eases. Tuberculosis is on the increase here and 
throughout Rrazil. 

The Morro Velho and Raposos tramway started operation 
on April 5, and handled 14,937 tons of stores, ores, and 32. 725 
passengers. It is showing a small profit, but is generally a 
great convenience. Cost of transport from Honorio Hicalho 
used to be $3.84. but is now reduced to $1.76 per ton. 

At the mine, a total of 2588 ft. of work was done. Ore re- 
serves are estimated as SS7.400 tons, compared with SI 3,78,8 
tons in the previous term, and are estimated to 122 ft. vertical 
below last year. No. IS level is 5226 ft. below the surface. 1902 
ft. below the adit, and 245S ft. below sea-level on the incline. 
Electric locomotives In the adit worked well, and it is pro- 
posed to substitute these for mules in the lower levels. The 
Sirocco fan is now driven by a 300-hp. motor, increasing the 
volume of air delivered 22'^. Another fan will be installed 
at the top of 'G' shaft. Stope-fllling for the year amounted 
to 135.57;; tons. 

The stamp-mill crushed 171.000 tons of ore yielding 97.20S 
oz. gold, worth £411,508. The recovery by all processes was 
93.13 per cent. 

Costs were as follows: State and Federal government 
duties and transport. 60c: development. 41c: working charges 
in Rrazil. $7.30: and London expenses, 10c, a lotal of $vt1 per 
ton. The profit was £115,349. Dividends amounting to 24c. 
per share, or 10 r ;, were paid. The balance carried forward 
is £7196. Investments are worth £96.472. 

Owing to the shortage of labor, development and sampling 
of the extensive iron-ore deposits was suspended. Foreign 
capital has secured all of the other first-class iron land for a 
radius of many miles from the mine, and the general tendency 
of these owners is 'watchful waiting.' 

Brazilian exchange for the Company's drafts averaged 
'16.0S8d. (32.176c) per milreis. Mine temperatures will be 
"discussed in another issue of this journal. 



July i. 1914 

The Following Data. Covebinq the Yeab 1913, is ebom the 
United States Geological Survey: 

Coal production in Missouri in 1913 was 4,318,125 short tons, 
valued at $7,46S.30S, a decrease compared with 1912 of 20,731 
tons in quantity and of $165,556 in value. With the exception 
of 1912. however, the output in 1913 was the largest in the 
history of the state. The number of fatal accidents was re- 
duced to just one-half of the fatalities of the preceding year, 
or from 20 to 10, according to reports to the Bureau of Mines. 


Coal production in Indiana in 1913 was 17,165,671 short 
tons, valued at $19,001,881, according to Edward W. Parker, 
Although this was an increase of 1,879,953 short tons, or 
12.3% over 1912, it fell short of the record output of 1910 by 
more than 1,200,000 tons and was withal far from satisfactory 
to the producers. Floods and a drought interfered with regu- 
lar work. The average value per ton showed a decline from 
$1.14 in 1912 to $1.11 in 1913. The total value of the coal 
mined increased from $17,480,546 to $19,001,881, a gain of 
$1,521,335, or 8.7%, compared with the increase of 12.3% in 

In spite of the adverse conditions which prevailed in 1913, 
labor was in better supply and the number of working days 
made by the employees was greater than in 1912. The total 
number of employees in the coal mines of Indiana increased 
from 21.651 in 1912 to 22,235 in 1913, and the average work- 
ing time from 182 to 190 days. The average annual pro- 
duction ;>er man increased from 706 to 772 tons, and the aver- 
age daily production by each man from 3.88 to 4.06 tons. The 
increased efficiency was due in part to the larger proportion 
of the product being mined by the use of machines, the in- 
crease in that item contributing 66'/ of the total increase, or 
1,270,387 tons. The production of machine-mined coal in 
1913 amounted to 9.634,146 short tons, or 56% of the total, 
compared with 54.7% in 1912. The number of fatal accidents 
reported to the Bureau of Mines for 1913 was 66, compared 
with 40 in 1912. 

The following table, compiled by H. D. McCaskey, shows the 
output from 90 mines, of which 48 were gold-placer, 9 zinc, 
and 7 copper properties. Of the gold mines, 27 are in Georgia. 
17 in North Carolina, and 4 in South Carolina. Nearly all 
the copper came from the Ducktown district of eastern 
Tennessee. The zinc mines at Franklin Furnace, New Jersey, 
produced the bulk of that metal: 

Pumice produced in the United States in 1913 amounted to 
24,563 short tons, valued at $35,408, a decrease of 2583 tons in 
quantity and of $31,279 in value compared with 1912. The 
material came from six states, namely, California, Kansas, 
Nebraska. Idaho, South Dakota, and Utah. 

The production of oilstones, including hones and whet- 
stones, and scythe-stones in the United States in 1913 amount- 
ed to $207,352. a decrease of $24,866 compared with 1912, ac- 
cording to Frank .1. Katz of the U. S. Geological Survey. Oil- 
stones were produced in Arkansas. Indiana. Ohio, and Ken- 
tucky, especially in Arkansas, which has led in the production 
for many years. New Hampshire led in the production of 
scythestones, but Vermont, Ohio, and Michigan also con- 
tributed important quotas. 

During 1913, according to final figures collected by Ernest 
F. Burchard, the output was 92.097,131 bbl., an increase of 

11.72'/, compared with 1912. 

Shipments by states were as fol- 

Pennsylvania . . 

9 3 

4. OS 1.281 
3.291, SIS 


3,63s. 765 


price per 









New Jersey .... 












Other states* 



Total 113 88,689,377 $S9. 106,975 $1,005 

♦Alabama, Arizona, Colorado. Georgia. Kentucky. Maryland, 

Montana. Oklahoma. Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. 
In 1912 there were 117 shipping plants, moving 85.012.556 

bbh valued at $69,109,800. an average of S1.3c. per barrel. In 

13 states, in the above table, there was an increase in the 

price of the product. 

Total recovery of useful fuel from waste heaps and culm 
banks, at coal mines in the United States, has amounted to 
49.329,376 tons since 1890. 

State. mined. 


Alabama 4,068 

Georgia 2,614 

New Hampshire 400 

New Jersey 490,434 

North Carolina 11.274 

Pennsylvania and Vermont 239.178 

South Carolina 1,010 

Tennessee 823,645 

Virginia 30,916 

Total, 1913 1,603,539 

Total, -1912 1.361,734 


$ 11,094 
















Pounds. Pounds. 




















3. 703.752 


111.214 19.964,729 1.632.000 1S4.89S.400 $13,753,557 



561.026 144.699.S63 $13,470,276 

July 4, 1914 



Metallib«y ok Copper. By H. O. Hofman. McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, New York. P. 556. Index. For sale by the 
Mining and Scientific Presx. San Francisco. Price $5. 

The aim in the preparation of this book as stated by the 
author has been to meet the demands of the copper metallur- 
gist of today, and toward this end Mr. Hofman has succeeded 
in compiling a vast amount of information on the subject. 
The work presents the leading physical and chemical facts 
about copper, its alloys, and compounds which are of metallur- 
gical importance: details of the older smelter practice which 
are of value together with the modern methods and recent 
developments in copper metallurgy with examples taken from 
the modern American plants are presented in detail. The 
work opens with a discussion of the properties of copper, its 
grades, impurities, and their effects. The industrial alloys 
are discussed with eutectic curves, and the compounds and 
ores of copper are briefly treated. The author devotes 340 
pages to the smelting of copper in which space the numerous 
phases of the subject are dealt with, special attention being 
given to the dynamics of copper smelting. The pages are 
replete with detailed drawings of smelter equipment. 

The leaching of low-grade and finely desseminated copper 
ores, which has of recent years come to be such an ini|>ortant 
branch of copper metallurgy, forms an important part of 
the work. A general discussion of the chemistry of the sub- 
ject is followed by descriptions of the various leaching pro- 
cesses with apparatus for use in this branch of metallurgy. 
The electrolysis of ore. matte, speise. and metallic copper 
in general ip discussed. The current, cells, and equipment 
for the electrolytic refining of copper form the subject of 
this department of the book. The bibliography presented is 
an important asset as the numerous references which are 
given as foot-notes cover the literature on the subject and 
are valuable as reference for one caring to go into further 
refinements of the subject. The work is a valuable addition 
to the literature on copper metallurgy and is of particular 
lnterfst as a text or reference work. 

Chemical German. By Francis C. Phillips. The Chemical 
Publishing Co.. Easton. Pennsylvania. P. 241. Notes, vocabu- 
lary. For sale by the Mining and Scientific Press. San Fran- 
cisco, California. Price $2. 

Practically every engineer who, by necessity or inclination, 
has occasion to make a careful survey of the literature on 
any subject finds it necessary to read pa|>ers api>earing in 
German and French, since one or the other of those two lan- 
guages is used not only by their respective nations, but also 
by scientific workers in almost every other European coun- 
try. In the case of French, this involves little difficulty, since 
technical French is lucid and anyone who can read, even 
with some difficulty, an ordinary French novel, finds less 
labor required to comprehend a scientific paper. German, on 
the other hand, presents the reverse characteristics, and an 
engineer who successfully passed the examination in German 
for entrance to his technical school and for whom the Amer- 
ican rathskeller or travel In Germany has no terrors, not 
infrequently gives up in despair when confronted with the 
necessity of reading an article written in technical German. 
Many of the words used in such an article are not to be 
found in any ordinary dictionary, or If they appear their 
technical meanings do not. The German method of naming 
compounds is also puzzling: thus Zweifachschwefeleisen 
(FeS ; i and y.yani<rr**r,sitofFsaiire (hydrocyanic acid) are not 
at once recognizable Superimposed on these difficulties Is 
the rontroversy raging in Germany between the advocates of 

simplified spelling and those who adhere to the old style, so 
that between the volkstumliche Schriebweise and the wis'sen- 
schaftliche Schreibweise the student is apt to become hope- 
lessly entangled. Mr. Phillips, who is professor of chemistry 
in the University of Pittsburgh, has come to the aid of the 
chemical student, and by giving him the rules which govern 
chemical German, an excellent vocabulary of chemical terms 
as well as ordinary words used in chemical sense, and a series 
of graded extracts from chemical literature, enables him to 
find his way through chemical literature and to equip himself 
to proceed unaided. A similar guide to geological and metal- 
lurgical German is greatly to be desired, but pending its 
appearance American students will be greatly aided by this 
volume, for which Mr. Phillips deserves and will doubtless 
receive the thanks of every plodding research student. 

Oil Lease — Rioht of Action 
Where an oil lease by its terms leased the land therein 
described and not merely the right to extract oil therefrom, 
the lessee could maintain an action thereon prior to the dis- 
covery of oil. 

Kline r. Guaranty Oil Co. (California), 140 Pacific, 1. March 
25, 1914. 

Corporation Liable for Violation of Statute 

Those in charge of a mine for a corporation must see that 
the statute against mining within five feet of a division line 
is observed, otherwise the corporation is itself liable for the 
penalty. The neglect, mistake, or disobedience of its serv- 
ants in this particular will not excuse It. 

Gawthrop v. Fairmont Coal Co. (West Virginia), SI South- 
eastern, 560. April 7, 1914. 

Coal Lease — Implied Covenants 

A lease of "all coal and mineral rights and privileges what- 
soever, contained on, in and beneath the surface", of certain 
described land, for a period of ninety-nine years upon a con- 
sideration of royalties, but with no covenants for diligent 
working by the lessee, was held to be a lease upon an im- 
plied covenant for reasonable diligence on the part of the 
lessee, vesting no estate in the coal until actually mined. 
A lapse of twenty-five years before commencing operations 
was held to warrant a forfeiture. 

Chandler v. French (West Virginia). SI Southeastern, 825. 
May 21, 1914. 

Assignment of Oil Lease — Held Valid 
An oil lease was granted upon condition that a well should 
be commenced within a year, or in lieu thereof $160 paid 
to the lessor. A year elapsed without compliance by the lessee 
with either of these conditions. A new lease was then made 
by the lessor to third parties, who assigned it to the defend- 
ant for a consideration. Before all the consideration was 
paid, the original lessee paid $160 to the lessor. The assignee 
thereupon refused to pay the balance of the consideration 
for the assignment of the new lease, alleging that the old 
lease had been continued in force by the acceptance of the 
delayed payment and that there was a breach of implied 
warranty. Held, that the assignor of the new lease was 
entitled to recover the balance of his consideration, as the 
$160 had not been paid within the year and could not vali- 
date the old lease after the new one became effective. 

Eastern Oil Co. v. Holcomb (Oklahoma), 212 Federal. 126. 
February 23, 1914. 



July 4. 1914 

M©w Maclbiliffi©s sumd D©¥i© 

The Use of Link-Belts 

The detachable link-belt was invented by William D. Ewart 
in 1873, and since that time the original link-belt has been 
manufactured at the Ewart and Belmont works of the Link- 
Belt Company at Indianapolis. Link-belts are adapted to such 
a wide variety of uses and their construction is so well un- 
derstood that the engineer and millman, who has occasion 
to use them, thinks little as to their technology and correct 
application. The two qualities most desired in chain drives 
are, of course, immunity from break-downs and durability, 
both of which can be secured by using the proper belt for 
the working load. The magnitude of this load depends upon 
the speed of the chain and the character of the work which 
the chain is to perform. 

In transmitting power the engagement of each chain link 
with the tooth of the sprocket wheel is attended by a cer- 
tain degree of shock, and as this is multipled and intensified 
as the speed is increased, the working load of the chain 
should be reduced in a compensating ratio. 

As the result of numerous and carefully conducted series 
of tests, the Link-Belt Co. recommends that the working 
load of the chain be determined as follows: 

For a speed of 200 ft. per minute and under, divide aver- 
age ultimate strength by 6. 

For a speed of 300 ft. per minute and under, divide aver- 
age ultimate strength by 8. 

For a speed of 400 ft. per minute and under, divide aver- 
age ultimate strength by 10. 

For a speed of 500 ft. per minute and under, divide aver- 
age ultimate strength by 12. 

For a speed of 600 ft. per minute and under, divide aver- 
age ultimate strength by 16. 

For a speed of 700 ft. per minute and under, divide aver- 
age ultimate strength by 20. 

If the load to be transmitted is irregular or subject to 
shock, or if the chain is used in an elevator or conveyor 
handling gritty or coarse material, a still further reduction 
of the working load must be made. The ultimate strength 
of the chains is obtained from the manufacturers' catalogs. 
The horse-power transmitted may be ascertained by multi- 
plying the number of feet the chain travels per minute by 
the working load and dividing the result by 33,000. 

Manganese steel has been adapted for link-belts where spe- 
cial toughness and hardness is required. By special proc- 
esses, mixtures, and heat treatments, it has become possible 
"to manufacture smooth and uniform chain links of the vari- 
ous types used for severe work. The characteristics of the 
manganese steel used for link belts are its extreme tough- 
ness, it not being brittle, but so ductile and malleable that 
when overstrained it will stretch and twist out of shape in- 
stead of giving way suddenly. . 

In the operation of link-belts it is essential that the 
sprocket wheels are carefully fitted to the chain. It is true 
that cnains will frequently 'run' on sprocket wheels which 
do not fit them, but to insure durability and maximum service 
of both chain and wheel, they must fit. A sprocket wheel 
with hardened face that does not fit the chain may have a 
long life, but at the expense of the chain. It is necessary, 
therefore, that when sprocket wheels are purchased it be 
insisted upon that they fit a chain of standard pitch. Smooth 
hard bearing surfaces for contact with the links and a care- 
ful fit insure the chain against undue wear. 

A recent publication of the Link-Belt Co., represented on 
the Pacific Coast by the Ely Machinery Co. of San Francisco, 
entitled 'Advance Section A' of general catalog No. 110, de- 
scribes in detail the numerous chain belts and sprocket wheels 
manufactured by this Company. 

New Deister Products 

The Deister Machine Co., of Fort Wayne, Indiana, during 
the past year has placed a number of new machines on the 
market, for which there is claimed marked advantages over 
the older products Among these it is claimed that the sim- 
plex double-deck slime concentrator will handle twice, and 
the simplex double-deck sand concentrator four times, the ton- 
nage handled by the respective older type single deck tables. 
The capacity of the six-deck tilting slimer is said to be 
four times that of the old type single-deck slimers. The Com- 
pany states that the multiple-deck machines are no longer 
an experiment, but on the contrary have proved a great suc- 
cess. They have been in continual operation in one of the 
most up-to-date mills in the country for over a year, and 
are so rigidly tied together and mounted that they have given 
no trouble mechanically. In connection with these machines, 
a blueprint is furnished for a stationary pulp distributor 
which provides for an even distribution of feed to the decks. 
The Deister Machine Co.'s 'Ideal' headmotion is interchange- 
able and is used on all the latest sand and slime tables manu- 
factured by this Company. Every millman knows that the 
headmotion is the important factor in the operation of a 
concentrator. Simplicity, durability, and efficiency of the 
'Ideal' headmotion, it is claimed, has been demonstrated in 
nearly a year's constant operation. During this time, it re- 
quired no attention other than the regular oiling. The prin- 
cipal wearing parts are made of case-hardened steel and run 
submerged in oil. It can be adjusted, while in operation, by 
an adjustable eccentric pin in the rear of the motion. This 
adjustment is independent of the means for adjusting the 
stroke. The Company also equips decks of other types of 
concentrating tables with the patented plateau and rifling 
system, and thereby proposes to increase the capacity of these 
tables without decreasing their efficiency. 

Commercial Paragraphs 

The June number of 'Lesehen's Hercules,' the monthly pub- 
lication of A. Lenchkn & Pons Rope Co.. contains an interest- 
ing description of the application of flattened strand rone to 
coal mining operations in Utah. 

The Western Electric Co.. of New York City, has for dis- 
tribution a most interesting publication entitled The Mak- 
ing of the Voice Highways.' The publication presents a pic- 
torial review of the history of communication and modern 
wire and cable making. The subject-matter is attractively 
presented and of an educational nature. 

Ax enormous conveyor belt was recently made in Australia 
by the Dunlop Rubber Co. for the Broken Hill Proprietary com- 
pany. It is 4S75 ft. long in seven sections, 36 in. wide, % in. 
thick, 6 ply in the centre, 9 ply at the edges, weighs 30.5 tons, 
and is to run at 250 ft. per minute. It will be used in load- 
ing ironstone from the Company's deposits in South Australia 
into vessels for conveyance to Newcastle, New South Wales, 
where a large iron and steel plant is 'being erected. 

Julv 11, 1914 




THOMAS T. READ, New York - 
T. A. RICKARD. London - 


Assistant Editors 

Associate Editor 

Editorial Contributor 

- Correspondent 


A. W. Allen. Charles Janin. 

Leonard S. Austin. James F. Kemp. 

Gelasio Caetani. • F. H. Morley. 

Courtenay De Kalb. C. W. Purington. 

F. Lynwood Garrison. C. F. Tolman, Jr. 
Horace V. Winchell. 

THE Circuit Court of Appeals at San Francisco re- 
affirmed its decision in the case of Minerals Separa- 
tion, Ltd., versus James M. Hyde, on July 6. Minerals 
Separation now has sixty days within which to move in 
the matter of getting the ease before the United States 
Supreme Court. 

REVIVAL of old milling properties by modern meth- 
ods is a subject which is engaging increased atten- 
tion by mine operators. The Secretary of State reports 
the revival of 4:j companies in California during the 
first six months of the year, with a total capitalization 
of $22,078,500. In the current issue we reeord the re- 
cent revival of mining at Aurora, Nevada, and detail 
the milling practice. Old mines, like old tailing dumps. 
are often worthy of investigation and many of the 
mines of the future will doubtless be mines of the past. 

JOHNSON once said that a man ought to read as in- 
clination leads him, for what he reads as a task will 
do him little good. Granting the wisdom of the re- 
mark, the inclination can yet be guided so that at the 
end of each year a man shall feel himself possessed of 
wider knowledge of every subject than he had at its 
beginning. There is no easier way to acquire true cul- 
ture than by thoughtful reading of the best books on a 
wide range of topics. Engineers often rank high as 
golf players, stamp collectors, or the like ; they might 
even better rank as distinguished amateurs in political 
economy, public finance, sanitation, public hygiene, or 
some other useful subject, just as Dr. James Douglas 
is a well know r n authority on the early history of New 
England, and Mr. H. C. Hoover the leading authority 
on the early history of mining. 

"DADIUM INVESTIGATIONS by the United States 
-*-* Bureau of Mines at Denver, noted in an editorial 
of May 30, have recently resulted in the application 
for patent, by Mr. Richard B. Moore, for a process for 
the extraction of refined radium salts. The process is 
reported to be in successful operation at the South Den- 
ver plant of the Bureau and will be given to the public 
for free use. It is stated that this government plant 
will be able to supply American hospitals with radium 
salts in the near future. While out of 972 cases treated 
by the Radium Institute of London in 1913 only 56 
were apparently cured and 183 improved, physicians are 

still hopeful, and a more thorough study of the element, 
it is hoped, will redound to the good of humanity. 

TjXH'RTH OF J FLY at Ely was celebrated by mine- 
■*• rescue and first-aid contests, which were held under 
the auspices of the University of Nevada. The interest 
and enthusiasm aroused by these contests is reported as 
having equalled that formerly displayed in drilling con- 
tests and foot races. The 'safety first' movement, which 
was inaugurated in Nevada sometime ago and resulted 
in the organization of a state association for its advance- 
ment, is producing results and it is gratifying to note 
.the hearty support which the mine operators are giving 
this movement. 


As we noted last week the 'Mine Owners' Casualty In- 
demnity Exchange' has been formed to afford to mine 
operators a means of insuring themselves against terms 
of the 'California Workmen's Insurance and Safety 
Act.' We have frequently discussed this Act and the 
unequal manner in which it bears down upon mine 
operators. While there is little disposition among the 
latter, even in the face of what they justly feel to be un- 
fair burdens, to question the soundness of the general 
principle that each industry should carry its own bur- 
dens, there is a widespread feeling that in mining, no 
way has been yet provided to distribute those burdens 

We have had frequent conferences with the Industrial 
Accident Commission and can assure the mine operators 
that the Commission shows every disposition to afford 
them such relief as lies in its power. As we pointed out 
January 17, the funds placed at the disposal of the 
Commission by the legislature are inadequate to permit 
it to carry unlimited liability on mines, and any other 
insurance is unsatisfactory. It was at first hoped that 
it would be possible, with the friendly services of the 
Commission, to establish a separate fund for mine in- 
surance on a mutual basis; the Commission doing the 
work involved at cost. Legal advice was. however, to 
the effect that any such fund, if under control of the 
Commission, could not be maintained in the face of any 
shortage in the general fund due to a catastrophe in 
another industry. Tn the end. the state must make pro- 



July 11, 1914 

vision permitting the Commission to offer insurance to 
the small operators, or the development of new mines 
will be greatly restricted or cease altogether. The larger 
operators can, and should, combine in a mutual com- 
pany and carry their own risk at the same time that 
they establish their own inspection service, so as to per- 
mit a risk-rating system to be evolved. In the absence 
of any such general association, and the fact that the 
law itself cannot be amended until the legislature meets, 
indemnity exchanges seem to offer the only possible 
means for reducing the premiums. That the cost at 
present is too high is evident from a number of circum- 

The cost now varies witli the nature of the work. We 
have collected figures covering $5,112,870, estimated pay- 
rolls for 1914. The average rate paid is a trifle over 6 
per cent. The greater number of mining companies are 
carrying their own risk. Of 71 mines reporting, 29 are 
insured, 27 not insured, and 15 failed to state. Of 
mills and smelters the figures are : reporting, 35 ; in- 
sured, 20; not insured, 14; not stating, 1. At the mines 
the total pay-roll insured amounted to $782,276 ; and 
the non-insured or not stated, $2,111,505. The average 
pay-roll at 58 mines amounts to $49,893. At the mills 
the insured pay-roll amounts to $272,034; the non-in- 
sured or not stated, $747,520. The average mill pay- 
roll is $29,987. By branches of mining the figures are: 


Mining in general $2,596,118 

Hydraulic and dredging... 1,382,626 
Mills and smelters 1,134,126 









$5,112,S70 $6.17 $313,368 

It is impossible to say exactly what the real cost of 
the insurance is. While we have returns from a large 
number of companies based upon their accident rate in 
the past, it must be admitted that these records have not 
always been well kept and that past conditions no longer 
obtain. One notably liberal and well managed company 
operating two mines and with a total pay-roll of about 
a half million dollars, found the total cost of compen- 
sation, medical, and hospital service at one of its mines 
to be 2% per cent in 1912, 2.65 per cent in 1913, and at 
the other mine 1 per cent. Its officers estimate that 
under the new law the cost will be approximately the 
same. Another mine with a pay-roll of $158,179 found 
the cost under the Roseberry act in 1913 to be $6190, 
and estimates that under the new law the cost will be 
2*4 times as much. Other figures might be; quoted, but 
their variation causes hesitation in accepting them as a 
guide, though it is to be noted that none of them even 
approximate the rates asked by the insurance companies. 
Perhaps a better basis for figuring is an estimate made 
by an experienced insurance man, based upon operations 
in California and covering $17,000,000 in pay-rolls. Ap- 
plying to the accident record covered by this pay-roll 
the terms of the present law, the cost of compensation 
was estimated at $285,000. We have had no opportunity 
to check these figures, but so far as data are available 

to us they tally. It will be noted that less than one- 
third of this pay-roll would produce more than the total 
sum in premiums, at the rates actually being charged. 

Another reason for believing that California mine 
operators are being overcharged, is the experience that 
many of them are having as mine owners in Nevada, 
We gave the figures for the first 10 months operation of 
the Nevada law, in our issue of June 27. It is unneces- 
sary to repeat, but with a base rate of 2.2 and a maxi- 
mum of 3 per cent, the insurance fund is meeting alt 
claims and building a surplus; and in Nevada the bulk 
of the business is with the mines. It is true that the 
terms of the law are not identical with that in Cali- 
fornia, and it is possible, as urged by insurance men, 
that adequate provision is not being made for the catas- 
trophe risk. Time will tell as to this, but in California, 
so far as the workmen are concerned there is some ques- 
tion whether the cost of a catastrophe would be met by 
some of the insurance carriers. California laws give to 
the Insurance Commissioner limited powers, and the In- 
dustrial Accident Commission has taken the ground that 
as one branch of the government of the state it should 
not question the action of a coordinate branch in per- 
mitting an insurance company to do business within the 
state. Whether the insurance be good or bad, the 
operator is protected ; though possibility of an attack 
upon the constitutionality of the law lies in the power 
under these conditions to do away with the workmen's 
fundamental right to compensation for injury, without 
his consent. That again is a problem for the future. It 
is only important at the moment in connection with the 
fact that the new form of insurance, represented by the 
indemnity exchange, is now available to California 

Under the plan of the exchange the insurance is car- 
ried mutually by the companies or individuals forming 
it. The rates paid in are the same as those of the regu- 
lar companies and in addition notes, securities, or cash 
equal to an extra premium or a defined part of such a 
premium, are deposited with the exchange, to meet a 
contingent risk. From the sums so accumulated a per- 
centage, in the case of the concern mentioned amounting 
to 20, is taken to cover the cost of conducting the busi- 
ness. Next the losses are paid, and the necessary reserve 
set aside to cover future payments on these losses. The 
remaining funds are periodically distributed in the form 
of dividends. The total liability of any person or com- 
pany in such an exchange is limited to the amount of 
two annual premiums. The final cost of the insurance 
is his due portion of the actual loss met by all members 
of the exchange, and the sum mentioned as paid for 
general expense. If lie insures with a regular company 
he pays one premium and gets no refund. If he joins 
the exchange he risks two premiums and gets insurance 
at cost plus 20 per cent. Since regular companies pay 
that rate, at times more, to agents who solicit the busi- 
ness, the member of an exchange gets his insurance for 
cost and makes the solicitor do the work. 

Julv 11, 1914 



As is true of all institutions there are drawbacks. In 
the first place there has been no specific decision in Cali- 
fornia to the effect that such exchanges constitute in- 
surance carriers so as to relieve their members of all 
further liability. In a few states it has been held that 
there is still a contingent liability, but, as always, it is 
needful to be careful in drawing conclusions, since the 
various state laws differ, as well as do the courts. In 
California there is an especially strong presumption in 
favor of the exchanges since their organization is spe- 
cifically provided for by law. There is the further fact. 
already noted, that the Industrial Accident Commission 
is not disposed to go behind the fact that a company or 
an exchange has been authorized to do business by the 
insurance department of the state. As a matter of fact 
such exchanges are now in operation in a number of 

The second danger is that members of an exchange 
must work through a person or persons who are con- 
stituted 'attorneys in fact,' under terms of the insur- 
ance contract. These men handle the funds and con- 
duct the business. In the case of the 'Mine Owners' 
Casualty Indemnity Exchange,' they are young but ex- 
perienced insurance men who are in the business, prop- 
erly enough, for profit. Provision is made for an ad- 
visory board of three members of the exchange which 
has large supervisory powers. Presumably they will be 
mine operators, and if the results of the exchange prove 
unsatisfactory they will be to blame, since the three will 
have a clear majority on the board. A further safe- 
guard is the ri<dit of cancellation which is reserved to 
each exchange member. 

.Mine operators having shown no disposition to or- 
ganize a mutual company to care for themselves, ex- 
perienced insurance men offer to form such a com- 
pany, operate it on a limited ratio of cost, and permit 
its members to have a majority upon what will con- 
stitute for most purposes a board of directors. This 
warrants investigation. 


In a sane and conservative exposition of the relation 
of business to politics, Mr. P. A. Vanderlip, president 
of the National City Rank of New York City, in a re- 
cent address before the New York Bankers' Association. 
presented a statement of facts and conditions bearing 
on the present so-called psychological depression which 
sums up the present condition of business in the United 
States in an admirable manner. His appeal to the bank- 
ers and business men to get in closer touch with the 
economic and political tendencies of the day and to di- 
rect their energies more to guiding and informing 
rather than obstructing is most laudable. 

There was a time when the outlook for business was 
gauged by production statistics, distribution of products 
and manufactures, by the state of the money market. 
by records of the accumulated stocks, and by the condi- 
tion of credits. With such statistical data of business 

in hand and correlated, it was not impossible to make 
a fairly accurate prediction of what the future had in 
store for a twelvemonth. The statistics of business were 
a measure of the business outlook. It is almost startling 
to note how far from true that is today, and how impor- 
tant has become the adventitious factor of legislation and 
legislative tendencies. It is no longer possible to meas- 
ure the outlook in the terms with which business men 
are made familiar through their daily routine. The 
Congressional Record is crowding out of its place of im- 
portance The Financial Chronicle, and the public is 
watching and waiting for executive and congressional 
action rather than the comptroller's abstract to measure 
the status of industry. Mr. Vanderlip cites as an ex- 
ample of this feeling on the part of the public, the fact 
that the attitude of mind of the Interstate Commerce 
• ommission has become more important than the statis- 
tics of railroad traffic; the amount of our foreign trade 
is studied to learn the effect of changed tariff law rather 
than of trade tendencies. Reports of the attitude of 
mind of the Attorney General vie in interest with the 
crop predictions of the Secretary of Agriculture ; inves- 
tigations by bureaus, commissions, or Congress form a 
more important feature in gauging a market outlook 
than do the plans for development or expansion formu- 
lated by the executive committees of corporations. 

The factors which appear uppermost in the minds of 
the business interests of the nation are what is going 
to be the effect of new legislation, what new laws are to 
be enacted; not what is the prospect of crops but of 
congressional action. Tt. therefore, seems reasonable 
that so long as the public looks with fear and trembling 
to the action of commissions and governing bodies, rather 
than to natural conditions, the present inertia will con- 
tinue. Mr. Vanderlip states a belief that if business 
men will get themselves into a state of mind where they 
view conditions broadly, with a historical and social 
sense rather than only from their individual point of 
view, they will apprehend better the direction in which 
the whole current of political thought is flowing and 
will feel less impatience with the legislative movement 
and vastly less pessimism concerning its results. 

As a result of Mi - . Vanderlip 's plea, a publicity com- 
mittee has been appointed whose purpose will be to en- 
lighten and direct public sentiment rather than contend 
with it. No good can be attained by quietly sitting by 
and railing at Washington. With a 900,000.000-bushel 
wheat crop and a statistical position of industry which 
should warrant a prediction for prosperity and imme- 
diate expansion, there appears to be a psychological 
phase to the present depression. While this condition 
may be intangible, it is nevertheless real: a restoration 
of confidence in what the future has in store and a 
realization that industry is not being plotted against 
by the executive and legislative heads of our govern- 
ment, while it may not be a solution of the difficulty, 
would undoubtedly strengthen the business position and 
remove some of the obstacles from the channels of prog- 



July 11, 1914 


c SwuMmm ait Bairtlbwiillbo OHafiaoinnia 


The Oklahoma gasfields mark the apparent last stand 
of the natural-gas zinc- smelter, and while the days of 
such plants are by no means numbered, unless un- 
expected discoveries are made in this or other localities, 
the time is not indefinitely far off when the zinc smelt- 
ing interests must abandon the present natural-gas belt 
and seek sites convenient to permanent fuel supplies 
and reasonable freight rates. At the present time the 
coal districts of Illinois are most favored, as they have 
been since the beginning of the industry in this country, 
but the latest zinc smelters are being erected farther 
east, in Ohio and western Pennsylvania. 

Fuel is, of course, the keystone upon which depends 
the life of the smelter. At present there is no shortage 
of gas at Bartlesville and there are three smelters in 
operation ; the Bartlesville Zinc Co. and the Lanyon- 
Starr Smelting Co., both subsidiaries of the American 
Metals Co., and the National Zinc Co., which is con- 
trolled by Beer, Sondheimer & Co. and E. 0. Jacobsen. 
The future gas supply is uncertain and as a result the 
plants have not that stamp of permanency which char- 
acterizes the new producer smelters of the Illinois coal 
districts. Improvements and upkeep expenditures are 
kept low, since no one knows upon what day there will 
be no more gas and Bartlesville will follow in the foot- 
steps of Iola. In an effort to prolong the life of the 
smelters, the Smelter Gas Co., a subsidiary of the 
American Metals Co., has been organized and, having 
leased large tracts of land in the vicinity of Bartlesville, 
is exploring this ground vigorously for new gas deposits, 
with some success. The gas consumption of the three 
smelters when in full operation amounts to 23,000,000 
cu. ft, per day. The Bartlesville Zinc Co. uses 9,000,000 
cu. ft., the Lanyon-Starr Smelting Co. 6,500,000 cu. ft., 
and the National Zinc Co. 7,500.000 cu. ft. per day. 
While it is impossible to say how long this consumption 
can be met, there is reason to believe that the end is not 
yet in sight and a long period of activity is anticipated. 

The Bartlesville smelters are situated about one and a 
half miles southwest of Bartlesville. The smelter sites 
lie on the north side of the right-of-way of the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas railway lines, from which private sidings 
have been laid for the unloading of ore-cars and supplies 
and shipment of spelter. The town of Bartlesville is 75 
miles from Joplin, the centre of the zinc mining industry 
of the Middle West and from which the smelters in the 
past have received the bulk of the concentrates treated. 
The topography of the smelter sites is generally level, 
with some depressions which have been filled with retort 
residue and others which at the present time are being 
used for dumping ground and will afford dumping space 
for years to come. 

Bartlesville No. 2 Plaxt 

The ground plan of the Bartlesville Zinc Co.'s smelter, 
which is shown in the accompanying drawing, shows the 
arrangement of the buildings. The compactness of the 
plant and favorable spacing of buildings and furnaces 
for short hauls, with little or no available space wasted, 
is apparent. The general view of the plant, opposite, 
shows the character of the buildings and furnishes an 
idea as to the magnitude of the works. In addition to 
the standard-gage railway turn-outs, the plant has ade- 
quate narrow-gage industrial track for the handling of 
charges, pottery, residue, spelter, and smelter supplies. 

In the past the smelter was operated largely on Joplin 
concentrates, but at t he present time the bulk of supply 
is a flotation product from Butte, with some Joplin, Colo- 
rado, Needles, and Mexican ore. The concentrates are 
received at the plant in ordinary freight cars and un- 
loaded by hand into the receiving bins in the ore-house 
at the northwest corner of the property. The ore-house 
is divided into compartments for the storage of various 
grades and kinds of concentrates. The bins are flat- 
bottomed with wooden partitions and are underlaid with 
steam coils which are used for reducing the moisture in 

July 11, 1914 




the concentrates as received. The bins are on the ground- 
level, and in removing concentrate it is necessary to 
shovel it into harrows, in which it is taken to the crush- 
ing and drying department. 

Two circular dryers are situated in a wing of the old 
roaster house containing the three original furnaces, 
while another dryer of the same type has been installed 
in the new roaster house, which contains two additional 
furnaces. The concentrate, which is usually a mixture 
of Colorado and Butte ores, is fed at the centre of the 
dryer and moved by revolving rabbles to the periphyry 
where it is discharged through chutes into the hoot of 
a bucket-elevator. The bucket-elevator discharges into 

a 4- mesh trommel screen, the oversize from which is 
returned to a pair of 24-in. rolls, while the undersize 
is taken by a belt-conveyor to the superimposed steel 
feed bins of the Zellweger roasting furnaces. The dry- 
ing capacity of the smelter is not sufficient for handling 
the entire roaster feed, with the result that during the 
day shift undried concentrate is shoveled directly upon 
the feed end of the roasting furnaces and both drying 
and roasting is done by the Zellweger roasting furnaces 
during the day shift. The dryers and crushers are 
(■perated by a 50-hp. General Electric motor operating 
on a 110-volt circuit. 

For roasting sulphides, five of these furnaces are 




July 11, 1914 

used. This type of roasting furnaces has found con- 
siderable favor through the Oklahoma gas smelting dis- 
trict. The furnaces are of the mechanical reverberatory 
type with hearths 150 ft. long and 15 ft. wide. The rab- 
bling or raking mechanism is the special feature of this 
type of furnace and consists of a number of V-shaped 
steel cups which are mounted radially on a heavy shaft 
with cog-wheel supports connected by wire cable with 
the driving machinery. The wheels rotate on tracks 
in wheel pits at the sides of the hearth and are some- 
times protected by an apron which is suspended from 
the arch and thus protects the wheels and driving 

end, while on the return to the feed end the charge is 
moved but little and only a plowing effect is obtained 
by the rabbles moving over the hearth. The racks, which 
serve as track for the support of the rabbles and cause 
the mechanism to move uniformly through the furnace, 
are air-cooled by an air-chamber below them and the rab- 
bling mechanism is air-cooled as it passes out of either 
end of the furnace, where it remains for a minute and a 
half before the return trip through the furnace. The 
ends of the furnace are closed with hanging walls and 
sheet-iron suspended doors as shown in the halftone. 
The furnaces, as operated at the Bartlesville plant, will 




J=c \- 

H »% 


. * 






Office building. 


Lime house. 


Wash house. 


Wash house. 



t . 

Condenser store-room 


9. Retort ovens. 




Clay storage -bins. 






1 1. 

Mixing house. 



Coal storage. 








Dryer and sampling house. 






Steel bins tor roasted ore. 



Tile and steel stacks. 





Rotary dryers. 

Zellweger roasting furnaces. 

Retort furnace blocks. 

Hose~house and 10,000-gai stor- 
age tank. 

Fireproof room for fire pump. 

Ash elevator. 


Earth-bank reservoir. 

Pipe-line from Sand creek (1V4 
miles away). 

mechanism from the intense heat of the furnace. A 
flash-light photograph of the interior of a Zellweger fur- 
nace at the Neodesha plant of the Granby Mining & 
Smelting Co. is shown opposite. This furnace is 
a typical Zellweger roasting furnace and the rabbling 
mechanism and the class of construction is seen from 
the illustration. The rabbling cups are fitted to collars 
which are mounted loosely on the shaft and a locking 
device holds them rigid or allows them to turn on the 
shaft according as to whether the passage of the rabble 
wheel is from the feed to the discharge or from the dis- 
charge to the feed end of the furnace. 

By this means the charge is uniformly picked up by 
the cups, raised, turned, and moved forward as the 
rabbles pass through the furnace toward the discharge 

treat 30 tons of concentrate per day reducing the sul- 
phur content in the roasted product to about one per 
cent. The temperature of the furnaces is kept at about 
1000° C. The roasted concentrate is discharged from the 
end of the hearth by the rabbles, which move the charge 
every six minutes. It falls into steel cars and is re- 
moved to steel storage bins. The furnaces are equipped 
with 10 gas burners on each side. The four burners 
nearest the feed end are % in.; these are followed by 
three y 2 -in. and three %-in. burners, making 20 burners 
to each furnace. The rabbling mechanism is driven by 
a ]2i/>-hp. General Electric motor operating on a 110- 
volt circuit, each furnace having an individual motor. 
The motors are equipped with automatic starting, stop- 
ping, and reversing device for regulating the travel of 

July 11, 1914 



the rabbles through the furnace, a simple hydraulic de- 
vice being used for this purpose. Combination tile and 
steel stacks discharge the furnace gases into the atmos- 
phere. When the furnaces are being fed with dried 
concentrate from the superimposed bins, the feed is auto- 
matic, the gate being tripped upon each passage of the 
rabbles through the furnace and the feed falling di- 
rectly upon the hearth. 

Retort Fuel 

The coal used in the mixing room is brought from 
the Pittsburg, Kansas, field together with some Arkan- 
sas semi-anthracite. It is delivered from the railway 
cars at the coal bins, which are 
conveniently situated with rela- 
tion to the mixing house and cen- 
trally placed with reference to 
the furnace buildings, as shown 
in the plan of the plant. Here 
the roasted sulphide, carbonate, 
and fuel are mixed in a concrete 
mixing machine, and the mixed 
charge elevated to bins from 
which it is drawn into the charge 
cars and moved over the indus- 
trial tracks to the furnaces. 

The original smelter plant com- 
prised six blocks of retort fur- 
naces, to which three additional 
blocks have been added. The fur- 
naces are a modified Hegeler 
type 100 ft. long and adapted to 
natural-gas fuel. The furnaces 
consist of 18 sections on each side 
of the block, with 16 retorts to the 
section in four rows, making 288 

retorts to the side, and 576 retorts to the block. The 
plant, therefore, comprises 5184 retorts in the blocks 
of furnaces. Air and gas is admitted at the front of the 
furnaces at each section, a practice which in some of the 
more modern natural-gas furnaces has been replaced by 
using a 'blow-box' at each half-section. The furnaces 
are of the cellar type. The retorts used are 50 by 8 :, '| 
inches inside dimension and are made, together with the 
condensers, at a pottery on the grounds. As has come 
to be standard practice in the United States, no prolongs 
are employed. The average life of the retorts at this 
plant is about 30 days. Air for the furnaces is supplied 
by a blower in the engine room and conducted to the fur- 
nace blocks through a galvanized iron pipe-line and dis- 
tribution system. T'nder present operating conditions 
there is charged from 14,500 to 16,000 lb. of roasted ore 
to the side per day or about 150 tons of raw concentrate 
for the entire plant. The extraction of the zinc is about 
85% of the charge assay. 

The furnaces are about seven years old and in a good 
state of preservation. Blue powder is added to the 
charge in the last two sections of each block and a tem- 
perature of about 1400° C. is maintained. About three 

hours are occupied in charging the retorts, from 4 to 7 
a.m. The first draw is made at 3 p.m., the second at 
11 : 30 p.m., and the last about 4 a.m. The result of a 
day's run is about 115 slabs of spelter to the side, the 
first draw producing about 35 slabs, the second 65, and 
the last 15. The first metal drawn, being distilled at 
the lowest temperature, is the purest, and is cast as 
'extra select' in 56-lb. molds. The regular run of the 
furnaces is east in 60-lb. molds. The retorts are drawn 
into a 360-lb. ladle suspended from a crane in a movable 
carriage, which ladle is swung under the condensers and 
operated by a hand winch. The oxide or 'blue powder' 
is skimmed off and shoveled aside for re-treatment. 


During drawing operations 1 he drawman is protected 
by a shield on the draw carriage from the heat of the fur- 
nace. After the last draw, the residue is removed from 
the retorts and falling through a chute in front of the 
retorts is collected in industrial cars or pans below the 
furnace. Steam is used for cleaning the retorts, the 
water being immediately converted into steam upon en- 
tering the retort. The water-line and hose connections 
are in front of each side. Any slag adhering to the re- 
torts is removed by scrapers. Tn cleaning the retorts 
the man operating the hose is protected by a shield 
which is suspended from a rail on rollers and is easily 
moved along the furnace. Twenty men are employed 
per day on each block. 

Treatment op Retort Residue 

The treatment of retort residue presents some inter- 
esting features which have been developed at this 
smelter as a result of the treatment of the Butte flota- 
tion concentrate. Tn that the residue contains silver in 
commercial quantities, a large amount of experimental 
work was necessary to develop the best method of re- 
covering the silver and it has resulted in the 'clinkeringr 



July 11, 1914 

process' by which a blast-furnace material is made at 
the plant and shipped to Colorado smelters. The pro- 
cess consists in reducing the carbon content, which is 
upward of 30%, and the formation of clinker. 

Construction of Heaps 

The residue is removed from the furnaces in steel 
industrial cars and run out over an elevated structure 
as shown in the halftone to a site to the north of the 
smelter, where it is dumped and shaped into roasting 
heaps. In the building of these heaps a bed of residue 
2 ft. thick is spread out into a square of from 20 to 30 
ft. on a side, and upon this bed, brick-work air channels 
are constructed. A plan and sections are shown in the 

of clinker bearing silver results. This clinker is then 
cooled, broken, the brick channels removed, and the 
product shipped to Colorado furnaces. 

The pottery plant at which the retorts and condensers 
for the Company's use are manufactured is equipped 
with a Mehler retort press, and pug-mill, an augur 
condenser machine, and two small Ft. Scott pug-mills 
for pugging condenser materials. The crushing ma- 
chinery consists of one 12-in. Blake crusher, one set of 
24-in. and one set of 16-in. rolls, and screens. The re- 
tort material is ground to 5 mesh. St. Louis clay is 
used for retorts while the condensers are manufac- 
tured from a 1 to 1 mixture of clay and old retorts. 
The clav is unloaded from freight cars into the clay- 


accompanying figures. One main air channel is laid 
through the centre of the bed and this channel is banked 
with dirt to prevent clinker from adhering to brick-work. 
From the main channel, branch channels are constructed 
at right angles extending to the edges of the heap. Eight 
of these branch channels are laid to allow the air to 
escape and be evenly distributed, thereby producing a 
uniform blowing effect throughout the heap. The ends 
of these branch channels are connected in the large 
heaps as shown in the plan. The main channel is con- 
nected by pipe with the main air-distribution pipe and 
this is connected with a blower which supplies air for 
all of the heaps. "When the brick-work has been com- 
pleted it is covered with residue, the air is admitted, 
and the heap is fired. The heap is then added to until 
a height of about six feet is reached and it contains 
about 400 tons of residue. The roasting or burning 
process is kept up for approximately 40 days, when 
the pile will be reduced to less than one-half its original 
size, the carbon reduced to almost nothing and a mass 


SeC 7-zew C J3~ 

bins, where it is weathered from three to six 
months. After the first pugging it is cut into 
short cylinders as it comes from the pug-mill 
and again stacked for about a week, when it is 
given the final pugging and put into the retort 
press. The retorts are inspected as they come 
from the press and sent to the drying rooms, 
which are steam heated. They are then re- 
moved from the drying rooms as the furnaces 
demand, placed upon industrial cars, and taken 
to the furnaces where they are finished in the 
annealing ovens, there being one annealing oven 
to each two blocks of furnaces. 

The power-plant, which adjoins the pottery 
=g building, is equipped with a 250-hp. Corliss en- 
gine with belted generators, a 150-hp. Chase 
compound, and a 120-ft. Garden City blower to 
supply air for the retort furnaces. Natural gas 
is used for fuel under the boilers. There is also 
a fire pump with pipe connections to all departments of 
the plant. The water supply is brought through a pipe- 
line from Sand creek, which is a mile and a half south- 
west. An earth-bank reservoir 250 by 100 by 10 ft. deep 
serves as a reserve water storage at the smelter. There 
is also a 10,000-gal. steel tank for the smelter supply, 
the water being pumped to this tank from the earth 

The plant equipment includes about two and a half 
miles of narrow-gage industrial track for the handling 
of smelter products and a mile of standard-gage rail- 
way sidings for the receiving of smelter materials and 
shipment of spelter. A laboratory building is fitted 
with all of the equipment necessary for making indus- 
trial analyses and determinations in connection with 
zinc smelting. There are also machine and blacksmith 
shops, carpenter shops, lime house, wash rooms, and 
offices on the smelter site. 

Due largely to the efforts of the present manager, 
Archibald Jones, the smelter, after a somewhat dis- 

July 11, 1914 




couraging beginning, is at present being successfully 
operated, and the development of the treatment of Butte 
notation residues has constituted one improvement in 
the smelting of zinc concentrate. 

Dhmsft Pireveiraftioim on A© Ranad 

A simple but seemingly effective process for prevent 
ing dust-blowing from dumps has been placed in active 
operation at the Ferreira Deep. The originator of the 
process is F. L. Bosqui, who describes the process as 
follows: It consists of spraying the surface of the 
dumps with the slime residue in the condition in which 
it is ordinarily pumped to the slime dam and mixed 
with about 100 lb. of salt per ton of two parts water to 
one of slime pulp. The hygroscopic properties of the 
salt prevent the crust from drying and cracking. It is 
estimated that it might be necessary to renew this coat- 
ing three or four times a year at insignificant cost. The 
spraying plant consists of a 40-ton cone-bottom agita- 
tor to which the residue slime stream is diverted as re- 
quired. From this tank the pulp is forced by means 
of a triplex Gould pump into a 4-in. distributing main 
provided with hose taps at suitable points. The pulp 
is sprayed on the dump by means of a 4-in. hose and 

nozzle, the stream issuing from the nozzle at 
about 40 lb. pressure. So far the system has 
proved extremely simple and inexpensive as 
well as effective. It is too early to obtain 
definite figures as regards cost, salt consump- 
tion, etc., as the proportion of salt, the thick- 
ness of slime pulp, and other details will 
necessarily be modified in accordance with 

The effect of the spraying is to give the 
dump a thin crust. The peculiarity of the 
crust is that it is not so brittle as might be 
expected. There is a degree of plasticity 
about it which is renewed by the moisture in 
the air. The hygroscopic or moisture-absorb- 
ing property of the salt in the spraying mix- 
ture prevents the crust from drying and 
cracking. It only remains to test the capa- 
bility of the crust to resist the disintegrating 
influence of the high winter winds. .Should 
they prove powerless to rob the process of its 
efficacy, a great boon will have been conferred 
upon the mine dwellers of the Rand. An esti- 
mate of the cost of spraying the dump places 
it at the modest figure of a penny per 100 sq. 
ft., or even less. 

The hose is easily manipulated by one or 
two natives who can spray at a rate of con- 
siderably over an acre per hour, consequently 
the time taken to spray a whole dump, once 
the equipment is erected, would lie in most 
cases under a day. and in no case would it 
exceed two days. 
The idea of adding brine to the slime was suggested 
by F. •(. Trump, manager of the Ferreira Dee]), who 
pointed out that salt is used in some of the colliery 
districts in England for laying dust on roads. The 
installation at the Ferreira Deep cost under £1000. 
The credit for being the first to apply the spray treat- 
ment for the prevention of dump dust is due to the 
Hast Rand Proprietary Mines, which has already cov- 
ered the Driefontein dump with a coating of vlci mud, 
which has proved very effective, but such mud is not 
everywhere available, and. in any event, the use of 
current slime which Mr. Bosqui has installed is cheaper, 
simpler, and more likely to be universally adopted. — 
Capetown Times. 

Tin: works of the Hydro-Electric Power & Metal- 
lurgical Co. have been acquired by the Tasmanian Gov- 
ernment. Financial troubles led to this end. Good 
progress has been made with the pipe-lines and power- 
plant, and within a year there will be 85,000 lip. avail- 
able for mines and manufacturing plants. 

MlNKRAL PRODUCTION of New South Wales for the first 
quarter of 1914 was worth £2,754,999, an increase of 
£467.162 over the same period of last year. Coal and 
silver-lead exports showed a large increase. 



July 11, 1914 

widleiriift© surad SunflpIhiM@s lira L©&dhHifll© ©if© Dsjposfe 


Siderite, though once of considerable economic impor- 
tance, is now the least valuable of the iron ores. Even 
manganiferous siderite, at one time in great demand 
for the manufacture of spiegeleisen, has now no eco- 
nomic value in the West. Genetically considered, sider- 
ite is perhaps the more important of the sedimentary 
iron ores, most of which have been precipitated as car- 
bonates and, through chemical and other processes, re- 
arranged or redeposited chiefly as hematite. Much of 
the Lake Superior iron ore is now considered to have 
had such origin. 1 The hematite ore of Breece Hill 
iron mine, Leadville, is in all probability derived from 
siderite. which is plentiful at depth even now in that 
locality, and recently has been reported in great abun- 
dance in the Hopemore mine. 

Siderite (carbonate of iron) has long been known as 
an important mineral of Leadville replacement deposits 
in the blue limestone horizon, particularly in association 
with the primary sulphides, and in fissures and solution 
cavities. Over 25 years ago I collected specimens from 
the walls of watercourses in the La Plata mine, partly 
filled with manganese oxide, and reached the conclusion 
that this oxide was in great part, if not wholly, derived 
from the oxidation of siderite. Last May I picked up 
specimens from the dump of the adjoining Stevens mine 
showing a crust of manganiferous iron oxide attached 
to partly oxidized siderite. A casual examination of 
several mine dumps a few days later showed siderite 
in every one, resulting in a nice collection of specimens, 
some pyritic, but mostly typical siderites comparatively 
free from oxidation. The dumps yielding siderite are 
the Stevens, Colonel Sellers, A. Y. & Minnie, Colorado 
No. 2 (Louisville group), R. A. M. (Mikado group), 
the Penrose (down-town mines), the Wolftone, the El 
Paso, the Jamie Lee, and the Fitzhugh. I had previ- 
ously collected specimens from the workings of the Res- 
urrection, Mover, Tucson, Silver Cord, and Maid of Erin 

Distribution ok Siderite 

The list, covering two miles in one direction 
and almost five in another, from the Resurrection to 
the Penrose, is ample to show the wide distribution of 
siderite at Leadville. While I examined no other dumps, 
excepting those of the principal downtown mines, there 
is little reason to doubt the occurrence of siderite in 
all the mines that have penetrated the oxidized zone, 
while in the white limestone horizon, the siderite re- 
placement deposits witli their associated lead and zinc 
ores, are second only in importance and extent to the 
sulphide replacements in the blue limestone horizon; 
judging by the last few years' development in the Tuc- 

iRies, Heinrich, 'Economic Geology,' 1910, p. 370. 

son mine of the Iron Silver Mining Co. and of the Maid 
of Erin mines. 

I believe that sedimentary siderite with its carbon- 
aceous and organic impurities should be differentiated 
from the siderite deposited in fissure veins and in re- 
placements therefrom, herein called vein siderite. Both 
varieties contain manganese chiefly as carbonate; par- 
ticularly vein siderite, which invariably contains a much 
higher proportion of manganese than does sedimentary 
siderite. It may be permissible in discussing the dif- 
ference between sedimentary siderite and vein siderite, 
briefly to review some of the important siderite veins, 
including that peculiar class of silver-lead-zinc veins in 
which siderite forms the principal gangue ; then to com- 
pare chemical analyses of vein siderite with those of 
sedimentary origin. 

European Siderite Veins 

The great Perran Iron lode, Cornwall, England, oc- 
curs in Devonian clay slate intruded by granite por- 
phyry dikes. The vein averages about 50 ft. in width 
and is in places filled with massive siderite carrying 
10 to 15% manganese. The outcrop has been extensively 
worked for limonite, and much siderite was mined in 
the 'seventies' from the deeper workings. Because of 
the decline in the price of iron and increase in silica 
in the ore, it could not be profitably sold as 'spiegel' 
ore in 1880, when I had charge of the principal mine 
on the lode. The vein bore evidence of reopening, and 
between the shoots of massive siderite a breccia of zinc- 
blende occurred. In the Duchy Peru mine, the angular 
pieces varying from a few pounds weight to several tons, 
were imbedded in decomposed clay slate, and cemented 
and seamed with siderite. The blende breccia was prof- 
itably worked for several years with a production vary- 
ing from 500 to 900 tons per month of 38 to 42% zinc 
content. Rich veinlets of argentiferous galena occurred 
in places, but apart from stray crystals of galena and 
sphalerite the siderite was free from zinc, lead, and 
silver. Near a granite porphyry dike ('elvan') a large 
deposit of fine grained sphalerite occurred in a sider- 
ite gangue. The difficulty in separating these min- 
erals by water concentration led to my first experi- 
ments with magnetic separation (in 1881). 

The vein in the siderite shoots was full of water- 
courses and oval solution cavities. One of them ex- 
tended two levels in height and was used for a ladder- 
way. The vein was extremely wet, the flow at the Duchy 
Peru mine varying from 600 to 1000 gal. per minute. 
depending on the season. It all came from the bottom 
of the mine. The iron ore sequence is approximately 
as follows: limonite to 60 ft.; siderite. 60 to 360 ft.: 

July 11, 1914 



silicious siderite, 360 to 450 ft.; and at 480 ft., the 
deepest point reached, the vein was filled with quartz 
and siderite, the latter constituting only about 207c of 
the whole. 

In Brendon Hills, Somerset, England, a series of 
irregular siderite veins occur in slaty rocks of middle 
Devonian age. The veins extend over a distance of 
five miles, with a maximum aggregate of 27 ft. in thick- 
ness. The siderite carries 13 to 14% manganese perox- 
ide. The brown iron of the outcrops has been mined 
from a very early date, while siderite has in recent 
times been extensively mined for 'spiegel' ore. Quartz 
is associated with the siderite usually as separate lenses 
in the veins. 2 Lead or zinc does not occur in any 
appreciable quantity in the veins. 

Siderite in England and Germany 

In numerous lead mines in the North of England in 
Carboniferous limestones, such as those of Allenheads 
for example, siderite occurs as a gangue accompanying 
the galena not only in the vein fissures but also in 
'flats' or replacement deposits in favorable limestone 
beds. Siderite is of common occurrence on the Euro- 
pean continent both in massive veins and as the prin- 
cipal gangue. accompanying zinc-lead ores. Suffice it 
to mention the Stahlberg Miisen, where a nearly ver- 
tical vein enclosed in lower Devonian clay slate has 
been worked since 1313. This mass of siderite is about 
75 ft. thick, nearly 500 ft. long, and proved to a depth 
of about 800 ft. 3 The Luise mine, near Horhausen, in 
which sphalerite, galena, and copper minerals occur in 
the vein alongside siderite, is noteworthy in that in 
it a basaltic intrusion changed the siderite into mag- 
netite. The siderite lode of the Friedrich and Esin- 
garten mines of the Hamm district, which also contain 
galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and bornite, as well as 
antimony and bismuth minerals, 4 may also be cited. 

J. Arthur Philips 8 calls attention to the import of 
manganiferous iron ore into England from limestone 
districts producing lead ore, where it probably repre- 
sents the superficial alteration of manganiferous spath- 
ose ore. He mentions Almeris and Porman, near Car- 
tagenia. where there is a large export, Laurium in 
Greece, and other localities. The ore, he states, varies 
between 25 and 35% of iron and of manganese. 

American Siderite Veins 

Siderite silver-lead veins in North America are well 
represented by the Slocan series in British Columbia 
and the Wardner deposits in the Coeur d'Alene, Idaho. 
The Slocan rocks arc clay slates and limestone beds of 
possibly pre-Cambrian age; this formation is intruded 
by granite, quart/, porphyry, and lampropyric dikes. 

•-Morgans, Morgan, Proc. South Wales Inst, of Eng., Vol. VI., 
p. 78. 

^Philips, J. A., 'Ore Deposits' (1884), p. 272. 

«Beck, P., The Naturp of Ore Deposits' (1905), p. 196 (W. H. 

5'Elenients of Metallurgy' (1887), p. 152. 

The fissure veins usually carry rich silver-lead ore asso- 
ciated with siderite and quartz, the latter predominat- 
ing in depth. Siderite was deposited throughout the 
whole vein-forming period, being often the first mineral 
deposited on the vein walls. It also occurs as alter- 
nating seams with galena and sphalerite in the vein 
filling, as the cementing material in brecciated zones, 
and lastly, as crystals deposited on galena crystals, 
marking the last mineral deposition in the fissures. 

Selected specimens of siderite from the Slocan silver- 
lead veins gave the following approximate composition: 6 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

Fe CO. 58.88 62.31 36.53 

Mn CO, 27.48 26.12 55.52 

Mg CO, 11.59) 

Ca C0 3 2.05J U - 57 * 7 - 95 * 

•By difference. 

The siderite is free from zinc, though deposited in 
veins with sphalerite. It is also free from silver, cop- 
per, and lead as molecular constituents. However, 
grains of galena and sphalerite occur in all but the 
purest specimens. Tetrahedrite or Freibergite is the 
chief silver-bearing mineral. It is invariably asso- 
ciated with galena and often contains 2000 oz. silver 
per ton. The Slocan siderite, usually forming the bulk 
of the vein material, being free from precious metals 
and from zinc, becomes a true gangue in these silver- 
lead veins. Quartz forms the remaining gangue and 
is scarce in the upper reaches of the veins, but pre- 
dominates in depth. 

Coeur d'Alene Veins 

The silver, lead, and siderite veins of the Coeur 
d'Alene district, Idaho, are of great economic impor- 
tance, furnishing as they do nearly one-third of the 
lead produced in the United States. The country rock 
is sericitic quartzite of pre-Cambrian age, and the ores 
were formed chiefly by replacement along tight shear 
planes. It is believed the siderite developed first, re- 
placing both the quartz grain and the sericitic cement. 
According to F. L. Ransome, 7 siderite is the most abun- 
dant and characteristic gangue mineral of the district. 
He writes: "Its presence as a replacement of quartz- 
ite constitutes a striking mineralogical feature of the 
ore. In fact, the deposits in this respect are unique 
among the known orebodies of the world." He gives 
no chemical analysis of this important vein mineral. 
The deposits are unusual because siderite forms so large 
a proportion of the gangue and because siderite replaces 
quartzite. Both phenomena are common at Leadville, 
but perhaps on a smaller scale so far as quartzite re- 
placement is concerned. Mr. Ransome, describing the 
typical Coeur d'Alene deposit, states: "the siderite is 
massive, the ordinary gangue of the Bunker Hill & 

"Argall, Philip, 'Report of the Zinc Commission' (Ottawa, 
1906), p. 236. 

"F. L. Ransome and F. C. Calkins, 'The Geology and Ore 
Deposits of the Coeur d'Alene District, Idaho,' U. S. Geo!. 
Surv., Prof, paper No. 62 (1908), p. 95. 



July 11, 1914 

Sullivan mines, for example, being a pale brown, fine 
grained aggregate of siderite not always distinguish- 
able at a casual glance from the quartzite, which it 
has in part replaced. In the vicinity of the orebodies 
all gradations can be observed between nearly pure 
massive siderite and a usually somewhat sericitic quartz- 
ite." Coarsely crystalline siderite, he states, is com- 
paratively rare, confined to the filling of open spaces 
or diaclases. Mr. Calkins observes (page 97) : "That 
although siderite has a much wider distribution than 
the ores, yet it is most abundant where the rocks have 
been folded and fissured." A sample of comparatively 
clean siderite from the Bunker Hill & Sullivan mines, 







* ..... . — 


obtained through the courtesy of Stanly A. Easton, as- 
sayed 38.8% iron, 4.5% manganese, and 0.5 oz. in sil- 
ver, with only 4.8% insoluble. It contained no lead, 
but showed some fine specks of disseminated sulphide. 
In Colorado there is a great belt of intrusive por- 
phyry, of late Cretaceous age, which extends almost 
100 miles in a general southwesterly direction from the 
gold-telluride district of Boulder county through the 
gold district of Gilpin county, the gold, silver, lead, 
and zinc district of Clear Creek county, the mining dis- 
tricts of Montezuma, Kokomo, Breckenridge, Alma, 
Leadville, Red Cliff, and Aspen. These intrusions, 
while not continuous, may be said to reach their great- 
est development in the mining districts noted, princi- 
pally at Leadville and probably least at Montezuma. 
This belt of porphyry intrusion closely circumscribes 
the largest and richest silver, lead, zinc, and iron sul- 
phide deposits so far developed in Colorado. Over the 
greater part of this mineral belt, varying from 10 to 
15 miles in width, siderite is a characteristic vein min- 

eral. This is particularly true of those veins and de- 
posits carrying silver, lead, and zinc sulphides and ex- 
tending from Silver Plume to Aspen. They reach their 
largest development so far known, with the maximum 
porphyry intrusion, namely at Leadville. Here the 
lower sedimentaries are seamed with fissures and ex- 
tensive replacement deposits of vein siderite, associated 
as gangue with mixed sulphide ores — galena, zincblende, 
and pyrite. 

Siderite has been described in the U. S. Geological 
Survey reports as occurring in the mining districts 
noted. Spurr and Garrey make frequent mention of 
vein siderite in their description of the Georgetown 
quadrangle. 8 Their figures 86 and 95 are instructive, 
showing siderite as the first incrustation on the fissure 
walls. Siderite is also described as one of the last 
minerals "coating all other crystals." The Colorado 
Geological Survey chronicles the occurrence of siderite 
in the Montezuma veins. 9 Siderite is a common min- 
eral in the replacement deposits at Red Cliff, and its 
occurrence has been noted at Aspen by Mr. Spurr. Fig. 
1 shows siderite crystals on sulphides of iron, lead, and 
zinc taken from wall of a watercourse in the blue lime- 
stone replacement deposit, Iron Mask mine, Red Cliff, 
Colorado, by courtesy of Mr. Hanington, general man- 
ager. The siderite crystals covering the galena, pyrite, 
and blende are the finest I have seen. Siderite, in 
smaller crystals, occurs all through the specimen and 
on the back, which is mostly pyrite. 

Siderite in Leadville District 

All the massive Leadville siderite I have tested is of 
the vein variety. That is to say, it is manganiferous. 
It also contains 10 to 30% silica. Part of the mangan- 
ese or iron is possibly present as silicate. A few an- 
alyses of vein siderite are quoted below for comparison 
with sedimentary siderite, taking iron, manganese, lime,, 
and insoluble as a basis: 

Analyses of Vein Siderite 

Iron. Manganese. CaO. Insoluble. 

% % % % 

No. 1 34.67 9.78 0.28 0.08 

No. 2 36.75 8.21 0.50 

No. 3 31.00 10.80 1.40 15.00 

No. 4 28.40 13.14 6.78* 

No. 5 30.15 12.97 

No. 6 17.62 26.55 

No. 7 3S.S0 4.50 1.00 4.80 

No. 8 23.00 20.70 0.47 19.60 

No. 9 21.80 21.10 0.40 21.20 

No. 10 19.40 21.00 0.70 19.20 

No. 11 25.60 12.60 4.40 

No. 12 28.10 9.90 trace 2.00 

No. 13 42.50 2.40 2.80 

No. 14 29.70 5.40 18.10 

No. 15 17.20 11.70 28.40 

Average 27.30 13.44 0.82 9.48 

♦Including 5.52% magnesia. 

SU. S. Geol. Surv., Prof, paper No. 63 (1908), pp. 240-257-259, 
and 263. 

»First Report Colorado Geol. Surv., 1908, p. 139. 

July 11, 1914 



No. 1 — Brendon Hills, Somersetshire, England. Vein siderite. 
J. A. Philips, Elements of Metallurgy' (1887), p. 148. 

No. 2 — Stahlberg Mtisen. Vein siderite. J. A. Philips, op. cit., 
p. 148. 

No. 3 — Perran Iron Lode, Cornwall, England. Record of ship- 
ments. Philip Argall. 

No. 4, 5, and 6 — Slocan silver-lead veins, British Columbia. 
Philip Argall, Report of the Commission on Zinc 
Resources of British Columbia' (Ottawa, 1906), p. 

No. 7 — Bunker Hill & Sullivan, Idaho. Siderite replacing 

No. 8— Leadville, Tucson mine. Siderite replacing white lime- 

No. 9 — Leadville, Tucson mine. Siderite replacing white lime- 

No. 10 — Leadville, Tucson mine. Siderite replacing white 

No. 11 — Leadville, R. A. M. mine. Siderite collected from 

No. 12 — Leadville, Maid of Erin mine. Siderite replacing 
white limestone. 

No. 13 — Leadville, El Paso mine. Siderite collected from 

No. 14 — Leadville, Fitzhugh mine. Siderite collected from 

No. 15 — Leadville, Penrose mine. Siderite collected from 

No. 13, collected on the El Paso dump, is a coarse 
crystalline siderite intimately mixed with pyrite and 
not over one-third siderite. No. 14 is a very fine grain 
silicious siderite. 

As an illustration of sedimentary deposits or 'spathic' 
iron ores (siderite), including blackband ores, the fol- 
lowing is presented: 

Analyses of Sedimentary Siderite 

Iron. Manganese. CaO. Insoluble. 

% % % % 

No. 1 28.76 0.73 2.78 28.00 

No. 2 31.82 0.74 2.26 19.35 

No. 3 40.84 0.71 0.53 11.14 

No. 4 28.83 0.18 6.61 9.80* 

No. 5 33.12 0.20 5.24 8.87* 

No. 6 29.78 0.75 0.74 28.86* 

No. 7 31.25 3.92 0.81 16.62 

No. 8 8.40 0.22 22.50 23.90 

No. 9 . 38.20 2.28 1.90 

No. 10 37.87 16.93 4.36 

No. 11 35.70 9.54 14.76 

No. 12 36.05 0.94 6.47f 13.53 

Average 31.72 0.89 6.36 14.92 

•Carbonaceous matter. tAljOy 

No. 1 — White Bed mine, Brierly, Yorkshire, England. 

No. 2 — Thorncliffe, White mine, Park gate, Yorkshire. 

No. 3 — Gabbin and Balls mine, Bunkers Hill colliery, Stafford- 
shire, England. 

No. 4 and 5 — Coal brasses,' Aberdane, South Wales. J. Ar- 
thur Philips. 'Elements of Metallurgy,' p. 149, 150. 

No. 6 — Sundav Lake, Michigan. 'The Data of Geochemistry,' 
U. S. Geol. Surv., 1908, p. 492. 

No. 7 — Penokee district, Michigan. 'Data of Geochemistry.' 

No. 8 — Gunflint Lake. Canada. 'Data of Geochemistry-' 

No. 9 — Styrian Krzberg. Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 23, 
p. 24. 

No. 10, 11 — Helen mine, Siderite, Canada. (In No. 10, CaO in- 
cludes 12. S'; magnesia carbonate. In No. 11, CaO in- 
cludes X.T.v; magnesia carbonate.) Bureau of Minis, 
Ontario. 1901. p. 193. 

No. 12 — J. J. Singewald, Report on the Iron Ores of Maryland.' 
Maryland Geol. & Econ. Surv., Vol. 9, Part 3 (1911). 

Excluding No. 13, which is only one-third siderite, 
the remaining 14 .samples of vein siderite average 13.4 V , 
manganese, against an average of less than 1% mangan- 
ese in the 12 samples of sedimentary siderite. The 
computed averages are: 

Iron. Manganese. CaO. Insoluble. 

% % % % 

Vein siderite 27.30 13.44 0.82 9.48 

Sedimentary 31.70 0.89 6.36 14.92 

The vein siderites not only carry a higher combined 
metal content, 40.7 against 32.6%, but also contain 5.5% 
less alkaline carbonate and 4.5% less insoluble residue; 
yet the manganese is the most conspicuous difference. 
In comparing the iron and manganese content of vein 
and sedimentary siderites, note that the ultimate source 
of both metals is the igneous rocks of the earth's crust 
in which iron and manganese occur in the proportion 
of approximately 60 parts of iron to 1 of manganese. 
The proportion of these metals in the above analyses 
is in the ratio of 36 iron to 1 of manganese in the 
sedimentary siderites, against 2.03 parts iron to 1 of 
manganese in the vein siderites. The metals, however, 
have not only a different solubility ratio, but also act 
differently in their precipitation from solution through 
what I shall call surface agencies, to differentiate be- 
tween the deposition of siderite in lakes, bogs, and amid 
carbonaceous sediment, marine or otherwise, and the de- 
position of siderite in mineral veins. 

Solubility of Manganese 

According to E. C. Sullivan, manganese in rocks is 
dissolved more easily than iron, by either carbonated 
water or dilute sulphuric acid. 10 F. P. Dunnington 11 
showed that an acid solution of ferrous sulphate dis- 
solves manganese from the carbonate as sulphate, with 
the separation of ferric sulphate and limonite. Cal- 
cium carbonate precipitates the iron, but the manga- 
nese requires access of air. The metals, therefore, may 
lie dissolved from rocks simultaneously by the same 
reagent, but for reasons stated are not usually redepos- 
ited together. C. It. Fresenius, 1 - from his studies of 
the warm springs of Wiesbaden, showed that the man- 
ganese in these waters remains in solution as carbonate 
much longer than the iron and is finally laid down as a 
carbonate, hence the manganese salt is more stable in 
solution and is carried farther. Through some of the 
foregoing reactions, manganese is partly separated from 
iron and is perhaps redeposited as beds of carbonate, or 
as a local precipitate enriching in manganese certain 
localities in the sedimentaries. 

Thomas and MaeAlester," while hesitating to put 
forward any trustworthy example of precipitated beds 
of manganese carbonate, cite Barmouth in Merioneth- 
shire as having two distinct horizons containing well 
marked beds. They also state that manganese car- 
bonate exists as an original deposit in the Devonian 
beds of the Pyrenees, in the Oligocene of Miliren. and 
in other localities. 

■ "Sullivan, E. C, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 12 (1911), 
p. 39. 

n Dunnington, F. P., Am. Jour. Science, 3rd ser., Vol. 36 
(1888), p. 177. 

'-Quoted 'Data of Geochemistry,' cited p. "7:!. 

is'The Geology of Ore Deposits' (London. 1909), p. ::17. 



July 11, 1914 

Vein Siderite 

The condition of solution and deposition is here en- 
tirely different. The circulating solutions are presuma- 
bly strongly alkaline, sulphuretted under high pressure, 
and doubtless charged with C0 2 . They are powerful 
solvents of iron and manganese minerals. That they 
readily dissolve silica is clearly shown in the extensive 
replacement of quartzite in the Coeur d'Alene and to 
a less extent in Leadville, where the quartzite adjoin- 
ing the fissures and solution cavities between the ninth 
and tenth levels in the Tucson mine has been reported 
as reduced to a soft sandstone by removal of the sili- 
cious matrix between the quartz grains, and fine galena 
and blende crystals had been deposited in the intersti- 
tial spaces in the altered quartzite of the lower Cam- 
brian horizon. 14 Further up in the quartzite the same 
solution that dissolved the matrix from between the 

"Argall, George O., Eng. & Min. Jour., Jan. 29, 1910, p. 264. 

quartz grains also partly filled the interstitial spaces 
with siderite and mixed sulphides, while the ore crust 
lining the solution cavities often shows siderite as the 
first mineral deposited in the sericitized quartz matrix, 
and also the last mineral formed, coating the penulti- 
mate crystals, usually of galena, with a growth of crys- 
talline siderite. 

Moreover, these irregular fissures and meander- 
ing solution cavities in the Cambrian quartzite, with 
their very rich gold and silver ores, are not confined to 
Leadville. They are common in Red Cliff and elsewhere 
along the 'great mineral belt' of Colorado, and are evi- 
dently produced by the same agency — hot alkaline solu- 
tions under pressure, charged with CO,, sulphides, and 
ferrous iron, perhaps poor in silica content and dis- 
solving silica in the quartzites with avidity, forming 
silicious carbonate and sulphide of iron replacement de- 
posits in the Silurian limestones above, and to some 
extent in the Carboniferous limestone. 

iecfttwe MnnMifW ©IF Oir©fe®dln®§ 


The question of what grade of ore will give the maxi- 
mum profit when mined and treated is of paramount im- 
portance at every mine, and is an ever present problem ; 
beginning with the inception of the enterprise and con- 
tinuing throughout the whole life of the mine. The 
owner or shareholder usually decides whether the profits 
shall be won from a large tonnage of ore yielding a 
narrow margin of profit over a long term of years, or 
from a smaller tonnage of selected ore requiring a 
smaller capital outlay and giving quicker returns, but 
leaving ore in the mine. It is the business of the en- 
gineer to set before his clients the possibilities of the 
property for producing the greatest net profit for any 
capital outlay, and to define the limits within which the 
mine is capable of producing a constant tonnage. 

Factors Influencing Output 

This requires a careful study of the ore deposits to 
determine the width and mode of occurrence of the va- 
rious grades of ore; the rate at which it is possible to 
carry on development; the available labor supply and 
its producing capacity; and the future prospects; all 
of which have a direct bearing on the output. The mill 
should be of a capacity to treat the output of ore of the 
grade decided upon without crowding the mine, which 
must run at a steady pace and according to a definite 
plan, or innumerable difficulties will arise. The effect 
of increased or diminished tonnage on the costs is of 
vital importance. An analysis of their relation presents 
some interesting facts which I shall endeavor to bring 
out in this paper. 

For the purpose of illustration I have been fortunate 
uot only in securing actual costs of operation over a full 
year, but also on a variation in tonnage ranging from 

6400 to 11,000 tons. These costs are grouped under 
three headings: fixed charges, mining, and treatment, 
including tailing loss. The total cost represents the 

Tube Milling 

value the ore must have in order to meet all operating 
expenses. The cost of the various operations of mining- 
and treatment necessarily varies from month to month 
even with the same tonnage, owing to renewals and re- 
pairs which must be charged to current expenses. In 
order to arrive at a representative cost for any tonnage, 
the monthly costs were plotted as shown in Fig. 1. If 
a straight line is drawn through the average cost for 
the year and adjusted so that there is a balance between 
high and low costs on either side of the line, it should 
represent the true average for any given tonnage. This, 
method was pursued with each separate item of cost, 
the results being as in the table opposite. 

These tabulated costs were then plotted in the form 
of curves shown in Fig. 2. While the figures are based 
on results obtained from treating tonnages ranging be- 
tween 6400 and 11,000, the curves may be readily ex- 
tended, as has been done in this case. The curve rep- 
resenting fixed charges may be obtained by dividing 
the total cost for the year by the total tonnage, that is 

July 11, 1911 



Tons treated: 11,000. 9700. 9400. 9000. 8500. 8000. 7500. 6400. 


Development, including re- 
pair to shafts 0.232 0.264 0.272 0.284 0.300 0.320 0.340 0.399 

Pumping 0.167 0.189 0.195 0.204 0.217 0.230 0.246 0.287 

Office 0.042 0.048 0.050 0.052 0.055 0.058 0.062 0.073 

Sundry expense 0.152 0.172 0.178 0.1S6 0.197 0.210 0.223 0.261 

Auxiliary construction . . . 0.067 0.075 0.078 0.081 0.086 0.092 0.098 0.114 

Total 0.661 0.749 0.773 0.S07 0.855 0.909 0.969 1.136 


Stoping 0.678 

Timber and rails 0.050 

Hauling and hoisting .... 0.176 

Filling 0.060 

Tramming to mill 0.040 

Total 1.004 1.116 1.152 1.170 1.223 1.262 1.312 1.404 


Crusher station 0.068 0.082 0.086 0.091 0.097 0.102 0.110 0.120 

Battery 0.231 0.239 0.240 0.242 0.245 0.248 0.250 0.255 

Tube-mills 0.272 0.280 0.2S2 0.284 0.286 0.2S9 0.291 0.296 

Treatment 1.040 1.110 1.130 1.150 1.180 1.210 1.240 1.300 

Filter 0.076 0.082 0.084 0.085 0.088 0.090 0.092 0.095 

Precipitation 0.106 0.112 0.113 0.114 0.116 0.119 0.122 0.126 

Refining 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040 0.040 

Bullion 0.170 0.170 0.170 0.170 0.170 0.170 0.170 0.170 

Tailing loss 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.500 0.520 0.550 

Total 2.503 2.615 2.645 2.676 2.722 2.768 2.835 2.952 

Grand total 4.170 4.480 4.570 4.650 4.800 4.940 5.120 5.490 




































2 months of 11,000 tons 

2 " 8,500 " 

3 " 7,500 " 
Based on total for year of 





to say, 12 times the rated tonnage, whether it he 4000 
or 16,000 tons. The curves representing mining and 
treatment charges, heing nearly straight lines, may he 
extended without danger of serious error. This graphic 
representation srivos a comprehensive idea of the effect 

of tonnage on the costs, and may he employed in solv- 
ing many problems in mining. In the following illus- 
trations in the use of the curves, let it be assumed for 
the sake of convenience that neither profit nor loss is 
to result from the operations, and that the normal capac- 
ity of the mill is 10.000 tons. Then the following con- 
clusions may be drawn. 


For example, if there is 1000 tons <>!' available ore 
monthly which if treated alone will just pay expenses, 
what grade of ore may be added to bring the mill up 
to full capacity without changing results? 

Treating 4000 tons alone the cost — from the diagram 
—would be $6.70 per ton, or a total of $26,000; but if 
6000 is added, the cost is $4.40, or a total of $44,000. 
The difference between these two amounts is $17,160; 
that is to say, allowing $6.70 for treating the first 4000 
tons, it would cost only $17,160 to treat an additional 
6000 tons, or $2.86 per ton. In other words, of this 
6000 tons, all ore of a grade of over $2.86 would give 
a profit. 

The following are various combinations illustrating 
I lir example: 

4,000 tons at $6.70 $26,800 

6,000 tons at 2.86 17,160 

10,0110 tons at 4.40 $44,000 



July 11, 1914 

5,000 tons at $6.10 $30,500 

5,000 tons at 2.70 13,500 

10,000 tons at 4.40 $44,000 

6,000 tons at $5.65 $33,900 

4,000 tons at 2.53 10,120 

10,000 tons at 4.40 $44,000 

These results may be applied to actual mining oper- 
ations in the following manner: There are perhaps 
stopes on the lower levels that will produce 4000 tons 
of ore per month and no more, while there is a large 
reserve in the levels above that will average $3. If 
treated alone, the low-grade ore will show a loss of $1.40 
per ton on a 10,000-ton basis. The high-grade ore, if 
treated alone, will give a profit of $0.30 per ton, or 
$1200 per month. Combining the two in the propor- 
tion of 4000 and 6000 tons, results in a profit of $2000 
per month. 

This brings out the point already mentioned, that the 
mine must be run according to a definite plan, other- 
wise the sloping of the high-grade ore is bound at some 
time to get ahead of development, leaving the mine with 
nothing but the low-grade ore, which, if treated alone, 
will result in a loss. 

As another example, suppose there is 5000 tons of 
ore obtainable monthly from the mine that will just 
pay expenses if treated alone, what grade of dump-rock 
costing 10 cents for hauling, may be added to bring 
the mill up to full capacity and still pay expenses? 

Referring to the diagram, on a 10,000-ton basis the 
mining cost is $1.10, so that $1 per ton is saved on the 
mining charge for the 5000 tons of dump-rock treated, 
or 50 cents on the whole tonnage. 

5,000 tons of ore at $6.10 $30,500 

5,000 tons dump-rock at $1.70 8,500 

10,000 tons at $3.39 $39,000 

Various other problems may be solved in a similar 
manner; as, for instance, the treatment of tailing in 
combination with the run-of-mine ore. In such cases. 
allowance must be made not only in the item of mining, 
but in the crushing and stamping as well, although in 
all probability there will be an added consumption of 
lime to neutralize the acid in the tailing, and perhaps 
a greater cyanide consumption ; but these are matters 
to be decided by experiment. 

It will be noted that the value the low-grade ore must 
have to pay expenses varies with the tonnage, and also 
that in this illustration the critical point is in the neigh- 
borhood of $2.70. It will result in an actual loss to 
treat any ore much below this figure. 

As it is difficult to secure from month to month the 
exact quantity and grade of ore desired, especially 
where the deposit is irregular, it would lie well to set 
a limit on the permissible grade of ore somewhat higher 
than the theoretical — in this case say at $3. This could 
be adjusted to suit conditions as indicated by observa- 
tions over a period of time. 

It is a mistake to think that the bullion output of a 
mine is any indication of whether it is being worked 
at its best advantage. The manager may call for 4000 
tons of $7 ore. The stopes in this particular month can 
produce 3000 tons of $9 ore, so the miner stopes a little 
wider and adds 1000 tons of $1, still keeping the aver- 
age at $7, but at an actual loss to the mine of from $1300 
to $1700. This emphasizes the necessity for careful 
sampling and direction underground. 

In these examples a maximum tonnage of 10,000 tons 
has been considered. Cases may arise in which it will 
be more profitable to run the mill at less than its full 
(fapacity. Where the tonnage is reduced to three-quar- 
ters or one-half its full capacity it may be advantageous, 
instead of running a part of the stamps the full 24 
hours, to run the full number for 12 or 18 hours, and 
thus effect a saving in power and the labor of one shift. 
And if the mine is incapable of supplying the demands 
of the mill, why not build a smaller mill in the first 
place? This is where there is the greatest need for the 
judgment of an engineer. 

Mining companies in Spain totaled 22,463 at the last 
census. The mineral riches of the country furnish 
one of its chief hopes of future prosperity. The sur- 
face areas of the workings already open cover nearly 
1,000,000 hectares, or about 2,500,000 acres, an increase 
in area of over 25% during the last decade. In the 
same time the output of coal, iron, and copper have 
increased, while that of lead has remained about sta- 
tionary. The chief provinces where mining as an in- 
dustry is in the front rank are Huelva. Oviedo, Murcia, 
Viscaya. Jaen, Ciudad Real, Cordoba, Santander, Bada- 
joz, Almeria, and Leon. These provinces account for 
90% of the output of minerals of the peninsula. Cop- 
per predominates in the Huelva district, quicksilver in 
Ciudad Real, and anthracite in Cordoba. Viscaya fur- 
nishes 30% of the entire iron production, Murcia 5%, 
and Almeria 2%. Coal leads in Oviedo, Cordoba, and 
Leon, salt in Alicante and Cadiz, lead in Ciudad Real 
and Cordoba, zinc in Santander and Murcia, lignite in 
Teruil. silver in Guadalajara, manganese in Oviedo, as- 
phalt in Alava, and antimony in Leon. As a corollary 
to the Spanish mining industry, what is technically 
known as the 'transformation branch' has made even 
a more remarkable advance of late than the extraction 
of ore. During the past 10 years the production of 
coke has been doubled, and iron and steel likewise; 
silver smelted has increased 50%, cement 150%, mer- 
cury 30%. asphalt 200%. pig iron 300%,, and patent 
fuel 35 per cent. — Dai!;/ (' nxulcr Tlcpcri. 

Mineral PRODrcTiox of Queensland, Australia, in the 
first quarter of 1914 was valued at £441,180. which is 
£94,457 less than for the same period of 1913. Copper 
showed a reduction of £84.508. but molybdenite had an 
increase from £668 to £6628. 

Julv 11. 1914 




Tine Mew Awora 


The sale of the control of the Aurora Consolidated 
Mines Co. of Aurora. New. to the Goldfield Consolidated 
Mines Co.. for almost $1,000,000, brings to light some 
interesting facts. It demonstrates that there is a de- 
mand for good mining properties with no lack of pur- 
chasers; that there is a chance for old camps to revive; 
that new methods in milling are making millions of tons 
of low-grade ore profitable, and that the distance from 
a railroad does not deter the building of an excellent 
mill and equipping the property throughout with the 
most efficient and up-to-date machinery. 

Just before the sale of the control of the property by 
Jesse Knight to George Wingfield and Albert Burch, 
representing the Goldfield Consolidated, there were in 
Salt Lake City four other interests actively bidding. It 
required $388,000 in cash to close the bargain, with notes 
from the Goldfield Consolidated endorsed by Mr. Wing- 
field for the remainder. Among those who made verbal 
or written offers for the property were Morton Webber; 
a Toronto engineer, representing Ellis P. Earle, presi- 
dent of the Nipissing; John W. Finch, representing the 
Amalgamated Copper interests; representatives from 
the United States Smelting, Refining & Mining Co., and 
O. J. Salisbury, of Salt Lake City, who is believed to 
have represented certain porphyry copper interests. 

E wti.Y History 

In the sixties, Aurora was one of the big mining 
camps of the West, as witnessed by the ruins of the 
buildings. It was in this camp that Mark Twain made 
his home, and so down at the heel was he at the time, it 
is said that he collected champagne bottles and scattered 
them about his back door to give his little cabin an air 
of prosperity. During the life of this camp it is re- 
ported to have had a production of $30,000,000 and no 
less than 13 mills were built at the various mines. When 
work was first started on the Aurora Consolidated in 

September, 1912, there was by actual count 14 people 
in the once flourishing town. Today Aurora has about 
300 inhabitants, and there are nine places where liquid 
refreshments are poured. 

The nearest railroad point to the camp is Thorn, Nev., 
on the Southern Pacific, from which there are two 
stages running to Aurora each day, covering the 32 
miles in about two hours time. On account of the grade 
all the freighting into the camp is by way of Hudson, 
Nev., on the Nevada Copper Belt Line, which is a dis- 
tance of 62 miles from Aurora. 

It was in 1912 that Charles E. Knox and John H. 
.Miller secured an option on the Cain Consolidated Min- 
ing company property, which owned the principal min- 
ing claims in the camp of Aurora. They succeeded in 
interesting Jesse Knight and the Aurora Consolidated 
was organized. In September of that year work was 
started in a small way and continued until June 1913, 
when it was decided to build a 500-ton mill. W. Lester 
Mangum was made general manager. Morris P. Kirk 
and John H. Leavell of the firm of Kirk & Leavell, were 
given instructions to design the mill, and Mr. Leavell, 
with the title of manager, was placed in charge of the de- 
velopment of the property and the construction of the 
mill. Mr. Kirk became the consulting engineer. Ground 
was broken for the mill on June 20. 1913 and on June 
15, 1914, the crushing of ore was started. Since then 
the amount handled has been gradually increased. 

Although the number of mining claims brought into 
the Company by the Cain Consolidated was quite large, 
many more have been added. The management of the 
Aurora has during the past year purchased a number 
of others, until today there are some 52 claims held 
under patent or in the process of patenting. Embraced 
in this territory are some of the most famous claims of 
the camp, having between 30.000 and 40.000 ft. of un- 
derground workings. 



July 11, 19] 4 

The Aurora mine is opened by a long adit which is 
now being extended from the Humboldt shaft work- 
ings toward the Del Monte or Last Chance hill country, 
with branches to the Durand shaft and the Juniata 
mine ; opening these workings at a depth of about 500 
ft. The Last Chance hill was famous in the early 
sixties and eighties as a producer of high-grade ore. 
From local sources its production is estimated at over 
$20,000,000, the entire output having been won between 
the surface and the 200-ft. level, at which point the veins 
were lost. In some of the old pillars today in this part 
of the property are to be found pieces of gold ore that 
will carry from $4000 to $5000 per ton in gold. 

Del Monte Shaft 

At the Del Monte shaft there is an old Cornish pump, 
which at the time of installation, was the largest in the 
United States, and cost, laid down at Aurora, about 
$150,000. It was hauled by team from Stockton, Cali- 


fornia. The corner-stone of the building that housed 
this installation has carved upon it in large letters, 
'Wild West Mining Company, 1862.' This block of 
stone weighing several tons is now used as a mantle- 
piece for the fire-place in the manager's cottage. 

The ore is chiefly gold, with a small amount of silver, 
averaging close to $5 per ton and disseminated quite 
evenly through a hard quartz. The quartz veins vary 
from 30 to 80 ft. in thickness and run through an an- 
desite formation. On account of the hardness of the 
rock scarcely any timber is necessary. The mine has 
been developed for mining by the shrinkage stope sys- 
tem, to which the property seems particularly adapted. 
It is estimated that the cost of mining will be $1 per 
ton or less. The mine is electric lighted and equipped 
with an electric haulage system. 

The ore is drawn from the chutes into 20 car trains, 
drawn by a 4 1 / <;-ton electric locomotive. The cars are 
double truck, side dump, and were especially designed 
for the work. From the mine the train travels over a 

short tram to the mill. The cars are automatically 
weighed, no stop being necessary. They then pass over 
the steel ore-bins where they are dumped for the coarse 
crushing plant. The trains then make a complete circle 
and come back to the main tracks. 

From the coarse-ore bins, which are of steel, the ore 
passes through a 7y 2 Gates crusher. Thence it passes 
over a Gates screen, where everything over an inch and 
a half is sent on to two No. 5 Gates crushers, where it 
is reduced to l 1 /* in. Joining the undersize from the 
screen, it passes to the conveyor belt and is carried 
to the head of the mill, where it is further elevated by a 
Gates elevator, carrying it to the sampling plant. A 
500-11). sample is taken each day from the 500 tons going 
through the plant. 

From the sampling plant the ore passes to another 
conveyor by which it is carried to four steel ore-bins 
having an aggregate capacity of 1600 tons. From this 
point the ore passes through feeders to the stamps, where 
it is crushed to pass a quarter inch. From the stamps 
the ore passes to Callow tanks and then to Dorr classi- 
fiers. Thence it goes to 6 by 16-ft. tube-mills and a sec- 
ond Dorr classifier, where the — 200-mesh material is 
taken out. The -+- 200 goes to a second tube-mill where 
it is reground until all material passes 200 mesh. 

From this point the ore goes to three Dorr thickeners 
where it is reduced to a consistency of one to one. From 
the thickeners it passes through a series of 5 Dorr 
agitators and from the agitators to 4 Trent replacement 
machines, where most of the gold in the cyanide solu- 
tion is replaced with water. From the replacement 
machines the pulp goes to three Trent filters where a 
large portion of the remaining cyanide solution is taken 
out, the tailing going to waste. 

From the Trent replacement machines and the Trent 
filters the gold cj'anide solution flows by gravity to the 
lower end of the mill where it is pumped through Merrill 
clarifying presses, which are set on the thickener floor. 
From this point the gold solution flows by gravity 
through two Merrill precipitating presses, where the pre- 
cipitate is separated from the solution and sent to the 
refinery, and the barren cyanide solution is pumped to 
the stock tanks at the head of the mill. There they are 
enriched before being started through the mill again. 

Heavy Stamps 

Several unique features have been incorporated in the 
design of this mill. One of these is the heavy stamps that 
are used. These weigh 1660 lb. each, being among the 
heaviest in use in the United States today. Heavier 
stamps have been used with much success in gold mining 
practice in the Rand. The stamps are in batteries of 
five. Each battery is driven by an individual back 
geared motor of sufficient power to lift tne stamps from 
rest and start them going without the necessity of hang- 
ing them up. 

The 6 tube-mills, as previously stated, are 6 by 16 ft., 
which is a radical departure from the type of mills here- 
tofore used in this class of work in that thev are larger 

Julv 11, 1914 



in diameter and shorter in length. They are each capable 
of handling about 100 tons per day of stamp feed, crush- 
ing to 200 mesh. The tube-mills are arranged in units 
of two mills. Each unit is driven by a 150-hp. motor, 
with outboard bearings and Morse silent chain drives. 

The 6 Dorr classifiers which feed these tube-mills are 
unique in the fact that they are the largest thus far con- 
structed. The classifiers are driven by a 5-hp. motor 
driving a line shaft, which is the only one in the mill. 
The thickeners, agitators, and replacement machines are 
all individually motor driven. On the lower floor of the 

a constant flow of electricity. The current is delivered 
at the property at 60.000 volts and is transformed down 
to 440 volts for mill purposes. 

The property is probably one of the best equipped 
in the country with machine-shop, blacksmith-shop, car- 
penter shop, assay office, warehouse, club house, main 
office, boarding houses and bunk houses for 150 men, 
superintendent's residence and cottages for various offi- 
cials. The machine shop is equipped with a full outfit 
for repairing machinery of all kinds. It is said that 
there is hardly anything at the mill but what could 


mill all the pumps are assembled in one room and arc 
driven by individual motors. 

Another feature of the plant is the automatic incline 
electric elevator. On the opposite side of the mill from 
the conveyor is the elevator which runs up and down 
from the top of the mill to the bottom to facilitate the 
men traveling from one end of the mill to the other 
and also for the delivering of supplies to the different 
floors. The Trent replacement process which is in use 
at the mill has been tried out for over a year in Arizona 
in various plants and has met with considerable success. 

Electric power is used throughout at the mine and the 
mill. This is furnished by the Pacific Power company, 
a subsidiary corporation of the Nevada California 
Power company. The power line is also connected with 
the main Nevada California power line so as to insure 

be repaired in the shop. It has a 20-ft. lathe, planers. 
an oxy-acetylene welding outfit, and all kinds and grades 
of tools. The carpenter shop is equally as well equipped. 
The mill has been well arranged for convenience and 
economy. It is declared that when running at full 
capacity only 18 men will be necessary to handle the 
full tonnage every 24 hours. This provides for a mill 
crew of four men working each eight hour shift, a re- 
pair crew of four men. a superintendent, and a metal- 

Lead, silver, zinc and ore kiiii'mentk from Broken 
Hill, New South Wales, in April were valued at 
$1 .830.000. 

Men employed at the Mt. 

total 2100. 

properties. Tasmania, 



July 11, 1914 

Simple Mnim® AceoMirate 

Mine accounts are often more elaborate than 
a medium-sized mine warrants. Little mines 
often stagger under a ponderous system of red-tape 
which the chief clerk or cashier adopted from a big 
operator's system. In general, mines are not pro- 
pitious places to quibble over bookkeeping technicali- 
ties. If the master mechanic wants' a man-hole gasket 

the amount of cylinder oil used in the engine house, the 
boiler house, pumps, etc., the amount of black oil used 
for underground cars, etc. Then, of course, the engine- 
house items are apportioned to shaft-sinking, driving, 
hoisting accounts, etc., according to how much of each 
relatively was done during the month. The oils and 
explosives are, by no means, the only classes of sup- 
plies which can be kept track of on a tabulated form. 
Whatever items are used in large amounts at any par- 
ticular mine, such as perhaps timber or pipe-fittings, 
















2 DRILLS. $300 4 BOXES CANDLES. $16; ETC. 











40* 60 D NAILS. ETC., ETC. . ETC 



1042 00 





Form 1. 

and 'wants it quick,' he does not like to have to make 
cut a lengthy requisition for it and charge it to the 
proper subdivision of the proper department ; and if he 
is too much bothered by forms and clerical details, he 
will likely lose the company more money taking time 










5 5 ft 

3 3 3 

Total 9 jala 

5 15 

Total 11 «al». 


5 5 5 

3 3 



5 5 5 5 5 5 

Total 30 ;ajj. 


WASTE < White) 

10" 10" 
Tolil 20 * 

can be convenient^- recorded on a sheet ruled by the 
clerk to suit his ideas of the matter. This is a more 
efficient method of keeping track of supplies than the 
complicated 'countersigned' order blanks sometimes 
afflicted upon a mine by its Eastern secretary or 
auditor. If the mine clerk is overwhelmed with red- 
tape so that he has little time for anything else, he can- 
not go out for an occasional walk around the plant and 






Total 40 Boxm 


•+M -4«»- 

Total » Rimi 


Form 2. 

Form 3. 

to grumble over its inconsistencies than the extra red- 
tape will save. 

In the Lake Superior iron ore district many of the 
medium-sized mines keep a fairly well-stocked ware- 
house and hire a supply clerk to tend it ; frequently, he 
is also timekeeper, and he makes out the monthly pay- 
rolls, charges and delivers supplies promptly, perhaps 
keeps track of cars of ore shipped, and is a valuable 
unit in the force and picks up many details whereby 
he can save the company money. 

Forms 2 and 3, the 'Oil Sheet' and 'Explosive Sheet,' 
are simple yet convenient methods for the supply clerk 
to keep track of supplies used in the different depart- 
ments. At the end of the month be can total up quickly 

observe that a car of rails is being unloaded in the 
wrong place, or that the mine boss left the powder 
magazine door open and a cow has wandered in there. 
The superintendent usually does considerable figur- 
ing, comparing, and planning over the monthly cost 
sheets. It is his guide and prompter; and it should be 
in his hands as soon as possible after the end of the 
month. At Lake Superior, the different accounts to 
which labor and supplies are apportioned and charged, 
include some twenty or thirty divisions of the mine 
work with items of exploration, development in rock, 
development in ore, pumping, stoping, hoisting, under- 
ground haulage, steam, air, and water lines, etc. It is 
also customary to tabulate on the cost sheet, a classi- 

July 11, 1914 


fication of the supplies used, so that the superintend- 
ent can see just how much timber, oils, and waste, ex- 
plosives, candles, tools, rock-drill parts, pipe and pipe- 
fittings, rails and track supplies, etc., were consumed 
during the month. For conveniently arriving at the 
total cost of each classification of supplies used in each 
account of activity around the mine, a sheet having 
the general scheme of 'Form 1' is often used. This is 
a large sheet, ruled at the printer's, and perhaps sev- 
eral will be required at the end of each month, as all 
the records of supplies used during the month are 
transferred to it, including the contents of the 'Oil 
Sheet' and 'Explosive Sheet,' which can then be de- 



stroyed. This 'Form 1' is made out either by the sup- 
ply clerk or the bookkeeper, and is then used in making 
up the cost sheet, as it furnishes a complete record of 
nil supplies used and their costs. 

For convenience in adding up the number of shifts 
which each man has worked, when payment is made 
monthly, time-books can be bought which have an extra 
column at the end of every week, in which the number 
of shifts for the preceding week can be marked, six 
(or five, perhaps) per man. Then at the end of the 
month, it is comparatively easy to add up the four 
weeks totals, rather than to have to count up twenty- 
five or so shifts one by one. 

Keiminiedy Esftenasnoini - Argonaannft Deosnomi 

The following opinion was delivered by Judge Fred 
M. Wood, in the Superior Court of the State of Cali- 
fornia, in and for the county of Amador, in the ease of 
the Kennedy Extension Gold Mining Co.. plaintiff, v. 
Argonaut Mining Co., defendant, June 29 : 

The plaintiff in this ease is the owner of the Muldoon 
quartz mine and millsite, a portion of the Jackson 
quartz mine, and a portion of the Jackson placer 
mine, embracing an area of 54 acres, contiguous terri- 
tory. The defendant is the owner of the Pioneer quartz 
mine, adjoining plaintiff's property on the west, of the 
pioneer millsite and the Volunteer quartz mine, adjoin- 
ing plaintiff's property on the north, and of the por- 
tion of the Jackson placer mine lying east of the Jack 
son quartz mine. 

The plaintiff became the owner of its mining prop- 
erty in May 1909 and commenced operation of the prop- 
erty in the month of October following. Upon the Mul- 
doon quartz mine there have been sunk two shafts, one 
of them to the depth of 1000 ft. with levels and cross- 
cuts. Upon the Jackson quartz mine there has been 
sunk a shaft. No ore has ever been mined or milled by 
plaintiff, or its predecessors in interest, from any of its 
property mentioned. All the work that plaintiff lias 
ever done, since its acquisition of the property, has been 
to clean out the old workings, and perform such other 
work as it deemed important to establish its claim in 
this action, and all of the property was idle for many 
years prior to plaintiff's ownership. 

The defendant purchased its property in the year 
1893, from the Pioneer Gold & Silver M. Co. Previous 
to the time of the acquisition of the property by de- 
fendant, a shaft had been sunk to a depth of some 70 
ft. through the lava-cap lying over the apex of the 
Pioneer vein, and thence a drift extended northward a 
distance of 70 ft. along the vein. A tunnel was started 
in the "Volunteer quartz mine, and driven 520 ft. to t he 
Argonaut vein, and drifts driven north and south along 
the vein. Various other work of minor importance had 
also been done when, in 1893, the defendant started a 
shaft on the Pioneer millsite about 430 ft. down the 
slope and east of the apex of the Argonaut vein, and 

sunk it to the 1460-ft. level. This shaft was started on 
the millsite for the purpose of getting dump room, and 
to obtain sufficient pressure from the reservoir on the 
hill. Subsequently stations were cut, and levels opened, 
and stoping done from the 1200-ft. level upward to the 
290-ft. level, where the shaft intersects the vein. In the 
regular and customary course of mining, the defendant 
extended its shaft, opening and developing various 
levels, and mining and milling the ore and minerals 
until, at the time of the trial, the shaft had been sunk 
to the 3900-ft. level on the incline. In developing the 
mine below the 1240-ft. level, and following what it 
claimed to be its vein or lode, the defendant company 
extended its levels, drifts, and openings, and extracted 
therefrom, and removed, ore and minerals of the value 
of many thousands of dollars, much of it underneath 
the placer lands owned by the plaintiff and its pre- 
decessors in interest. The damages caused by the re- 
moval of these ores and minerals are the subject of this 

Claim of the Plaintiff 

On the part of the plaintiff, it is claimed that the lode 
or vein from which these ores and minerals were taken 
formed no part of the so-called Argonaut vein or lode, 
and that it, plaintiff, is entitled to recover the value of 
all the ore and mineral mentioned, upon cither one of 
two grounds: (1) its common-law right to the ownership 
of all minerals lying underneath the surface of its prop- 
erty, when not extracted from a vein having its apex 
within the exterior boundaries of land belonging to 
other persons; (2) that the ores were extracted from 
veins having their apices within the Muldoon quartz 
and Jackson quartz mines, extended downward within 
vertical planes of the end lines of such claims. 

The defendant asserts, in its defense, that the ore- 
bodies mentioned were all obtained from, and formed 
a part of, the so-called Argonaul vein, having its apex 

within the surface boundaries of the I'io r quartz 

mining claim. 

As to the plaintiff's claim under the common-law 
right to ownership of the ores, the same may )»■ elimin- 



Julv 11, 1914 

ated from discussion, for it can be sustained only by 
disregarding practically all the oral testimony of the 
witnesses, and the opinion of the experts. The real con- 
troversy in the action is waged over the location of the 
apex of the vein from which the minerals were extracted, 
that is : whether the ores were taken from veins having 
their apex within the surface of plaintiff's or of defen- 
dant's land, and the respective claims of plaintiff and 
defendant are based upon Section 2322 of the Revised 
Statutes of the United States. 

Plaintiff's claim, under such apex right, to the owner- 
ship of the ores and minerals mentioned, is based upon 
what it terms the Jackson vein, by virtue of a union 
with the Muldoon gouge vein below the 950-ft. level of 
its mine. Xo continuous development of the vein has 
been made. It is not the discovery vein upon which the 
patent to the claim was issued, but developed exposures 
have been made upon which plaintiff has founded theory 
upon geological movements causing the formation of the 
great Mother Lode ; that the Mother Lode fissure is a 
normal fault with a displacement of some 700 ft., and 
not an overthrust fault, as described by F. L. Ransome 
in the Mother Lode folio of the United States Geological 
Atlas: that instead of there being one vein with branches 
as claimed by defendant, and heretofore generally sup- 
posed to exist, there are a number of veins, formed at 
different periods of time, which by their faulting must 
have prevented any connection between the pioneer vein 
and the vein from which the ores and minerals in con- 
troversy were extracted. 

It can serve no useful purpose to enter into a dis- 
cussion of the testimony of many hundred pages given 
by experts in support and refutation of this theory. 
Upon the trial, the impression was strong in the mind 
of the Court that there was great probability of the cor- 
rectness of this theory, and after a subsequent examina- 
tion and consideration of the record, there is no attempt 
on its part to reconcile it with the positive and prepon- 
derating testimony of practical men engaged in mining, 
and familiar with the conditions in this mining district. 
Before this Court, however, will say that these men are 
all mistaken, and make a finding that will take the 
property in the possession of the Argonaut company, 
and award it to plaintiff, upon a speculative theory as 
to the convulsions and workings of nature countless 
ages before the time of man, it will require something 
more than a strong opinion as to the plausibility of a 
theory. As was said by the Supreme Court of Utah, in 
Grand Central Mining Co. v. Mammoth Mining Co., 83 
Pa<-. Rep., at page 674: 

Science has not yet unfolded all of Nature's intricacies, and 
in all probability never will, to such an extent that the fallible 
human mind can fully grasp them, though indications may be 
revealed. To look at a mountain is one thing, but to look 
into the inner recesses of the earth, through surface indica- 
tions is another. Every geologist, every miner, knows that, 
in determining the contents and actual conditions of a moun- 
tain by surface indications, even with extensive workings, 
which, after all. constitute but slight explorations compared 
with the whole mass, such difficulties are necessarily and in- 

variably encountered as to produce differences of opinion, 
considering the same physical facts. Inductive reasoning has 
not attained such a high state of perfection as to lead all men, 
viewing the same parts, to the same conclusion as to the 
whole. This is especially true when the investigation of a 
portion of a thing is attended with great difficulty. In cases 
of stratified rock, where the beds are regular, it is compara- 
tively easy to determine the location of a vein; its strike and 
dip; but where the beds are broken, tilted, and fractured, 
and in places fissures running in all directions, the investi- 
gation of one party may lead to very erroneous conclusions 
as to the formation and contents in general, or as to the 
location and course of a particular section or ledge, a small 
part of its location and course only being definitely known. 

The mining laws of the United States are framed upon 
the ideas of the practical miner as to what constitutes 
a lode or vein, rather than those of the geologist. In 
this case, the testimony of practical miners, familiar 
with the conditions upon this part of the Mother Lode, 
is overwhelming that the Argonaut vein is continuous 
from the apex to the lowest level. Needless to state, all 
the expert witnesses for defendant concur in that testi- 

While the plaintiff in this case relies upon developed 
exposures only to substantiate its theory, and its claim 
to extralateral rights by virtue of its apex location, it 
contends that continuous development by defendant in 
its workings has disclosed interruptions or breaks in the 
so-called Argonaut vein which demonstrates that there 
is no continuity of the vein shown, as required by law. 
This, to my mind, seems to be the most serious objection 
to the adoption by the Court and qualified mining men 
of the inference of these experiences. 

The Continuity of Veins 

No arbitrary rule has been laid down which defines 
exactly what must be shown in order to establish the 
continuity of a vein. In speaking of this subject it was 
said by the Supreme Court of Montana, in Butte & Bos- 
ton Mining Co. v. Societe Annonyme des Mines de Lex- 
ington, 75 A. State Rep., 513 : 

"Laws of continuity," says Webster's Dictionary, "the prin- 
ciple that nothing passes from one state to another without 
passing through all the intermediate states." Speaking ex- 
actly by this definition, it would often be very difficult, if not 
impossible, for the challenged proprietor of a mineral vein 
to convince a jury of the continuity of a vein from one part 
to another, for there might not be continuity by actual con- 
tact of the parts of contiguity, which the precise word may 
literally mean must exist. Were such a rule inexorable, a 
failure of proof would not infrequently be brought about by 
the inability of the miner to prove continuity without transi- 
tion through intermediate states. The miner, therefore, might 
fall short of that exact measure of evidence required to estab- 
lish a continuity of vein which excludes any interruption be- 
tween one and another part of the identical thing, and, 
judged by too closely interpreted significations, the continuity 
of the vein would be lost. * * * Now, the miner's object 
is to disclose and mine the mineralized portion of the vein, 
and to do so economically. But he will not necessarily con- 
tinue his exploitation from an initial point. He may work 
at numerous points on the vein, or he. may drive a tunnel 
through extraneous rock to tap the vein at a point quite 
remote from his other workings. 

July 11, 1914 



It was said, by the Supreme Court of the United 
States, in Iron Silver Mining Co. v. Cheesman, 116 U. S. 
Kep., 529 (26 L. Ed., 713) : 

Now, a vein containing the precious metals is by no means 
always a straight line contact of uniform dip or thickness, 
or richness of mineral matter throughout its course. Gen- 
erally, the veins are found in what, when the mineral is 
taken out of them, constitute clefts or fissures in the sur- 
rounding rock, with a well defined wall above and below of 
different kinds of rock, as porphyry on one side, above or 
below, and limestone on the other. So long as these enclos- 
ing walls can be distinctly and continuously traced, and the 
mineral matter of the same character found between them, 
there can be no doubt that it is the same vein. But some- 
times the cleft between the enclosing rock, called in mining 
parlance the country rock, diminishes so as to be scarcely 
perceptible. Sometimes for a short distance the fissure dis- 
appears entirely, and again is found distinctly to exist a 
little farther on. Again it is seen that, although the under- 
lying and superposing country rock is there, the mineral 
deposit ceases to be found, but following the fissure it re- 
appears again very soon. It also happens that both fissure 
and mineral come to an end and are found no more in that 
direction, or, if found, so far off or so deflected from the 
original line as to constitute no part of that vein. Of course, 
it is sometimes easy to see that it is the same vein all 
through. It is also easy to see in some instances the vein 
has run out: has ended. But there are other cases, of a 
class of which that before us is one, where it is a matter 
of extreme difficulty to lay down such rules for the guidance 
of a jury as will best aid them in arriving at a just verdict. 

The Mother Lode Folio of the Geological Atlas of the 
United States at page 8, says: 

Thus there may be many small veins or stringers together 
constituting what has been called a stringer lead, or stringer 
lode. Most of the large mines of the Mother Lode are upon 
leads of this character, and their veins are really aggregates 
of many veinlets. 

\Y. II. Wiley, a witness for defendant, testified at the 

Veins, as I have seen them, are rarely distinct planes with 
two defined walls and one streak of quartz or other material 
between them, but they are usually complex, and in the case 
of the Mother Lode, there is no variation from this rule of 
complexity. They have been termed stringer veins. It is 
an apt designation in describing portions of these lodes. 

J. W. Finch, an eminent geologist, a witness for 
plaintiff, in speaking of the Jackson vein, said: 

With its parallel stringers of quartz, there is a representa- 
tion of a true stringer vein. 

Other testimony in reference to stringer leads might 
be quoted, but that of these two gentlemen is selected be- 
cause they were chosen by the respective parties to the 
action to accompany the Judge of this Court upon the 
view of the property, to point out for inspection the 
various places deemed important to be seen, to obtain a 
fair understanding of the testimony given to support 
the theory of each side. If a vein were always an ore- 
bearing filling of a single fissure, the difficulties encoun- 
tered in this case and the wide divergence of experts' 
opinions would not exist. However, tested by the forego- 
ing quotations, from the opinions of the Courts and of 

geologists, it does not seem that the inference drawn by 
the witnesses who are experienced in mining develop- 
ment in this district, is unwarranted by the evidence, 
when they say that the so-called Argonaut vein is con- 
tinuous in its downward course through the placer lands 
of plaintiff, even though admittedly short interruptions 
in the vein are shown to exist. 

In the presentation of its evidence to substantiate its 
claim by virtue of its apex rights, the burden w'as upon 
the plaintiff, Kennedy Extension Co., to show, by a pre- 
ponderance of evidence, the apex and continuity of the 
Jackson vein, in order to overcome the evidence on the 
part of defendant in its attempt to show apex and con- 
tinuity of the Pioneer vein ; that it to say, that if the 
conditions were reversed, and plaintiff had been in pos- 
session, and mined the ore and minerals from a segment 
of the vein in dispute, under a claim that it constituted 
a part of the Jackson vein, less satisfactory evidence 
would be required to retain them than is now required 
to recover their value from the defendant, Argonaut 

As before mentioned, there has been no continuous 
development to show the continuity of the Jackson vein. 
In support of its claim, plaintiff relies upon surface cuts, 
an exposure in the 180-ft. level of its mine, with drifts 
and upraises therefrom, an exposure in the 400, the 800, 
and the 950-ft. levels, witli raises and cross-cuts on this 
last-mentioned level, below which it is claimed that there 
is a union with the Muldoon gouge vein, which connects 
it with a vein from which the ores and minerals in dis- 
pute were extracted. The patent, for the Jackson quartz 
claim was applied for upon a discovery vein other than 
the so-called Jackson vein. 

It devolved upon plaintiff, in its claim of extralateral 
rights upon this secondary vein, to show the existence 
of the vein to an extent necessary to cover that part of 
the vein in dispute, from which the minerals and ores 
in dispute were taken. 

Hayman v. Wheeler, 29 Fed. Red.. 347. 

Argonaut Con. M. & M. Co., v. Turner, 48 Pac. Rep.. 6S5. 

Apex of Discovery Vein 

Now, it is claimed that this apex comes to the surface 
and is not what is known as a blind apex. A series of 
cuts or trenches was made, which it is claimed show the 
course of this apex. Every witness for defendant, prac- 
tical miners and experts, are positive that nothing is 
disclosed in these cuts which can be called a vein. As 
to the witnesses for plaintiff: Mr. Perry stated that a 
fissure was shown in each one; that there were numerous 
stringers of quartz east of the fissure, irregular and 
running in different directions. Mr. Devereaux, who 
had had more experience in mining upon the Mother 
Lode than any of the other witnesses for the plaintiff, in 
giving his testimony as a witness for plaintiff, said, that 
these stringers of quartz are a common occurrence in a 
slate country, whether near a large vein or not. and, as 
to some, he did not consider them a pari of the Jackson 
vein. All the witnesses for plaintiff, however, are posi- 



July 11, 1914 

tive that the Jackson apex is sufficiently disclosed. The 
indications specified, with the other testimony, are suf- 
ficient, of course, to warrant an inference of the exist- 
ence of the apex, but they also indicate that a different 
inference may be drawn. To me, however, it seems dif- 
ficult to understand how this vein, with its apex at the 
surface, should remain undiscovered until the com- 
mencement of this action, after so many years of mining 
activity in this country. 

There are vexatious and embarrassing questions in- 
volved in this case, some of which seem to be impossible 
of an entire and satisfactory solution by the human 
mind, looking at them from an impartial standpoint. 
Each side, apparently, can see no merit in the claim of 
the other, but, viewing the entire testimony of each side, 
weighed in the scales, it seems almost evenly balanced ; 
but. as before indicated, this Court is largely influenced 
in its decision by the preponderance of the testimony of 
practical mining men familiar with its history, and its 
disinclination, upon the evidence produced, to take the 
property from the possession of the Argonaut company, 
which it has obtained by its discovery and labor in 
prosecuting the work upon what it had every reason to 
believe, and was generally supposed, to be the Argonaut 
vein. It was the intention of the Court to discuss in 
detail many of the interesting features of this case left 
untouched, but the opinion has been delayed through 
sickness and pressure of other labors, and undoubtedly 
both parties to the litigation will find more satisfaction 
in the announcement of a decision than in the perusal 
of a protracted opinion. 

The Court is of the opinion and decides that the con- 
tinuity and identity of the Argonaut vein is sufficiently 
shown to meet the requirements of the law ; that the 
evidence does not satisfactorily establish the course of 
the apex of the Jackson vein : that the defendant, Argo- 
naut Mining Co., is entitled to retain the proceeds of 
the ores and minerals extracted from the segment of the 
vein in dispute, and to a judgment for its costs. Let 
findings be prepared accordingly, and served and sub- 
mitted in accordance with the statute. 

Pjrcxdtacftiioira aed U§@§ ©f Ttyiinig§ih@ira 


Much erroneous information from time to time ap- 
pears with regard to the metal tungsten and its min- 
erals, so that some notes on the subject, especially with 
regard to the commercial value and uses of these min- 
erals, may be of interest. 

The most important of the tungsten minerals are 
w r olframite, or wolfram as it is generally called, hiib- 
nerite, ferberite, scheelite, and wolfram ochre, or 
tungstite. "Wolframite, hiibnerite, and ferberite are 
essentially tungstate of iron, with varying percentages 
of manganese, and contain up to 76% of tungstic acid 
(WO,). Scheelite is tungstate of lime, and contains 
as much as 80% WO, when pure. 

As regards the occurrence of tungsten minerals and 

their main geological associates, it may be briefly stated 
that they generally occur in the older rocks of pre- 
Cambrian and Cambrian periods. Wolframite is also 
found in quartz veins in granite and also in pegmatite, 
often near and in contact with metamorphic schists. 

Tungsten minerals are frequently found in conjunc- 
tion with cassiterite. Their separation from the latter 
generally offers no serious difficulty by means of electro- 
magnetic methods, but it is a difficult problem some- 
times to separate very finely crystalline tin oxide and 
wolframite, especially in the presence of sulphides and 
arsenides. Such mixed concentrates have to be roasted, 
with the result that the cassiterite becomes coated with 
a fine layer of magnetic iron and is attracted by the 
magnet, so that further chemical treatment is neces- 
sary. In milling mixed tin-wolfram ores it is gener- 
ally found that the losses of wolfram are greater than 
those of tin. 

Many misstatements have been made as to the uses 
of tungsten. Writers have often copied notes in books 
on chemistry to the effect that wolfram is used to a 
considerable extent today in the textile industries and 
for the manufacture of certain bronzes. The total 
amount of wolfram consumed for this purpose would 
not exceed a few hundred tons. By far the most im- 
portant application of tungsten metal and ferro-tung- 
sten is the manufacture of self-hardening high-speed 
tool steel, which contains as much as 20% tungsten 
in conjunction with smaller proportions of other metals. 

Another important application for tungsten is the 
metallic filament lamp. The consumption of metal, 
however, for this purpose is of subordinate importance, 
for one ton of wolframite should suffice to make 18,000,- 

000 incandescent lamps. 

It is also reported that tungsten is used in the manu- 
facture of armor plate, but as facts referring to this 
subject are naturaly kept secret by the various gov- 
ernments, definite information is difficult to obtain. A 
further use, which, however, is not of great importance, 
is the employment of tungsten steel for the permanent 
magnets in telephones. 

Prices are often based on 65% W0 3 , and deduction 
of 2d. to 3d. per unit made for every unit below 65% 
down to 60 % W0 3 , below which figure a still greater 
deduction is demanded by buyers. It may be said 
that wolframite and its varieties form by far the greater 
portion of the world's supply, and scheelite is of sec- 
ondary importance. Scheelite generally realizes from 

1 to 3s. per unit less than wolframite. 
Wolframite is easily identified by means of its streak, 

which is reddish brown, as compared with tin oxide, 
which is much harder and of a grayish white. If 
tungsten-bearing minerals are powdered and boiled for 
a few minutes with strong hydrochloric acid and metallic 
zinc added to this liquid, the yellow tungsten acid sus- 
pended and in solution will rhange its color to blue, 
owing to the formation of lower oxide of tungsten. — 
Financial Times. 

July 11, 1914 



Readers of the Mixing ahd Scientific Press are invited to use this department for the discussion of technical 
and other matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor welcomes the expression of views contrary 
to his own, believing that careful criticism is more valuable than casual compliment. Insertion of any contribu- 
tion is determined by its probable interest to the readers of this journal. 

Yin Mmiiag nan Tasmmairaia 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of January 17 is a letter by M. 
(J. F. Sohnlein. under the above heading, referring to 
an article by .Mr. Tait of October 18 dealing, among 
other things, with the Anchor mine. As published in 
the yearly report, the figures are confusing. 

There are two mines worked together, the Anchor and 
the Australian : the items (1) total ore treated, 104,732 
tons; (2) black tin saved, 188.6 tons, includes both 
mines. The tin per ton, 3.42 lb., referred only to the 
Anchor mine. The correct figures are: 

Anchor. Australian. 

Stone crushed, tons 76,197 28,525 

Black tin saved 134 t. 7 cwt. 63 t. 19cwt. 

Pounds per ton 3.42 5.02 

Tons per stamp in 24 hours 5.38 6.11 

Cost 3/6 3/6'/ 4 

These appear in another portion of the report. In 
all cases long tons of 2240 lb. are referred to. 

His other assumption, however, that 50% is lost, is 
not borne out by experience. From our sampling, grab 
samples from the ore on the way to the battery, peri 
odical sampling of pulp from the mortar boxes, indi- 
vidual sampling of tailing from different tables, and 
continuous automatic sampling of all the tailing, my 
conclusion is that the loss is not nearly so great. An 
examination and a sampling of the tailings deposited 
in the stream and on the flats below the battery, indi- 
cates a still smaller loss. As I am not satisfied with 
any of the results, however carefully they are worked 
out, I do not care to publish them. At the same time. 
it does not appear to me that the loss is greater at 
any time than 25%, that is, on Anchor ore — it would 
probably not exceed 1 lb. of oxide per ton of ore 
treated. On Australian mine ore, the proportion would 
be less. 

It is only of late years that the Australian mine 
has been worked, and the average value of the ore 
for about ten years at the Anchor mine was 3.42 lb. 
oxide. The period referred to in the editor's footnote. 
in which a loss of $8500 was incurred, was for the 
financial year 1909-10. In some years a fair profit was 
made; for instance, in 1906-7. 153,738 tons was treated 
for a return of 2.206 lb. of metallic tin per ton. or 
3.28 lb. black tin. at a cost of 55 cents: for that year 
87.24% stamps crushed 5.85 tons per stamp in 24 hours, 
with a net profit of over €5000. With a constant water 
811 p ply, a good run, and a decent price for tin. we 
can make a fail- profit on ore with an average value 

of 3.42 lb. oxide. Unfortunately, for some years this 
has not been possible, and our yearly output has been 
reduced so that either the profit has been small or a 
loss has been made. 

The stone worked is granite of varying degrees of 
hardness. Of late years it has been much harder, re- 
ducing the capacity of battery and increasing costs. 
As will be seen from the crushing returns (Anchor, 5.38 
tons per stamp in 24 hours; Australian, 6.11 tons per 


Ge>f* a C>c~s>>« /- 

&ott* ffy ffirts 

10000*0) I o o o 0*0] (000 o o| |o o o o o] [oooo? 




stamp), the Australian stone is easier crushed and 
resembles the stone from the Anchor some years since. 
More or less overburden has to be removed, consist- 
ing of surface soil and barren granite. The latter is 
usually decomposed and capable of being hydraulicked, 
but contains hard masses and seams, in some cases 
forming 50% of the material. These have to lie blast- 
ed and trammed to spoil banks. In some cases this 
over-burden is over 70 ft. deep, and overlies only 30 
or 40 ft. of profitable ore. 

The stone is run in some eases by gravity to the 
crusher station, but in most cases is hauled up in- 
clined roads by friction winches. The crusher station 
consists of a Xo. S Ileclon (Iladfield & Jacks): the 



July 11, 1914 

stone from this is elevated by a bucket elevator to a 
No. 4 Gates crusher, and from this goes to bins from 
which wagons are filled that run by gravity about 12 
chains to the battery bins. Challenge feeders deliver 
the ore to 100 head of stamps in two sheds of 50 each. 
The stamps are nominally 1000 lb., but really about 
900. From the boxes the pulp proceeds to simple two- 
compartment hydraulic classifiers. In the two sheds 
the arrangement of the concentrating plant is slightly 
different and immaterial alterations are continually 
being made. In the first instance, the products of 
classifiers went to two sets of double-compartment 
Harz jigs, but the ore was so poor that these were 
very imperfect concentrators. I would not care to 
use the jigs on a tin ore that did not contain at least 
%% of fairly coarse tin. These jigs also required a 
considerable amount of power, and dressing water. In 
the present practice, the first and second classifier 
products go to shaking-tables (Wilfieys, Cards, or 
tables of our own design and construction). The over- 
flow from classifier goes to settlers and thence to 
other tables. From the tables we get firsts and sec- 
onds, those from first floor go to jigs that remove any 
topaz or other heavy sand, pieces of iron, etc. They 
are then further cleaned by hand in a hydraulic dresser, 
and are bagged. These we can get up to 73 per cent. 
The overflow from first settlers goes to other set- 
tlers that feed Frue vanners or shaking-tables. The 
tailing from tables on top floor goes to settlers that 
feed other shaking-tables, and from second floor to 
settlers that supply Borlase buddies on the bottom 
floor. These are very inefficient machines, but as they 
only require cleaning up about every six weeks, and 
only then produce a hundredweight or two of oxide, 
their presence or absence is not a serious matter. The 
concentrates from all these are re-dressed on the hy- 
draulic- dresser when coarse, and are dressed in a hand 
huddle and kieve or tossing tub when fine. The slime 
is first dressed on a Frue vanner and re-dressed in 
hand huddle and kieve. The tailing from all these 
is handled and re-dressed over and over again in the 
anciently approved Cornish method. The seconds w 7 e 
get up to 68 to 70%. This scheme is indicated ap- 
proximately in the attached flow-sheet, which, however, 
omits many of the minor steps. 

Many slime machines have been tried, including one 
of my own (which was a failure), canvas strakes, can- 
vas belt tables, circular tables, etc., and we can find 
none better suited to our circumstances than the Frue 
vanner. Tt is not so efficient, however, as the shaking- 
table on the coarser tin, as it is of less capacity. The 
rubber belt also requires frequent renewal, and when 
the price of rubber is high we can make a complete 
shaking-table which will outlast many belts for less 
than the cost of one. 

The ore is a good milling one. and fairly coarse 
crushing releases nearly all the tin. Tyler slotted 
screens with an aperture of 054 in. are used. More 
than half of the tin will pa<s through ;i 200-m"sh 

screen. Power is from water, with two supplies, the 
main one of 380 ft. head, the smaller with 500 ft. head 
applied through a number of Peltons. For normal 
work, nearly 1000 cu. ft. per minute is required, and 
very rarely is available. The opening of the country 
for cattle grazing, and hush fires, has rendered the 
supply precarious, and the steep hillsides, broken into 
many narrow gullies, make water conservation on a 
sufficient scale impossible. Many schemes have been 
considered for improving the power supply, but finan- 
cial difficulties have prevented their construction. The 
main water-race is about 30 7niles long and contains 
several miles of timber flume which is always suffer- 
ing damage from bush fires, floods, droughts, and fall- 
ing timber. The earthen portion does not suffer so 
severely, its principal enemy being the 'platypus' 
(called for short the Ornithorhynchvs paradoxus), 
which burrows into the banks and lets the water out. 

The minimum rates for labor are $1.92 to $2.04 per 
8-hour day. The local men usually are a fine class 
physically, use their brains, and are reliable. The cas- 
ual hands are not so satisfactory. In the early days 
of the mine, rock-drills were used, but the result was 
not satisfactory. Lately hammer drills have been used 
with success for drilling the boulders. 

It will be seen that there are facilities for cheap 
work, and that our costs could be reduced with a 
constant water supply. On the other band, on the 
west coast of Tasmania, with a severe climate, and 
higher wages rate, there is the Renison Pell tin mine 
(which 1 am also responsible for), with a 10-head bat- 
tery and an output of barely 20,000 tons per year, 
where the working costs at present do not exceed $1.44. 
This does not include prospecting and development 
costs, which at present are high, sometimes exceeding 
the amount spent in mining. The tin oxide here is 
much finer and more difficult to save than that at the 
Anchor and Australian mines. I am at present 
doubling the battery, and hope to reduce costs and 
increase output considerably. 

I trust that I have' supplied all the information de- 
sired by Mr. Sohnlein. 

James P>. Lewis. 

Melbourne, Australia. April 21. 

[The resume of the milling practice at the Anchor 
property presented by M. Lewis will undoubtedly an- 
swer Mr. Sohnlein 's query. We regret, however, that a 
more detailed analysis of production costs and milling 
results are not available. It is evident from the above 
letter that an extraction of much better than 50 per 
cent of the tin is being made, which with the confusing 
manner in which the Company's returns are published 
accounts for the apparent discrepancies. That low costs 
are common in tin mining is also evidenced by the re- 
turns from Mt. Bisehoif, where the cost per ton of ore 
mined, which is mostly by open cuts, crushed, concen- 
trated. ;i'-d smelted at Launcestcn. 100 miles away, is 
only $1.15 per ton. With such a cost, comparatively 
low grade ore may be profitably handled. — Editor.] 

Julv 11, 1914 





Most of these are in reply to questions received by mail. Our readers are invited to ask questions and give 
information dealing with the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

Birds and mice are kept at the rescue stations of the 
U. S. Bureau of Mines in this country, and at rescue 
stations abroad, and form part of the rescue equipment 
at some mines. In testing for gas in mines small ani- 
mals may be used repeatedly without danger of their 
being less susceptible to carbon-monoxide poisoning 
after many exposures than after the first, if they are 
allowed to recover between exposures, according to 
George A. Burrell, Frank M. Seibert, and I. W. Robert- 
son. Canaries are less resistant to carbon-monoxide 
poisoning than mice, chickens, rabbits, guinea pigs, or 
dogs. It is recommended that canaries be used when- 
ever possible and that at least three of them be carried 
by an exploration party. Men may display distress 
in the presence of proportions of carbon monoxide as 
small as 0.10%. whereas small animals in the same 
atmosphere may show no signs of being affected. 

Temperatures of air and rock in the St. John del Rev 
mine, Brazil, during the four hot months of 1913-14. 
namely. December, .January, February, and March, are 
as follows, according to the annual report of the superin- 
tendent, George Chalmers: 

Horizon Depth on in- Air, Rock, 

number. cllne, ft. Deg. F. Deg. F. 

Adit 300 77 7s 

8 2300 84 82 

10 2800 85 85 

11 3100 85 87 

12 3400 86 88 

13 3700 87 89 

14 4000 89 92 

15 4300 90 94 

16 4600 91 97 

17 4900 96 101 

18 5226 97 104 

All temperatures were taken in the downcast. A 
large Sirocco fan is in continuous operation, and .to- 
other is being installed. When the workings arc all con- 
nected with the main ventilating system, the following 
air temperature is expected: horizon 18, 92°; 17. 91 : 
16, 90 : 15, 89°; 14, 88°; 13, 87°; 12, 86°; 11, 85 : 
10, b4 : and 8, 82°. Rock temperature at the time of 
opening horizons is as follows: 8, 85°; 10, 89° ; 11, 91 ; 
12. 94" ; 13, 96°: 14. W ■ 15, 101°; 16, 103°; 17, 106 : 
and 18, 108°. The past year shows a slight reduction 
compared with the previous year. 

Fender chains are being installed at the various locks 
at Panama to prevent vessels from possible injury to 
lock gates. There "ill be 24 chains in all. of which 1.") 
have been made, and about four have arrived at the 
Canal V, me. They are the last of the large items of the 

lock operating and protective devices to be installed. 
The delivery of the chains, which are of unusual size, 
and present many difficulties in manufacture, has been 
uncertain. Chains have been under order at three dif- 
ferent American chain works simultaneously, and the 
Panama canal is now inviting tenders from Europe for 
the remaining nine. The chains average from 418 to 434 
ft. in length, and the two for protecting the lower guard 
gates at Miraflorcs locks are each 784 ft. long, being 
specially arranged on account of the tidal fluctuation. 
They weigh, about . v "> lb. per foot, nearly three times as 
much as the heaviest rails on the Panama railroad. The 
links are made from bars 3 in. diameter, and each link 
in the principal part of the chain is 17 in. long by 10% 
in. wide. The chains arc designed to withstand nor- 
mally a tension of 220. 000 lb., or approximately 100 
gross tons, which is about 50% of their breaking load. 

Glaciers in Alaska have been studied by the United 
States Geological Survey, and in a report on the coastal 
glaciers of Prince William sound and Kenai peninsula 
by I'. S. Grant and I). F. Iliggins the following is the 


summary: Some of the glaciers described, the Valdez, 
Slump. Columbia, these of Port Wells and the Pear, 
have been under observation on several occasions during 
a period of 10 years. On the whole, the glaciers here 
studied do not give uniform evidence as to a general re- 
treat or a general advance within tin' last half century; 
some are evidently in a period of retreat and others in 
a period of advance, and the general balance between 
retreat and advance cannot be accurately determined by 
data now at hand. The accompanying halftone shows 
a glacier on the Iskoot river. 



July 11, 1914 

Mining in Mexico. — Ghenfeli. Failure and the Canadian 

Agency. — Dividends Passed by Mining Companies. — 
Chino Bonds. — Oil in Japan. — Bvtte & Superior New 

The success of the Constitutionalist troops in Mexico is 
steadily putting one after another of the mining districts 
within the territory controlled by the rebels. Operations 
at Cananea and Moctezuma have not been seriously inter- 
fered with, and the American Smelting & Refining Co. is 
about to start its Chihuahua plant again. The Velardefla, 
Torreon, Matehuala, and Aguascalientes plants are now all 
in Constitutionalist territory, and as far as safety to the 
operating staff goes, could be blown in. But the first requi- 
site for smelting operations is good transportation facilities, 
and, though the railroads are available, they are kept busy 
moving troops. It is reported that very little damage has 
been done to the smelting plants, and that the mines are 
in good order. 

The Grenfell failure in London has many ramifications, 
one of which is the probable collapse of the Canadian Agency's 
mining operations in Nicaragua. This Company had taken 
an option on the Siempre Viva, which is controlled by New 
Orleans investors; the Bonanza, owned by Joe La Pierre; 
ihe Lone Star, owned by Richard McGinnis; and the Mars, 
a small property; all of them gold mines in eastern Nica- 
ragua. Development work has been progressing in good 
shape, but in its present condition the Canadian Agency 
will probably have to let the options lapse, and the proposed 
consolidation of these properties will fall through. 

At first thought it would seem that the present 'psycholog- 
ical' depression of business should have no effect on mining, 
but in one way or another it apparently has. Since January 
1 the following mining companies have passed one or more 
dividends: American Zinc & Lead, Assets Realization, Cop- 
per Range, Dominion Steel Corporation, Mines Company of 
America, Mohawk, New Idria. Pennsylvania Steel, Quincy. and 
Tonopah Extension. The Calumet & Hecla reduced its dis- 
tribution from $6 to $5; New York, Honduras & Rosario, from 
3% to 2%; Old Dominion, from $1.25 to $1; Utah Consoli- 
dated, from $1 to 50c; and the United Globe Mines, from $7 
to $4. Some of these companies suffered from the strike in 
the Lake Superior region, and others from the trouble in 
Mexico; but the net result is that mining as well as general 
business is in a period of depression. 

Out of the Chino bond issue, convertible into stock at $25, 
all but $3000 has been converted. The Bingham & Garfield 
Railroad bonds, exchangeable for Utah Copper stock at $50, 
have not been completely taken up, and $657,000 is still 
outstanding. The exchange privilege ceased on July 1. 

Duluth investors have formed a new mining company, the 
Cactus Consolidated, organized under the laws of Delaware, 
with a capital of $1,000,000. 

At the end of May, oil wells of the Nippon Oil Co., at 
Kurokawa, Akita prefecture, were gushing with considerable 
force. According to K. Ito, one of the Company's officials, 
work was started on one well early in April, and oil was 
struck at 1368 ft. The other five wells in the district, which 
required pumping, then started to flow to the surface. Until 
capped, the new well produced about 12,000 bbl. per 24 hours. 
Very little gas accompanies the oil. 

On account of the Butte-Milwaukee Copper Co. selling its 
property to the Butte-New York Copper Co., the stock of the 
latter being controlled by the Butte & Superior Copper Co., 
the Butte & Superior secures five claims adjacent to its mine 
at Butte, and six claims in the Argenta district of southern 
Montana. The Butte-Milwaukee claims are a valuable addi- 
tion to the Butte & Superior property. 

About 65 r / f of the gold output of Peru in 1912 came from 
copper ores treated at Cerro de Pasco, according to figures 
just published. This revival of one branch of mining stimu- 
lates others. 


Black Oil Strcck 70 Miles from the White Oil of Calgary. 
— Canadian Goldfiei.ds Syndicate to be Liquidated. 

Another find has been made in the Calgary oilfields, fol- 
lowed by a renewal in a somewhat milder form of the excite- 
ment resulting from the Dingman well. Crude black oil was 
found in the Monarch well on June 17 at a depth of 808 ft., 
and is believed to occur in quantity, but drilling was suspend- 
ed until the well could be capped to avoid a rush of oil. The 
find is considered encouraging, as showing the extent of the 
field. The Monarch well is situated 30 miles west, and 6 
miles south of the town of Olds, and is about 70 miles north- 
west of the Dingman well. There was a flurry of stock 
speculation when the announcement of the discovery reached 
Calgary, and the shares of the Company, of the par value of 
$1, sold as high as $50. The Monarch is capitalized at $200,000, 
and controls a territory of 122,952 acres. The second well on 
the Dinginan claim, distant about 100 yards from the first, 
was at the last report down 250 ft. The first well will remain 
closed until ample storage facilities are obtained. The 
directors have ordered twelve 12,000-gal. tanks to be installed 
near the well. The pressure is sometimes as high as 360 lb. 
per sq. in., so that it is considered advisable to proceed with 
caution lest the flow of oil should become uncontrollable. 
The Calgary boom excites but a languid interest in Eastern 
Canada, and does not appeal to the speculative public to any 
extent. Heavy losses in Cobalt and Porcupine ventures and 
real estate at fictitious values, combined with the tightness 
of the money market, have rendered the lambs a good deal 
less frolicsome of late, and more disposed to heed the warn- 
ings of experts and newspapers against reckless speculation. 
Reports of other oil discoveries in the Calgary field and at 
other western points, have appeared, but have so far been un- 

At a meeting held in Montreal on June 18, the directors of 
the Canadian Goldfields Syndicate decided on a legal distri- 
bution of the assets of the Company, a meeting of the share- 
holders being called for June 28 to authorize liquidation 
proceedings. The plan proposed is that th,e properties in 
British Columbia be put up at auction in Montreal on August 
4, and sold to the highest bidder. The Consolidated Mining 
& Smelting Co. stock held by the Company, together with any 
money received from the sale will be distributed among the 
shareholders pro rata. The Syndicate was organized at the 
height of tho Rn«sland boom to trade in the shares of min- 
ing companies, but with the exception of the transaction which 
secured it 4270 shares of the Canadian Mining & Smelting Co. 
its ventures proved unprofitable. 

July 11, 1914 




Area and History of District. — Operations in the Thibert 
Creek, Dease Creek, Stikine, Glacier. Woewodski Island, 
Lake Bay, and Iskoot River Districts. 

The Wrangell mining district embraces a total area of 5130 
sq. mi., of which 2200 is mainland and the rest islands. 
Kupreanof island is the largest, with an area of 1080 sq. miles. 
Fort Wrangell is the second oldest settlement in Alaska, 
having been established early in the nineteenth century by 
the Russian-American Fur Co. and subsequently was a trad- 
ing post of the Hudson Bay Co. Gold was first discovered on 
the bars of the Stikine river in 1862, and the, following year 
a Russian expedition was sent from Sitka into that district. 
In 1873, McCullough and Tibbitts, two prospectors, found their 
way across the Rockies, hunted for gold on the coast side of 
the range and started down the Stikine river. Natives 
directed them to Bock"s bar, ten miles below Telegraph creek, 
where flour gold had been found. They reported the discovery 
of rich gold in what became known as the Cassiar country of 
northern British Columbia and Wrangell became the supply 
centre for the gold rush that ensued. An American garrison 
was established there. The Cassiar properties are the rem- 
nants of the richer placer deposits, and present activity is 
concerned with the low-grade deposits. 

The Dease Creek syndicate has purchased the property of 
the Boulder Creek Mining Co. on Thibert creek, a tributary 
of Dease lake, and hydraulic operations are being conducted. 
Fifty men are operating four giants, the water being ob- 
tained from Boulder creek, where a 220-ft. head is available. 
The Company is owned by Lord Beauclerk and Warburton 

W. M. Ogilvie, a son of former Governor Ogilvie of Yukon 
Territory who was the founder of the Yukon Gold Co.. has 
been successful, it is said, in organizing a company in Montreal 
to operate a dredge in the D.ease Creek flats. He prospected 
there last summer with an Empire prospecting drill and found 
a pay-streak at a depth of 40 ft. on the White Horse lease, 
which was purchased from J. Hyland. He returned recently 
and took the drill to McDames creek, where he now is pros 
pecting. Bench ground in that district is looked upon as fav- 
orable for hydraulicking. Ten Chinese miners, who arc 
remnants of a band of 50 which started work in the seventies. 

still work on the creek. G. H. Bendleton, working on his 

claims' 12 miles from the mouth of McDames creek, is finish- 
ing a bedrock drain two miles in length which he hopes will 

overcome the water trouble. R. W. Mitchell and Finlay 

Mitchell are operating a hydraulic plant on Little Deloire 
creek, a tributary of Thibert creek. Pumps were taken in this 
summer and automatic gates and flumes are used to control 
the water. The Mitchell brothers have been working on the 

creek for 11 years. The Dufflemeyer bench leases on Dease 

creek have been acquired by J. G. dalvin. a miner formerly 
of Nome, Alaska. Last winter two bedrock drains were in- 
stalled, one 200 and the other 150 ft. long. Returning to 
Wrangell last month, he reported having found gravel assay- 
ing $6 per cubic yard. He brought out $400 in coarse gold 
obtained by panning. He intends to install hydraulic equip- 
ment before winter. Captain C. Conover operates a lay on 

placer ground at the mouth of Clearwater creek on the Stikine 
river and is taking out a few thousand dollars each year 
The Dease Creek properties are 400 miles inland from Wran- 
gell. A journey of 160 miles by river steamer to Telegraph 
creek is necessary and from there a land journey of 72 miles 
and the rest of the distance by river boat from Dease lake. 

L. Kirk, mining on the Stikine 25 miles below Telegraph 
creek, has two adits aggregating 500 ft. in length, which have 
bei n driven to open a deposit of bornite. Eighteen miles in- 
land. .1. F. Callbreath is prospecting a deposit of copper ore 
near Glenora. 

The Johnson-Olson, Smith, and Nelson properties in Glacier 
and Ground Hog basins on the mainland 15 miles from Wran- 
gell and eight miles from tidewater, have been optioned by 
W. D. Grant, United States deputy marshal at Wrangell. The 
three groups comprise 15 claims. On the Johnson-Olson prop- 
erty, adit work aggregates 150 ft.; on the Smith, 125 ft.; and 
on the Nelson 45 ft. The altitude of the properties is 3000 ft. 
A test shipment of 15 tons of ore has been made, part to the 
Treadwell mill and part to the Tacoma smelter. The aver- 
age yield was $46.80 per ton. Engineers representing three 
companies will make an examination of the properties during 
the first week in July, according to present advices. 

The Olympic Mining Co. claims on Woewodski island are 
being developed by E. E. Harvey. A 200-ft. adit and a 150-ft. 
winze comprise the present development. The Maid of Mexico 
properly, tnree miles inland from the Olympic claims is also 
being developed. 

Development continues on the Jackson No. 1 and Jackson No. 
2 copper claims at Lake bay, which are owned by Allen McCul- 
lough. N. M. Tate, D. P. Gass, M. L. Burke, and L. Rinehart. 
A tram roadway has been built from tidewater to the claims, 
a tunnel has been driven 40 ft., and a 30-ft. winze sunk. Two 
other shafts aggregating 80 ft. make up the rest of the work. 
Four tons of ore shipped to the Tacoma smelter assayed 5% 


copper. One hundred tons of ore are on the dump, awaiting 

Burdell & Dickson have from is to 12 ft. of galena ore 
on their claims on the left limit of the Stikine 12 miles below 
the mouth of Clearwater. Samples assayed $200 to the ton. 
John Sales is developing a free gold property on Eagle Crag 
mountain, on the left limit of the Stikine, 45 miles from 
Wrangell. Berg & Son have a galena and a quartz property 
on Arens creek, 18 miles from Wrangell. A three-mile road 
has been built from the beach to their claims, preparatory to 
starting development work. 

The Iskoot river is demanding the attention of the mining 
men of the district, although the inaccessibility of the region 
makes development costs prohibitive. The Iskoot is a tribu- 
tary of the Stikine on the south side, entering about six miles 
above the international boundary line. A group of 14 claims 
seven miles below the canon on the Iskoot is owned by P. C. 
McCormick, C. M. Coulter. Alex Vreatt. E. S. Busby. George 
II. Whitney, Bruno Greif. John Maloney, anil F. K. Bronson. 
Nine of the claims will be crown granted (patented) this 
fall. A chalcopyrite deposit from 3 to (> ft. wide has been 
traced with surface pits for a distance of 600 ft. Four adits 
have been driven, each 60 ft. long. Thirteen different veins 
have been developed since the claims were first staked in 



July 11, 1914 

1909. .1. O'Sullivan, of Vancouver, B. C, has reported three 
assays of ore from the claims as follows: (1) 102.8 oz. silver, 
IIS. 4', copper; (2) 0.06 oz. gold, 41.0 oz. silver, 65'/,, lead; 
and (3) 0.01 oz. gold, 6.75 oz. silver, 7% lead. 

The rock exposures are slates, limestones, schists, and green- 
stones, highly metamorphosed. Chalcopyrite occurs in sheared 
zones of greenstone and also in quartz veins which cut the 
series diagonally. A report of the Tyee Copper Co. smelter 
at Ladysmith, B. C, shows the result of a test shipment of 
ore weighing 2324 lb.; copper, 10.45%; silver, 44.18 oz.; gold, 
0.06 oz.; total value $44.11. The owners now are completing 
plans for another smelter test to be made before winter. 
The Iskoot is not navigable because of the rapidly changing 

Dull Markets. — Spelter Stocks — Paices. — District Produc- 
tion am) Deliveries. — Buyers or 0:!!-: Du:iinc the Month. 

The month of June showed general depression in both metal 
and zinc ore markets. This, according io one of the leading 
smelter representatives operating in this field, is due to 75,- 
000 tons of spelter remaining unsold, and now being carried 
on the inventories of the spelter manufacturers of this coun 
try. This representative added that no improvement in the 
metal markets need be anticipated for several months, if even 
then, but that as far as this field is concerned he looked for 
no greater curtailment in production than has already taken 
place. Production of raw concentrate declined considerably, and 
shipments include about 1000 tons of reserve ore carried over 
in bin for several months. The total reserve held in the field 
at the close of the month was a little over 5000 tons, the Wis- 
consin Zinc Co. reporting that it alone was holding 3000 tons 
of this amount. One of the leading buyers for the field re- 
ported the following average of prices for the month, including 
all grades produced in the Wisconsin field: 30%, $12.50; 35%, 
$16; 40%, $20; 45%, $24; 50%, $30; 55%, $34; and 60%, $38 to 
$40. Lead ore was out of favor ail the period, metal ruling 
at $3.80 per ewt, with the best bid reported for ore at $45 
per ton. Producers showed no inclination to respond and 
only three cars were shipped. Pyrite was off, and only one 
producer m?de any pretense to offer ore in quantity, shipments 
totaling less than one-half that usually sold. Carbonate of 
zinc ore ruled high, but producers were offered no market, 
and they contented themselves by cleantng-up their product 
and holding it in anticipation of a better demand. 

Deliveries were made for the month by districts as shown 
in the following table: 

Zinc Lead Sulphur 

Districts. Pounds. Pounds. Pounds. 

Galena 4,984,000 80,000 

Benton 4,216,000 1,990,300 

Hazel Green 2,410,000 60,000 

Cuba Cit- 2,046,000 

Livingston 1,920,000 

Harker 986,000 73,610 

Platteville 924,000 

Shullsburg 894,000 

Linden 820.000 

Dodgeville 342,000 

Mineral Point 124,000 

Highland 108,000 

Montfort 78,000 

Mineral Point Zinc Co 2,988.400 

off the bulk of open market offerings. Heavier consignments 
of high-grade ore were made during the month and the field 
is prepared to make a better showing in this respect than 
ever before. The Dodgeville district, idle for several years, 
has come to life once more in the McKinlay mine, which is 
shipping regularly, and from which regular reports are now 

Sales were distributed among the buying concerns as fol- 
lows: Mineral Point Zinc Co., 5094 tons; National Separating 
Co., Cuba, 1032 tons; Campbell Magnetic Ore Separating 
AVorks, Cuba, 640 tons; American Metal Co., 611 tons: Illinois 
Zinc Co., all premium ore, 558 tons; Empire Roasters, 
Platteville, 451 tons; American Zinc Co., Hillsboro, Illinois, 
434 tons; Linden Zinc Co., 392 tons; Grasselli Chemical Co., 
400 tons; M. & H. Zinc Co., La Salle, Illinois, 324 tons; and 
Joplin Separating Works, Galena, Illinois, 85 tons. The total 
was 268 cars, which is about 100 cars less than usually report- 
ed prior to April, 1913. 

The northern half ot the field appeared flat most of the 
month, as far as operations were concerned, while the opposite 
was true of all the districts in the southern half of the field. 

Total 22.840,400 183,610 1,990,300 

The gross production of concentrate for the month from all 
mines aggregated 17,710,320 lb. and net refined ore deliveries 
to smelter 11,234,730 lb. The Mineral Point Zinc Co., as usual, 
set the 'iace in bidding at all points in the field, and carried 


Bi.uestone Mine. — Pinegrove Development. — The Rockland 
Mine. Orebodies, Mills, and Proposed Treatment of the 

It is locally reported that the Mason Valley Copper Co. has 
a bond on the Bluestone mine. Shipments are being made to 
the smelter at Thompson, and the sale of this property has 
aroused a great deal of interest in the district. It is one of 
the oldest mines in the copper belt, and considerably more 
than 1,000,000 tons of ore is said to be blocked out. The ore 
is a chalcopyrite, disseminated through altered limestone. 

The Pinegrove Nevada Gold Mining Co. has been operating 
its 10-stamp mill all winter. Reopening of the old Wilson 
mine by this Company has stimulated prospecting in the dis- 
trict, and several discoveries of gold ore have been reported. 

The Pittsburg-Dolores Mining Co. is operating the Rockland 
mine, three miles south of Pinegrove. This property was dis- 
covered in 1868 and has been operated at various periods since. 
The orebodies are in a fissure, formed by the intrusion of a 
wide rhyolite dike- into granodiorite. Wherever the best ore- 
bodies are found today, the fissure is wide. The mine is 
opened by a series of adits and a depth of about 1000 ft. has 
been obtained. At the present time new chutes are being 
constructed, and some of the old drifts are being cleaned out 
to be ready for production by the time the new mill is com- 
pleted. The first mill on the property was built about 1870 
in Keene canon, one mile north of the mine. It was de- 
stroyed by fire within a few months. After a number of 
years, during which time the high-grade ore found was hauled 
to the Wilson mill at Pinegrove. the property came into the 
hands of Gov. Blasdell of Nevada. He built a 10-stamp mill 
at the mine, and used the Washoe process in treating the 
tailing. Most of the development work in the mine was done 
during his ownership, and until the mill burned. After 
Blasdell's death the property was idle for some years. In 
1902 it was acquired by the Nevada Chief Mining Co., which 
built a 5-stamp mill and concentrated the tailing from the 
plates. Later, a 15-ton cyanide plant was installed, but was 
not very successful, as it was found impossible to leach the 
tailing if it contained any slime. 

The ore has always been difficult to treat. Ground to 100 
mesh only about 20% of the precious metals can lie caught on 
plates, and the best ore, which is a hard quartz containing 
pyrite, contains practically no free gold. Much of this wis 
left in the mine and used as fill in the old stopes. In 1907 a 
dry-crushing mill of 75 ton daily capacity was erected. 14 by 

Julv 11, 1914 



27-in. Humphrey rolls being used for fine crushing. The 
product from, these was leached in six 5 by 30-ft. leaching 
vats, but as the rolls would not grind finer than 10 mesh, an 
extraction of SU'/c was the best obtained. The present owners 
of the property are building a modern slime-treatment plain. 
All details of the proposed treatment are not available at the 
present time, but it is known that the product from the rolls 
is to be ground to 150 mesh in a tube-mill, and the slime 
agitated in the usual way. Extensive tests conducted by 
the management and by various testing plants have shown 
that an extraction of 95% can be obtained without serious 
difficulty. If such proves to be the case in actual practice, 
the mine should become a profitable venture. 

Situation in Tepic, and Attitude ok the Constitutionalists. 
— Every Mink in Jalisco Shit Down. — Minim; Mi n 
Killed. — Casados Mink. Looted. 

An American mining man of Tepic. Arthur F. Flynt, who 
recently arrived in San Francisco, states that mining opera- 
tions are at a standstill in that territory. Mr. Flynt had just 
completed a 2o-ton cyanide plant at the Furisima mine, a 
property that he had been developing for several years, and 




had been milling at the Zopilote mine, another Tepic prop- 
erty that he had under lease from a German company. He 
remained in hiding at one of his mines following the Amer- 
ican occupation of Vera Cruz, and up to a short time before 
the capture of the City of Tepic by the Constitutionalists, go- 
ing into the Tepic capital after the rebels entered there. 
While in the capital he talked with General Obregon, the 
Constitutionalist commander, who told him that the friend- 
ship of his followers for the Americans would continue as 
long as no move toward intervention was made, and that Uic 
lives and property of Americans would be protected. II the 
Americans made any further advance into Mexico they would 
have the Constitutionalists to fight, the General said. Mr. 
Flynt reports that after Vera Cruz was taken, the Federal 
forces In Tepic confiscated all the property of the Grant Bros. 
Construction Co., the American concern that built the South- 
ern Pacific railroad through Sonora, Sinaloa, and Tepic as 
far as the Tepic capital. Supplies of the Waters Fierce Oil 
Co. also were confiscated. 

Letters received from the British and French confu'.ar 
representatives at Guadalajara state that all mints in the 
state of Jalisco, without a single exception, are shut down. 
The French consuls and vice-consuls, acting for the Brazilian 
minister at Mexico City, are now looking after American in- 
terests in Mexican territory still controlled by the Federals. 
It is understood that managers of Jalisco properties have no 
intention of resuming operations until peace has been re- 
stored, and guarantees for life and property again exist. 

The only killing of foreign mining men as a result of the 
anti-American outbreak following the Vera Cruz occupation 
occurred at the El Favor camp in the Hostotipaquillo dis- 
trict of Jalisco, C. B. Hoadley, an American, and G. E. Wil- 
lian s. an Englishman, losing their lives. Hoadley was as- 
sistant mill superintendent at El Favor, and Williams was 
accountant. Both foreigners were stabbed to death, and 
later Hoadley's head and lace were horribly mutilated to 
secure several gold-filled teeth from his mouth. Walter Neal, 
manager at El Favor, who was stabbed in the back, has en- 
tirely recovered from his injuries since reaching the United 
States, and now is acting as consulting engineer for the 
MaKeever interests, owners of El Favor, who also have pro- 
perties in Montana and Arizona. The Casados silver-gold 
mine in the Hostotipaquillo district of Jalisco has been tem- 
porarily confiscated by Mexicans. The mine is the property 
of the Consolidated Mining Co. of New York and Los Angeles. 
It is stated that the Mexicans held the mine until the dyna- 
mite and other supplies found there were exhausted, and that 
high-grade ore to the value of P25.000 was taken out and 
disi>osed of to Mexican ore buyers. The Federal troops in the 
district either were powerless to drive off the looters or 
made no effort io do so. 

Work ok the Rhodesian Geological Survey. — Geoi.ooy of 
G.vtooma District. — Custom Mills Suggested. — Asbestos 
and Chrome Iron Ore Deposits. — Tin: New Minks. 

From an economic point of view, the report of the director 
of the Rhodesian Geological Survey for the year 1913 is cer- 
tainly the most important that has yet been issued. This 
deals with operations for the third complete year since estab- 
lishment of the department, during which period work was 
concentrated on the goldfields surrounding Gatooma in Ma- 
shonaland, which is the centre of what is probably the most 
extensive and valuable mineralized area in the territory. 

About four or five miles from Gatooma is the Cam & Motor 
property, which is one of the three leading mines of Rhodesia. 
Close to the Cam & Motor are the Eileen Allanah and Eiffel 
Blue mines. The Gatooma district as a whole may be sub- 
divided into other subsidiary areas, such as the Golden Val- 
ley and Shagari, each of which includes numbers of prop- 
erties of some importance, the majority of them being worked 
by syndicates or tributing parties. In the Shagari district 
the gold-bearing belt consists of greenstones and felsites. 
Judging from the location of the successful mines, the green- 
stones appear to be the more favorable country rock, with 

the qualification that it is not the areas of pure grt stone, 

but areas of greenstone containing small bodies of felsite 
that are most productive. The larger bodies of felsite also 
contain numerous gold-quartz veins; but a number appear 
to be of small size, though rich in gold down to water-level. 
They have not been opened to any appreciable depth below 
this. Although large orebodles, requiring a considerable 
amount of capital for development and treatment will no 
doubt be discovered from time to time, the number of rich 
veins of the smaller size makes the district a favorite with 
the individual worker and small syndicate. 

In bis report, the director of the Survey. II. B. Maufe. makes 
a valuable suggestion in regard to the Shagari area, as fol- 


July 11, 1914 

lows: "The cost of a plant for treatment, and of its trans- 
port and erection, and frequently the lack of sufficient water 
at hand, are factors which retard the working of these veins. 
The Shagari district is one of those which should receive 
consideration in the event of a decision to erect custom mills, 
as recently suggested by the president of the British South 
Africa Co." Although the subject of custom mills is per- 
haps a little outside the province of a geological survey, this 
in no way detracts from the importance of Mr. Maufe's rec- 
ommendation that the Shagari area should justify the erec- 
tion of government-owned mills. Hitherto, custom mills, such 
as are provided by certain Australian governments, have 
been given but scanty attention by Rhodesian and South 
African authorities. A little money has been spent in this 
direction in Natal and Zululand, but generally speaking the 
South African governments have done practically nothing 
to directly help mining enterprises among the smaller capi- 
talists. If the recommendation of the director of the Rhodes- 
ian survey is heeded, it may mark the commencement of a 
new epoch in mining in South Africa. 

In other ways, the latest report of the Survey should be 
of considerable value to prospectors, as it contains a num- 
ber of facts of interest relating to the distribution of gold 
veins in the Golden Valley and Shagari districts, and the 
character and mode of occurrence of different types of veins. 
Not much can as yet be said regarding the distribution of 
the gold within the veins themselves, as little really valu- 
able information is as yet available. In the report, Mr. Zeally 
contributes some valuable observations on ancient workings 
in granite country east of Gatooma. It is of particular in- 
terest to notice that a conclusion announced in the previous 
year's report, namely, the close association of the gold ores 
with felsite, finds many examples in the areas considered in 
the present document, and is strikingly illustrated in the 
case of the Golden Valley district. 

Discoveries of extensive deposits of asbestos and chrome 
iron ore in the Victoria district of Mashonaland are attract- 
ing a great deal of attention at present, both in Rhodesia 
and Jonannesburg. A company with a capital of £125,000 
has been formed to acquire and work the occurrences. A. H. 
Ackermann, Clement Dixon, Colin Campbell, and other mining 
engineers have reported favorably on the properties. The 
asbestos venture is known as the King's Asbestos, and in 
the course of his report Mr. Ackermann. the resident min- 
ing engineer of the British South Africa Co., stated: "I am 
much impressed with the possibilities of this asbestos prop- 
erty, and although little work has been undertaken to prove 
the extent of the area, indications at present are certainly 
most encouraging, and lead me to venture the opinion that 
it will be the means of opening a new and extensive industry 
in Rhodesia." The most favorable features in connection 
with this property are the high quality of the asbestos in 
the rocks as so far proved, the finding of profitable asbestos 
in every working place in the area referred to and outside, 
the facilities for a cheap system of bench mining, the proxim- 
ity of a continuous supply of water and cheap labor, and 
the past satisfactory results of the owner's operation, which 
were undertaken under most adverse conditions. Of the 
chrome iron deposits, Mr. Ackermann says that it is not pos- 
sible to gauge the extent of the deposits on account of no 
development having so far been undertaken. He suggests 
that immediate steps should be taken for the opening of 
these deposits, and said: "A few months' serious development 
work on these deposits should open up sufficient profitable 
chrome to justify the extension of the railway from Victoria 
to the bottom of the hill." It is understood that the dis- 
coverer of these deposits is Mr. Turner, who is well known 
on the Rand. Chrome ore production of Rhodesia in 1913 
was 56,794 tons. Reports of a discovery of tantalite in the 
Victoria district are also current, and it may be that this 
area, which has so far been considered to be of agricultural 

value only, will yet develop into an important mineral-pro- 
ducing region. 

The large new producing gold mines, such as the Shamva 
and Cam & Motor, have already had a favorable influence, 
and the gold output of 64,894 oz. in March easily beat all 
previous records. From now on a steadily increasing monthly 
return may be anticipated. The Shamva is understood to 
have made a profit of about £11,000 in April, and the Cam & 
Motor, despite treatment troubles, is reported to be doing 
well, treating 11,120 tons in May for gold worth $65,000. The 
Bell is also said to be securing good results. As these mines 
get into full working order, better yields will be forthcoming. 
The Antelope's production so far has been disappointing. 
The Falcon is expected to commence crushing within the 
next three or four months. As to the other mines, it may 
be noted that sinking the new vertical shaft has been tem- 
porarily suspended at the Globe & Phoenix, to allow of the 
erection of a new head-frame and hoist plant. The Eldorado 
Banket mine is reported to have opened some rich shoots 
of ore recently. This property's output in May was $44,000 
from 4954 tons, with a profit of $20,000. 

Mineral Output of South Africa.— Transvaal in April- 
East Rami Proprietary Property. — Litigation. 

Exclusive of diamonds, the total value of the mineral out- 
put of the Union of South Africa for April was £3,193,255. 
Gold mining in the Transvaal, although slowly improving, has 
not fully emerged from under the cloud of uncertainty caused 
by labor troubles, the output of gold in April only totaling 
6S7.9S8 oz. valued at £2,922,388, compared with 792,082 oz. 
valued at £3,364,550 in May, twelve months ago before labor 
troubles started. In April, the Transvaal had 92 producing 
mines with 9803 stamps and 293 tube-mills at work, yielding 
687,816 fine ounces of gold. Considerable attention is at 
present devoted locally to the figures of the gold output of the 
Rand on account of the tact that since the labor troubles of 
July, they have until the last two months consistently shown 
a decline, in place of a steady increase as before. This de- 
cline has in many quarters created the impression that the 
Rand has reached its zenith as a gold producer, and the 
previous confident tone has given way to pessimism, so much 
so, that even the Chamber of Mines seems to have been affected 
thereby, as shown in the recent statement submitted to the 
Economic Commission. As far as possible, the Mines Depart- 
ment has attempted to minimize the bad effects produced by 
this statement: but the fact remains that some time must 
elapse even if the gold output of the Rand again assumes the 
steady progressive increase so characteristic of the industry 
prior to last July. 

The last quarterly report of the East Rand Proprietary 
Mines shows that the shrinkage of profits indicated at the 
recent annual meeting has already begun and that the amount 
of development accomplished is still on the wrong side. The 
Company has now about £250,000 standing to the credit of the 
development suspense account, a good deal of which will have 
to be spent before the ore reserves of the concern are placed 
in a satisfactory position. The difficulty still continues of 
finding sufficient faces where the expenditure on development 
seems to be justified, a difficulty likely to be experienced until 
the area beyond the water dike is drained. When it is stated 
that a large quantity of water, estimated to flow at least at 
the rate of 3,000,000 gal. per day. has to be overcome, much 
of which has to be pumped from a depth of 4000 ft., the diffi- 
culties of the position will be easily recognized. Taken on the 
whole, therefore, it seems probable that at the East Rand 
Proprietary the position will probably grow much worse be- 
fore an improvement can be expected, so that the outlook is 
anything but encouraging. 

July 11, 1914 



An interesting ease between the Langlaagte Consolidated 
mines and the Victoria Falls & Transvaal Power Co., Ltd., 
has just been concluded in the Supreme Court. The former 
claimed damages from the latter, through the latter failing 
to supply the requisitioned power at the time agreed on, and 
was awarded damages to the extent of £29,000. At one time 
it seemed likely that several similar cases would be heard, but 
most of the groups affected compromised with the power com- 
pany. Another interesting law case was that in which F. 
Gauf claimed compensation from the Apex mines for pointing 
out the outcrop of the Main Reef series lying on the Rietfon- 
tein property, between Boksburg and Benoni. This claim 
was made under a 20-year-old agreement, but it transpired 
from the evidence how little was known of the character of 
the Main Reef series so long ago. The judgment was to the 
effect that a few floating boulders of conglomerate had been 
taken by Mr. Gauf for the indication of the outcrop of the 
Main Reef, and he therefore lost his claim for compensation 
to the amount of £30,000. An interesting question arose dur- 
ing the trial as to what really constituted an outcrop, no less 
than six expert mining engineers and consulting geologists 
failing to satisfy the judge in this respect. The trouble arose 
owing to the conglomerate bed occurring as a sub-outcrop, and 
it was left for the judge to define an outcrop as 'the place at 
which a bed actually outcropped at the surface.' 


Queensland Mineral Index. — Molybdenite. — Institute of 
Mining Engineers. — Electrical Work in Australia. 

The Queensland Government has issued a 'Queensland Min- 
eral Index and Guide,' which constitutes the first attempt 
made by the mines department in any of the states to adver- 
tise the mineral resources of that state. It cannot be said 
that the production is quite up to the best standard of 
Canadian and American work in the same line, but it is not 
so very far behind, and in accuracy and thoroughness it 
leaves nothing whatever to be desired. Australia has always 
been too anxious to keep her good things to herself to do 
very much advertising: but this publication is only one of 
many signs that a more liberal policy is being entered upon. 
There is, however, much to be said for the hint suggested 
by the Australian Mini/iff Standard, that it is noc very much 
use advertising the mineral resources of any state till the 
laws have been sufficiently liberalized to offer some induce- 
ment to foreign capitalists to put their money into local 
mining properties. Without something like real security 
of tenure they are not likely to take the risk of any great 
investment of capital. 

It is amusing to note how suddenly molybdenite has be- 
come prevalent throughout the whole of Australia. Queens- 
land has mines which it claims to be the best in Australia: 
New South Wales makes similar claims, with perhaps less 
warrant; Victoria is working some deposits on which the 
government geologist has just reported: Western Australia 
and South Australia both report discoveries which, as a 
matter of course, are expected to prove valuable; and it is 
understood that Tasmania also has its discovery of the min- 
eral. There is no need to jwint out to readers of the Press 
that all these discoveries are closely connected with the extra 
ordinary increase In the market va'ue of the metal, ll is not 
unnatural that when the metal is wanted it should be looked 
for: but It Is surprising to learn of so wide a distribution of 
so supposedly rare a mineral. In some cases of course, the 
presence of the mineral was known previously, and the market 
rise has led to the exploitation of deposits hitherto neglected; 
but It would not be very surprising to learn that one or two 
of the discoveries are not quite so 'molybdenous' (if such a 
word may be coined i as is represented. 

The annual meeting of the Australian Institute of Mining 
Engineers was this year held in Melbourne and was a poor 
affair, attracting a much less representative gathering of the 
leaders of the profession than it has done hitherto. The 
arrangements were by no means satisfactory, and the pro- 
gram was uninteresting. Victoria is a state that does not 
offer much of interest to up-to-date mining men; but cer- 
tainly a poor selection was made of what it had to offer. 
Bendigo is unquestionably the most interesting field in the 
state, the most extensive in its operations, and the greatest 
centre of mining industry. Yet Bendigo was not visited, nor 
was Ballarat, Daylesford, or Ararat. Instead of these, a 
visit was paid to Walhalla, once famous owing to the yields 
of the Long Tunnel and Long Tunnel Extended, but now 
worked out. The only other place honored by a call was 
VVonthaggi; the scene of the government's experiment in 


coal mining, an experiment for which a strong effort is being 
made to have it regarded as a success, bin which would in 
point of fact be regarded as a failure it' it were being worked 
by a public company instead of by the state. [The mine pro- 
duces about 2000 tons of coal per day. — Editor.] Altogether it 
cannot be said that the Australasian Institute of Mining 
Engineers is on the up-grade. 

A leading article in the Australian Mining standard on 
•Electric Work in Australia' has att raited considerable at- 
tention, and. strangely, but significantly enough, lias been 
generally endorsed by some of the large electrical firms. The 
article begins with a statement that "the work of the Victorian 
and Australian cities requires to be put upon an entirely new 
basis." and proceeds to ask, "why incompetent workmen 
should ever have obtained a looting there. Men are not per- 
mitted to touch gas pipes or water pipes without possessing 
a license. Why. then, should absolutely unlicensed men be 
allowed to meddle with the important work of effecting 
electrical installations in either dwelling houses or business 
houses? It is believed, and the belief is probably not very 
far from the truth, that there are more Incompetent men 
engaged on this work than in any other part of the building 
trade: and the amazing thing is that the insurance companies 
have not before this taken a hand in the matter, and insisted 
on the electrical work being done to their satisfaction be- 
fore they will consent to insure properties in which the 
electricity has been installed." 



•July 11, 1914 


Gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc were mined in Arizona 
in 1913 to the value of $70,875,027, according to Victor C. 
Heikes of the U. S. Geological Survey, showing an increase, 
as compared with 1912, of $3,824,243. The value of the gold 
production in 1913 was $4,023,911; silver, $2,384,047; copper, 
$03,228,127; lead, $710,370, and zinc, $527,972. There were 438 
mines producing these metals in the state in 1913, as against 
445 in 1912, and the total quantity of ore sold and treated 
was 7,931,862 short tons, an increase of 1,091,780 tons. 

Cochise County 

Sulphide ore has been opened in limestone in the Calumet 

& Arizona company's Cole area at Bisbee. The Copper 

Queen test mill for the low-grade ores of the Sacramento hill 
and Czar shaft upper levels is nearly completed. Churn- 
drilling is still under way in this area. The Shattuck mine 

is developing well, and ore shipments amount to 400 tons 

per day. The Mascot Copper Co., operating at Dos Cabezas, 

is to construct a line from the South Pacific near Willcox 
and connect with the Maricopa Copper Co.'s line at Dos Ca- 
bezas, a distance of 18 miles. A company called the Mascot 
& Western Railroad Co. has been incorporated with a capital of 
r.OOO shares at $10o eacn. 

Mohave County 

The Grand Gulch mining district is described by James M. 
Hill in Bulletin 580-D of the II. S. Geological Survey. He 
examined the mines there in November 1913. The district 
is most easily reached from Moapa, Nevada, on the main line 
of the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake railroad, and 28 
miles northwest of St. Thomas, Nevada, the supply point for 




part of southeastern Nevada and northern Arizona. The 
climate is typical desert weather, and there is a fair quantity 
of timber available. The Grand Gulch mine is 54 miles east 
of St. Thomas. It has been developed by a shaft 500 ft. 
deep, and levels have been driven at 100, 200, 300, and 400 ft. 
Owing to the peculiar shape of the orebody the levels are 
generally of circular plan. At 200 ft. the ore zone is about 
300 ft. diameter. In the upper portion of the mine the ore 
is in sandstone, in the lower portion in limestone. The ore 
consists largely of malachite, aztnite, anil brochantite. with 
irregular masses of chalcocite scattered through it. The ore 
does not extend below a depth of about 250 ft., there being 
no copper minerals at 300 or 400 ft. The copper was de- 
posited in the upper workings by generally downward-mov- 
ing waters. Fifty men were employed in the fall of 1913. The 

Bronze L. mine is :! miles southwest of the Grand Gulch, and 
has been opened by a 200-ft. incline shaft, now caved to about 
100 It. The ore minerals are largely sulphides, with smaller 
amounts of azurite and malachite. The Copper King mine 
is 40 miles east of the Grand Gulch mine, near the Colorado 
river. Every two months a carload of 23 to 26V copper and 
$3 to $4 silver ore is shipped by Bishop Whitehead. 

Yavapai County 

(Special Correspondence.) — There is a revival of mining in 
the Thumb Butte district, and miners are busy at many 

claims. The Little Jessie mine, at Chaparal, is producing 

ore again, and gold ore is being sent to the Hayden smelter. 

Phoenix, June 28. 


Amador County 

A retaining dam is being erected by the Kennedy company 
to store the tailing delivered on Bright ranch by the wheels 

described in this journal of May 9, 1914. The Bunker Hill 

company has declared its monthly dividend of $5000, making 

$30,000 for the current year, and $732,000 to date. More 

miners are being employed at the Plymouth, preparing the 
mine for supplying ore to the new mill, which is well under 

Eldorado County 

A 12-drill 2-stage air-compressor and other equipment has 
been installed at the Oro Fiiio mines, Shingle Springs, con- 
trolled by the Tredwood Syndicate, Limited, of London. De- 
velopment of the lower levels is now under way. C. H. James 
is resident manager. Seven mines, in the Volcanoville dis- 
trict, near Georgetown, known as the Ruby Consolidated Mines, 
and including the Aphrodite, Pluto, Proserpine Wedge, Garfield, 
Garfield Extension, and Little Gem have been bonded to a cor- 
poration headed by W. I. Smith from W. C. Green. The 

fiftieth anniversary of the Bullion Bend hold-up, in which the 
Washoe stage was robbed of gold worth $60,000, was observed 
at Placerville on July 2. The men were captured and several 
killed, but the metal was never recovered. 

Mariposa County 
(Special Correspondence.) — John McAllester and associates, 
have taken a working bond on the Sweetwater group of claims, 
which has a 10-stamp mill and other equipment. Her- 
man Schlaaerter of San Francisco has been visiting his 
brother Charles A. Schlagerter at Mariposa, and has examined 
the Hite mine on the south fork of the Merced river, which is 
idle for want of capital to put the necessary equipment on 

the property. Tin re has been nobody from the State Mining 

Bureau in this field since 1S96. until F. L. Lowell came here 
recently. He has some difficulty in properly finding un- 
patented claims of recent location. It is suggested that county 
supervisors could pay the salary of a Bureau officer, and have 
the mining areas thoroughly examined, as the appropriation of 

the Bureau is limited for this work. Judge J. J. Trabocco of 

Mariposa, in the case of Sidney v. Pierce on injunction proceed- 
ings has increased Sidney's bonds from $1000 to $4500. This 
case involves the title of the Buena Vista copper mines in the 
Green Mountain district, in which Sidney claims the property 
by prior location, and has sued Pierce to recover the prop- 
erty. Pierce located the property July 9, 1912, and has been 
developing it, and mined and shipped $35,000 worth of copper 
ore. The Sunnyside mine at Sherlock, owned by Mrs. Emma 

July 11, 1914 



Klopp of Oakland, is a promising property, and a good deal 
of prospecting has been done. Besides the mine equipment, 
there is a mill with rock-crusher, two 1000-lb. stamps, Hendy 
triple-discharge mortar, Chilean mill, plates, and a concentra- 
tor. The output in 1913 was 300 tons of $20 ore. The No. 5 

mine near Hornitos has been sampled by T. C. Parker, and 

machinery may be erected by the Merced owners. The 

Monte Cristo claims have been examined by A. M. Rockwell of 

Los Angeles. Homesteaders locating on mineral land which 

is of no value for agricultural purposes, in this county is quite 
a scandal here and should be stopped. The Virginia mine is 
being troubled by men who have filed a homestead on the 
ground from which the mine secures its water. 

Mariposa, June 24. 

Pumas County 

Rich ore has been opened in the Arcade mine near Green- 
ville by the owner, I). Mclntyre. Diving suits are being 

used by W. Wright and A. B. Knapp to prospect gravel in the 
north fork of the Feather river, near Belden. They are work- 
ing for about 30 minutes at a time in 10 to 15 ft. of water. 

Sluicing and other work is in full swing on Nelson creek, and 
there will be plenty of water fbr another month. 
Shasta County 

The Mountain Copper Co. has arranged to install at Kes- 
wick, 50-hp., 60-hp., 75-hp., and 100-hp. induction motors which 
have been purchased from the General Electric Company. 
Siskiyou County 

Owners of the Great Northern mine, an old producer, are 
mining ore for a test run. If satisfactory, the old McCook 
mill will be moved to the property. 

Trinity County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Everybody has had a good 
season's hydraulicking. Lorenz Bros, have just finished a 
satisfactory run on the old Junkan's ranch, or lower Weaver 
Creek mine. 

Weaverville. June 30. 

Tuolumne County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The collar of the App mine 
shaft is being repaired, and other work is going on with a 
view to resuming mining. It is understood that a portion 
of the mill will be put in working order at once for milling 

the ore on surface. The Burnham mine, on Knights creek. 

recently bonded to M. Johnson, is yielding high-grade ore. 
A 480-ft. adit is being driven, through which two veins will 

be worked. Sinking and driving is in progress at the 

Franco Contention mine, in the Jupiter district with 30 men. 
The prospects are most encouraging, and additional machin- 
ery, including a large hoist, will be installed in the near 

future. At t !»*- Ditch mine, the 1650 and 1800-ft. drifts are 

being extended toward the rich shoot that made a record for 
the property nearer surface a few years ago. The mill is 

operating continuously with good results. The Leap Year 

gravel mine, near Jamestown, has been bonded to George 
Tatton by Joseph Hosklns, and an effort will be made to open 
the auriferous deposits, which are believed to be but a short 

distance from the point reached by the former o|>erators 

Thirty-five stamps of the milling plant of the Shawmut mine 
are in operation. The ore is conveyed from the hoist in tin' 
mine to the mill in electrically operated cars, an improvement 
which was only recently finished. A portion of the force em- 
ployed is still engaged in making repairs and Improvements 

that will add greatly to the efficiency of the plant. It is 

reported that negotiations are under way for the consolida- 
tion of the Mack and Longfellow mines under new manage 

ment. The Mt. Zion mine, in the Groveland district, is 

being reopened by Ernest Caplinger. The shaft has been 
cleaned and repaired to the water level and some develop- 
ment work will be started in the upper workings soon. The 

Company operating the River Gravel mine at Jacksonville 

has men engaged in cutting a trench to divert the waters of 
the stream, and at the earliest possible time a restraining 
dam will be under way. The Company expects to wash a 
large quantity of gravel this summer. 
Sonora, July 3. 

La Plata County 
The new Cave Basin district is 435 miles from Denver, of 
which 425 miles is over the D. & R. G. line to Ignacio. then 
10 miies by stage to Bayfield. The district is over 9000 
ft. above sea-level. The ore, which occurs in limestone, con- 
tains gold, silver, and copper. Some high-grade ore was 
shipped to Durango last September. A fair amount of pros- 
pecting is now being done on the various claims. 

Teller County (Cripple Creek) 

Estimates of the June output of the district, made on July 
1, give the following totals: 

Plants. Tonnage. Av. val. Gross val. 

Golden Cycle 31,000 $20.00 $ 620,000 

Portland. Colorado City... 9,500 20.00 190,000 

Portland, Cripple Creek... 18,800 2.40 45^120 

Smelters 4,060 55.00 223,300 

Stratton's Independence... 11,823 2.50 29,557 

Colburn-Ajax 4,140 7.00 l'x.'ino 

Wild Horse 1,200 3.24 3,888 

Neville-Free Coinage 600 6.00 3,600 

Gay lord-Dante 1.500 2.30 3,450 

Kavanaugh-Jo Dandy 1,850 1.40 2.590 

Isabella mines 750 2.00 1,500 

Total S5.323 $1,151,985 

The Vindicator company and lessees shipped about 3500 
tons, worth $165,000. The United Gold Mines, worked under 
lease, produced 400 tons of ore. From the Abe Lincoln 450 
tons of $21 ore was mined. Lessees at the Dexter extracted 

665 tons, worth $12,000. The Golden Cycle was the only 

company to pay a dividend in June, the amount being $45,000. 
July dividends are estimated at $2511. 000. 

Bonner County 

In a raise between No. 4 and 1 levels in the Idaho-Conti- 
nental mine, 26 miles from Porthill, there is 6 ft. of high- 
grade and 6 ft. of mill ore. The raise is up 330 ft., and will 
be finished in 30 days. The 200-ton daily capacity concen- 
trator has been completed, also the hydro-electric station on 
Boundary creek, midway between Porthill and the mine, to- 
gether with the transmission line, and the entire equipment 
is ready for service at any time. The mill will start about 
Inly 15, and by August 1 crude ore and concentrate will be 
shipped. To facilitate handling this product, an aerial tram- 
way. 1500 ft. long, will be constructed over the Kootenai 
river by the Riblett Tramway Co. Ore will be hauled to 
the river by 'caterpillar" engines and Troy 15-ton trailers. 

Custer County 
The genesis of the garnetiferous copper deposits near .Mac 
kay are described in the June issue of Economic Geology by 
Joseph B. I'mpleby. The district lies ;it an elevation of 
from 5888 to 9600 ft. above sea-level. Rock formations are 
Carboniferous limestone, intruded by late Cretaceous granite 
porphyry, arrd trachyte porphyry. The orebodies occur within 
Hie main igneous mass, well back from its border. .Most 
of the production has come from shoots of ore situated from 
I no to 80D ft. out in granite porpHyry, and two carloads was 
obtained from an orebody 1201 ft. back from the main igne- 
ous rontact. No deposits of proved importance occur in the 
main limestone area. In places the orebodies are closely 
associated with large blocks of limestone included in the 



Julv 11, 1914 

igneous rock. Garnet rock accompanies all the important 
ore-shoots, and in most of the primary ore this mineral is 
the dominant constituent. The orebodies vary greatly in size, 
and even more in shape. Three principal groups are recog- 


nized, one in the Copper Bullion and two above the Alberta 
adit. The primary ores consist of an intimate intergrowth 
of garnet and chalcopyrite, and the latter contains 5 to 6'/r 
copper, with a little gold and silver. 

Shoshone County 

A mortgage totaling $20,152 and covering the claims of 37 
creditors of the Idora Hill Mining Co. has been placed on 
record at Wallace. The deed includes several mining claims 
and all tools, machinery, mills, and other equipment. 

Annual meetings of the Moon Creek Mining Co., Aurora- 
Sampson Mining Co., Valentine Mining Co., and Four Tim- 
bers Mining Co. have been held, and the various properties 

owned were discussed. A meeting of the Gertie Mining 

Co. was held at Spokane on June 20, when the capital was 
increased, and it was decided soon to begin driving a lower 
adit 3700 ft. long. The portal will be about 1000 ft. from 
the schoolhouse at Burke. A vertical depth of 1400 ft. will 
be obtained by the adit, which will cost from $50,000 to 
$65,000. A compressor plant is to be installed. A. A. Booth 
will be in charge of the work. The property is a promising 

one. The Hercules Mining Co. will place in operation in 

its mines two 8-ton, 30-in. gage, 500-volt electric mining loco- 
motives recently ordered from the General Electric Co.; and 
the Snowstorm Mining Co. at Larsen will install a 275-hp. 

induction motor and starting panel. After an idleness of 

nearly two years, the result of litigation with the Bunker 
Hill & Sullivan company, the Caledonia mine, near Kellogg, 
has resumed operations. One of the stipulations in the com- 
promise agreement that ended the controversy between the 
two companies was that a unit of the Bunker Hill & Sulli- 
van mill should be set aside for the treatment of Caledonia 
ores. The plant has been under repair for several months 
and was given a trial run recently that proved satisfactory. 
The mill was started running one shift daily last week and 
is now treating about 100 tons per day. During the shut- 
down, connection by means of a raise was provided between 
the Caledonia workings and the long lower adit of the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan, permitting the product of the mine 
to be handled through the latter at much less expense than 
under the former system of operating, and it is estimated 
that the Company now will average $40 to $45 per ton net 
on its ore. There is a large tonnage in sight in the mine, 
and engineers regard it as among the long-lived producers 
of the Coeur d'Alene lead-silver district. Charles McKinnis. 
one of the best known mining men in the Coeur d'Alene, 
is general manager of the Company. 



The estimated production of the Goldfield Consolidated 
mine in June is as follows: Ore treated. 25,924 tons; gross 
extraction, $295,000: operating expenses, $155,000; and net 
realization, $140,000. The Jumbo Extension company is 

now shipping 100 tons of ore per day to the Goldfield Con- 
solidated mill. — A 20-ton cyanide plant, consisting of three 
50-ton leaching vats, has been added to the Diamondfield 
Mining & Milling Co.*s 5-stamp mill. The ore averages $10 

per ton. More pumps have been ordered for the Atlanta 

mine. These are to be made by the Piatt Iron Works of Day- 
ton, Ohio, whose western representatives are C. C. Moore & 
Co. of San Francisco. The pumps are one Smith-Voile 6Vi by 
15-in. triplex, and one 6-in. Piatt centrifugal, electrically 
driven. The total pumping capacity installed will eventually 
be 800,000 gal. per day. 

Humboldt County 

(Special Correspondence.) — On June 15, John F. Cowan of 
Salt Lake City, took his place as president of the Rochester 
Mines Co. The output of the property, from a depth of about 
500 ft., is nearly $700,000, the ore averaging between $20 and 
$25 per ton. Recent work on the deeper levels has been en- 
couraging. In the Codd lease, 4 ft. of ore was cut, 2 ft. of 
which is worth $35 per ton. At 800 ft. from the portal, the 
east vein has been cut in the main cross-cut. The first ship- 
ment from the Rock lease on the Nenzel Crown Point property 

has given returns of better than $20 per ton. About 8000 

tons of good shipping ore has been developed in the Kahaler 

lease on the Weaver claims. Four feet of $60 ore has been 

recently opened in the Buck and Charley lease in lower 

Rochester. Regular shipments are being made from the 

Nevada-Packard lessees, Kromer and Hampton. — —The Fed- 
eral dredge which was sunk a few weeks ago, has been re- 
paired and is again in operation. 

Rochester, June 29. 

Lander County 

(Special Correspondence.) — The new camp of McCoy, found 
by Joe McCoy, about 17 miles southwest from Copper canon, 
near Battle Mountain, is reported as promising. Gold ore is 
being opened, and also silver-lead ore. An engineer recently 
returned from this new find has described the geology roughly, 
as consisting of lime and porphyry lying on a granite floor, and 
intruded by dikes. 

Battle Mountain, June 29. 

Nye County 

A new double-drum Nordberg hoist is being erected at the 
Wandering Boy shaft of the Jim Butler mine. The machine 
will be driven by a 125-hp. electric motor, and has a hoisting 

speed of 800 ft. per minute. A larger yield is expected from 

the Montana-Tonopah in June. During the past week the 

mill treated 150 tons with 93' ; recovery. The West End 

mill is treating 215 tons per day. At 1100 ft. in the Ex- 
tension, the Murray vein is 9 ft. wide, worth from $30 to $75 

per ton. The 1000, 1050. and 1130-ft. levels of the North 

Star are improving. 

Storey County 

All disputes on the Comstock lode have been settled, and 

development of the lower levels is now assured. A tube-mill. 

Dorr classifier, and other machinery has arrived for the Yel- 
low Jacket cyanide plant. 


Large gains were made in the production of gold, silver. 
copper, and zinc at mines in New Mexico in 1913, according to 
figures compiled by Charles W. Henderson, of the U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. The production of gold showed an increase of 
$97,4s0 over the output of $784,446 in 1912; silver, an increase 
of 94.572 oz. over the production of 1,536,701 oz. in 1912; lead, 
a decrease of 1,547.654 lb. from the yield of 5,494,018 lb. in 
1912; copper, an increase of 22.277,742 lb. over the yield of 
34.030,9(14 lb. in 1912; and zinc, an increase of 2.956.524 lb. over 
the output of 13.566.637 lb. in 1912. Despite lower average 
yearly prices for copper and zinc, the total value of the out- 
put was $11,694,002. an increase for 1913 of $3,166,047. 

July 11, 1914 




The mineral resources of this state, with statistics for 1912, 
are described in Bulletin No. 11, by Henry Landes of the 
Washington Geological Survey. The publication consists of 
53 pages, with an index and a large map showing locations 
of certain minerals in the state. Other reports will be pre- 
pared from time to time. The following subjects are dis- 
cussed: granite quarries, sandstone quarries, limestone and 
kilns, basalt quarries, sand and gravel pits, coal mining, clay, 
the cement industry, metal mining, and mineral waters. The 
output in 1912 and 1911 was as follows: 

Metallic products. 1912. 1911. 

Copper * 179,192 $ 39,77r, 

Gold 680,964 847,677 

Lead 5,732 38,186 

Silver 254,326 129.204 

Total metallic $ 1,120.214 $ 1.054,843 

Non-metallic products: 

Clay products $ 2.388.870 $ 2.861.758 

Coal 8.042,871 8.174. 170 

Granite 809,201 1.345.551 

Lime 234.832 228.933 

Limestone 20.370 32.478 

Mineral waters 17.542 14.654 

Portland cement 2.01 2.785 1 .496.S07 

Sand and gravel 345.289 319.760 

Sandstone 344,476 301,843 

Total non-metallic $14,216,236 $14,775,954 

Grand total $15,336,450 $15,830,797 

Some excellent brick is made in this state, some of which 
is used for street paving. The clay industry is widespread in 
18 counties. 

The output of the gold, silver, copper, and lead mines in 
Washington in 1913. according to C. N. Gerry, of the U. S. 
Geological Survey, was valued at $1,053,135, compared with 
$1,120,214 in 1912. The decrease was due to lower metal prices 
and a smaller production of silver and copper. The gold out- 
put has a value of $696,275: the production of silver decreased 
from 413.53X oz. in 1912 to 331,239 oz. in 1913. The copper 
production likewise decreased from 1,086,010 lb. in 1912 to 
954,081 lb. in 1913. Lead production increased from 127.:',s7 
lb. in 1912 to 202.487 lb. in 1913. There were 57 productive 
properties, of which 12 were placer and 45 lode mines. 

Mining and industrial companies which are now operating 
in Washington. Idaho, and British Columbia, and tributary 
to Spokane, paid $565.3X6 in dividends during the first 10 days 
of July. Of this. $309,800 was paid by the Washington Water 
Power Co., which supplies power to mines in the Coeur 
d'Alenes; $123,836 by the Stewart Mining Co.; $81.75(1 by the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan company: and $50,000 by the Standard 
Silver-Lead company. 

Ferry County 

After an idleness of nearly two years, mostly due to Hi Ra- 
tion, the Quilp mine, one of the oldest developed properties in 
Republic will resume operations. The decision to reopen the 
mine was made at a meeting of the directors this week in the 
offices of W. .1. C. Wakefield of Spokane, vice-president of the 

Quilp Gold Mining Company. Attempts to consolidate the 

San Poll Mining Co. and the Republic Mines Corporation, 
which is in the hands of a receiver, are being opposed by 
creditors of the latter Company. 

Stevens County 

The raise between the I'nited Copper lower adit and the 
600-ft. level, a distance of 465 ft. on the incline, wis completed 
in 60 days, and was in ore all the way. Ore is to lie stoped 
from the 1000 and 600-ft. levels. 


Juab County 

Ore shipments from 16 mines at Tintic during the past week 

totaled 137 cars. The Chief Consolidated company has paid 

another dividend of 5c. per share, equal to $43,S22. The Iron 

Blossom company will pay another quarterly dividend of 10c. 
per share, equal to $100,000. Ore shipments are about 150 tons 
per day from the 400, 500, and 600-ft. levels. 
Summit County 

According to the general manager, G. W. Lambourne, the 
Daly-Judge mine is in good condition. A drift is being driven 
at 300 ft. to cut an orebody opened to that point by a raise. 
The rich shoots in the Daly vein are continuing to the surface. 
These shoots are in the form of chimneys,' and are from 2 to 
50 ft. wide, and 15 to 50 ft. high. On the 1200-ft. level a 
stope has yielded ore for a length of 235 ft., 20 ft. high and 
25 ft. wide, all mill ore, containing lead and zinc. Develop- 
ment totals about 1000 ft. per month. The Mines Operating 

Co. has shipped about 20.000 oz. silver, being part of the 
June clean-up. Formerly precipitate was shipped, but a re- 
finery has been installed recently at the property. 


The Abangarez Gold Fields Co. produced bullion worth $4'..- 
385 from 05ss tons of ore in April, at a loss of $3857. The 
loss for the first four months of 1914 was $64,706. Owing to 
difficulties experienced of late in getting sufficient profitable 
ore to run the plant, it has been deemed advisable to stop 
operations for the present and devote the attention of the 
staff to underground development. 


The Seoul Mining Co., operating the Snan Concession in 
Whang Hai province, reports the following results for June, 

Stamps working 40 

Time, days 27.83 

Ore crushed, tons 5.960 

Total recovery $60,562 

Operating expenses , 25,000 

Net earnings $35,562 


The American Smelting & Refining Co. has decided to re- 
sume operation at the Chihuahua smelter, one of the largest 
of the Company's plants in northern Mexico. The Company's 
employees have been ordered to proceed to Chihuahua and it 
is expected that early in July the plant will lie in full opera- 
tion. It is also intended to blow-in the Monterey plant in 
Nueva Leon, and then the Velardena plant in Coahuila. 


During the last week of June, trouble started among em- 
ployees at the Mines Company of America's La Colorado mine, 
near Hermosillo. who are dissatisfied with conditions, prob- 
ably more politically than with the Company. The trouble 
spread to Cananea, more in the nature of a sympathetic strike 
which started on July 2. There is no dispute with the Greene 
Cananea company. Demands of the strikers are as follows: 
An increase in wages of 25'/f : a decrease in the price of goods 
at the Company store of 25'!; abolishment of the new labor 
bureau; some changes in the management of the Company 
hospital; and that wages in future be paid weekly. George 
Kingdon, superintendent at Cananea. arrived at Douglas. 
Arizona, on July 2, and consulted with James Douglas, the 
general manager. The po-iition was regarded as serious as 
mill and snieltermen left Ihrir work, but 20im returned later 
on. There are 200 troops at Cananea to keep order. 



July 11, 1914 

J. D. Irving has gone to Butte. 

John W. Finch was in Salt Lake City recently. 

C. P. Perrin sailed from Seattle for Japan on June 27. 

Walter M. Henderson Scott has gone to England for a 

R. H. Richards was at Ishpeming last week and has gone 
to Houghton. 

Sumner S. Smith came down to Seattle from Nome last 
week and has gone north to Juneau. 

C. D. Kaeding has been made vice-president and general 
manager for the Dome Mines Company. 

Huntington Adams has gone to Chile, S. A., where his ad- 
dress is in care W. R. Grace & Co., Iquique, Chile. 

Morton Webber has gone to Idaho to make a preliminary 
examination of a placer deposit for New York clients. 

W. J. Pentland is in Denver, Colorado, where his address 
will be temporarily in care of Dorr Cyanide Machinery Co., 

H. L. Smyth is to be the head of the combined school of 
mines of Harvard University and Massachusetts Institute of 

Samuel Newhouse, formerly a prominent mining operator 
of Utah, but now a resident of New York City, is in Salt 
Lake City on a visit. 

J. Vanoi'Hem, of Brussels, president of the Algunican De- 
velopment Co., owner of the Jualin mine at Jualin, north of 
Juneau, inspected the property recently. 

W. D. B. Motter, Jr., recently manager for the Canada Iron 
Mines, Ltd., of Trenton, Ontario, was appointed on May 1 
as manager lor the Benson Mines Co. at Benson Mines, New 

Henry Tsctietschott, professor of ore dressing and metal- 
lurgy at the Mining Institute of St. Petersburg, is in the 
Juneau district, Alaska, studying the methods of ore treat- 
ment. . 

J. A. Singmaster, general superintendent for the New 
Jersey Zinc Co., of Palmerton. Pennsylvania, is making a 
tour of Europe visiting smelters and other departments of 
the zinc industry. 

John H., formerly underground superintendent for the 
Aurora Consolidated Mines Co., has accepted a position as 
superintendent of the Nau Aug mine, twelve miles from 
Hailey, Idaho. 

E. E. Price, who has been superintending operations at 
the Lower Mammoth mine of the Tintic district, Utah, dur- 
ing the past two years, left recently for Casper, Wyoming, 
where he will take charge of the Pine Dome Oil Co.'s prop- 
erty. William Foyer will succeed Mr. Price. 

H. G. Young has resigned as manager for the Trethewey 
Silver-Cobalt Mine, Ltd., and has accepted the position of con- 
sulting engineer to the Algunican Development Co. of the 
Juneau district, Alaska, and general manager for its sub- 
sidiary companies. Mr. Young will leave Cobalt about Au- 
gust 1. 


Frank Robbins, who for the past fifteen years had made 
his home in Los Angeles, died on June 21 of pneumonia, after 
a brief illness. In the early days of the Eureka district, Mr. 
Robbins was superintendent of the Eureka Consolidated. 
Later he was manager for mines at Valle de los Angeles in 
Honduras; MacKenzie and Mann at Greenwood, British 
Columbia; and also of the Elkhorn at Leadville, Colorado. He 

also held other important positions and his loss will be deeply 
regretted by his many friends in the mining profession. 

Edward C. Limbach, superintendent of the American Girl 
mines at Ogilby, California, at 1 p. m. on June 15, slipped and 
fell upon the drive-belt of one of the Hardinge mills, passing 
around the pully on the countershaft. He died two hours 
later. Mr. Limbach was a graduate of the Colorado School 
of Mines in the class of '95, and followed the profession for 
a number of years in Colorado and Montana and later in 
Loomis, Washington, where his family are living. He was a 
man of charming personality, always well liked by his asso- 
ciates in school and in the field, honest, upright, and fair. He 
has improved the practice at the American Girl considerably 
in the short time he was there, and was a valued member of 
the profession. 

Arthur Austin, chief testing engineer at the Tooele smelter 
of the International S. & R. Co., was severely burned June 29 
while testing an oil burner for the assay furnaces. He was 
using a steel barrel containing fuel oil under high pressure. 
The head of the barrel blew out, covering him with oil which 
immediately took fire from a nearby flame. His injuries were 
so severe that he died a few hours later. He was a son of 
L. S. Austin, the well known metallurgist, and was himself 
well started on a promising career in metallurgy. After 
graduating from the Colorado School and the Michigan Col- 
lege of Mines he entered the service of the Anaconda Copper 
M. Co. in 1906, from which he was transferred to the Inter- 
national in 1911. 

Northern California and Southern Oregon Mining Con- 
gress, Ashland, Oregon 9.10 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, Salt Lake City 10-14 

British Association, Adelaide, South Australia 8 

Canadian Mining Institute, Rocky Mountain branch, 

Lake Superior Mining Institute, Ishpeming, Michigan.. 

31 to Sept. 3 

American Chemical Society, Montreal 15-18 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers not fixed 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver 3 

Illuminating Engineering Society. Cleveland 21-25 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 9 

American Iron and Steel Institute 23-24 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver 3 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 13 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver 7 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 11 

American Museum of Safety 11-20 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers 7-8 

The University of Minnesota School of Mines, at Minnea- 
polis, begins the first semester on September 1, with 58 in- 
structors in the faculty. There are three regular courses of 
study, namely, mining engineering, mining engineering spe- 
cializing in geology, and metallurgy, leading to the degree of 
engineer of mines, engineer of mines in geology, and metal- 
lurgical engineer, respectively. The bulletin of June 1914 de- 
scribes the courses and other general information. 

July 11, 1914 




Weekly Summary of Prices of Shares and Metals 

itodks auikl Bonadls 


(San Francisco Stock and Bond Exchange.) 

July 8. 


Listed. Bid Ask 

Associated Oil 5s_ 8 98 99 

Natomas Con 22) 25 


Oeneral Petroleum 6s.. 38 40 

Listed. Rid Ask 

Amalgamated Oil 7k — 

Associated nil 38] 40 

Du Pont, pfd SO 84 

Giant 79] 811 

Pac. Cat. Borax, com. t; J 

Sterling O. & D 

Union Oil 69 

Unlisted. Bid 

Natomas Consol 4 

Pac. Port. Cement «s... 100 
Santa Cruz Cement 6s.. 85 
Union Oil 86} 



West Coast, pfd - 


General Petroleum — 

Noble Electric Steel 52)c 


Pac. Port. Cement.. 

H Riverside Cement — 

Santa Cruz Cement 40 

Stand. Port. Cement ... — 


(By courtesy of San Francisco Stock Exchange.) 
July 9. 








Atlanta t .14 

Belcher 30 

Belmont 6.67 

Con. Virginia 17 

Florence 35 

Goldneld Con 1.40 

Goldneld Oro 08 

Halifax .50 

Jim Butler 1.05 

Jumbo Kxtenslon 19 

MacN'amara 01 

Mexican 61 

Midway .20 

Mlzpah Kxtenslon 23 


Nevada Hills 

North Star 


Pittsburg Silver Peak 

Round Mountain 

Sierra Nevada 

Tonopah Extension .... 

Tonopah Merger 

Tonopah of Nevada .... 



West End „ 

Yellow Jacket 





(Latest Quotations.) 

Bid. Ask. 

Argonaut $7.50 

Brunswick Con... 1.30 .... 

Bunker Hill 1.90 .... 

Central Eureka.... 0.1! 


(By courtesy of J 


Kennedy 18.00 

Mountain King 

South Eureka .... 1.40 

Allouez 8 

Ariz. Commercial 

Butte A Superior 

Calumet A Arizona 

Calumet A ilecla 

Copper Range 

East Butte 


Gran by 

Greene Cananea 

Isle Royale 

Mass Copper 










(By courtesy of J, 


Amalgamated I 70J 

Anaconda 31 . 

A. S. A R., com 83] 

Calif. Pet., com 19j 

Chlno 10J 

Guggenheim Ex 54) 

inspiration IH> 

Mexican Pet., com Ill, 



C. Wilson. Mills Building 
July 9. 
401 Nevada Con 

3 North Butte 

37 Old Dominion 

85 Osceola 

410 Qulncy 

36 Shannon 

10 Superior A Boston 

4] Tamarack 

80 C7 S. Smelting, com 

28J Utah Con 

21 Verde 

5 Winona 

431 Wolverine 

C. Wilson, Mills Building. 
July 9. 

70] Miami 

31 1 I Nevada Con '.. 

66 ! Quicksilver, com 

20 [ Ray Con 

40J | Tenn. Copper 

551 U. 8. Steel, pfd 

I8| U.S. 

82 Utah Copper 



i 13] 






■ 1 









31 i 













(By courtesy of E. 


Braden Copper... 7^ 

B. C. Copper 1% 

Con. Cop. Mines.. 1V4 

Davis-Daly % 

First National.... 1 14 

Holllnger 18 

Iron Blossom .... 1 14 

Kerr Lake 5 

La Rose % 

Mason Valley .... 2% 

\ Hutton & Co., Kohl Bu 



r 9. 





McKinley-Dar. .. 

. 60c. 



Minos Co. Am. . . 








Ohio Copper .... 




Stand. Oil of Cal 




Tri Bullion 






5 ft 

United Cop. com 




Yukon Gold .... 


2 V 2 


(By cable, through 

Alaska Mexican 1 

Alaska Treadwell 7 

Alaska United 3 

Arizona 1 

Camp Bird 

Cobalt Townstte I 

El Oro 



Kern River Oilfields 


the courtesy of Hollister. Lyon & 
New York.) 
July 9. 

£ s d. £ 

Mexican Kagle, com 2 

Mexico Mines 4 

Messina 1 


Paciilc oilfields 

ItloTtnto 68 

Santa Gertrudls 

Tanganyika 2 

Tomboy 1 










©ft&I IPrices 


San Francisco. 


Jlllv 9. 

A utimon v 

9 — 9\c 

Electrolytic copper 15 lo^c 

P 'S Lead 4.15— 5.10 

Quicksilver (flask) $37.50 

Tin 39 — 40 Vic 

Spelter 614— B%c 

Zinc dust, 100 kg. zinc-lined cases. 7' L . to 8c. per pound. 


(By wire, from New York.) 
NEW YORK, July 9. — A large business is being done in cop- 
per in both domestic and export trade, but local buyers' re- 
quirements are not well covered. The price has moved up 
steadily all the week. Lead and spelter are quiet. Tin is 
steady at 31.90 to 32c, and antimony is dull at 7.12 to 7.25c. 
In London, copper is steady at £62 6s. 3d. to £62 12s.6d., tin 
steady at £144 15s. to £116 5s., and bar silver steady at 25%d. 
The American Smelting & Refining Co. is having trouble in 
starting up its Chihuahua plant. 


per 1 




low are given the average New 

Mince, of fine silver. 


2 56.6 

3 56. t; 

I Holiday 

■"> Sunday 

6 :,6.2 

7 56.37 Julv 

8 56.2 

Monthly averages. 

York quotations in cents 

Average week ending 

May 27 .77.12 

June 3 56.52 

.56. 4S 
.56. 51; 
.56. 12 


M.-i v 



58 21 





19 13. 




The primary market for quicksilver Is San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 
open market, and. as quoted weekly in this column, is that at 
which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by the carload can 
usually obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting but a flask 



July 11, 1914 

or two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. Average 
weekly and monthly quotations, in dollars per flask of 75 lb., 
are given below: 

Week ending 

June 11 38.50 

IS 3S.50 

June 25 38.50 

July 2 38.50 

9 37. 5J 


Jan 39.37 

Feb 41.00 

Mch 40.20 

Apr 41.00 

May 40.25 

June 41.00 

Monthly averages 



July 41.00 

Aug. 40.50 

Sept 39.70 

Oct 39.37 

Nov 39.40 

Dec 40.00 

Lead is quoted in cents 
pounds. New York delivery 

July 2 


per pound or dollars 

per hundred 


4 Holiday 

5 Sunday 


Average week ending 

May 27 3.90 

June 3 3.90 

" 10 3.90 

•• 17 3.90 

" 24 3.90 

Julv 1 3.90 

8 3.90 


Jan 4.28 

Feb 4.33 

Mch 4.32 

Apr 1.36 

May 4.34 

June 4.33 

Monthly averages 

4 02 


July 4.35 

Aug 4.60 

Sept 4.70 

Oct 4.37 

Nov 4.16 

Dec 4.02 

7.1 XC 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, St. Louis 
delivery, in cents per pound. 


4 Holiday 

5 Sunday 

.... 4.75 



A vera 

Msv 27.. 

June 3. . 

•' 10.. 

" 17.. 

" 24.. 

Julv 1 . . 

8. . 

re week ending 



Jan. . . .'. 6.88 

Feb 6.13 

Mch 5.94 

Apr 5.52 

May 5.23 

June 5.00 

Monthly averages 
191 I 



July 5.11 

Aug 5.51 

Sept 5.55 

Oct 5.22 

Nov 5.09 

Dec 5.07 


New York prices control in the American market for tin. since 
the metal is almost entirely imported. San Francisco quotations 
average about 5c. per lb. higher. Below are given average 
monthly New York quotations, in cents per pound: 
Monthly averages. 

1913. 1914. 

Jan 50.45 37.85 

Feb 49.07 39.76 

Mch 46.95 38.10 

Apr 49.00 36.10 

Mav 49.10 33.29 

June 45.10 30.72 


July 40.70 

Aug 41.75 

Sept 42 45 

Oct 40.61 

Nov 39.77 

Dec 37.57 



Quotations on copper as published in this column represent 
average wholesale transactions on the New York market and 
refer to electrolytic copper. Lake copper commands normally 
1-5 to l-4c. per lb. more. Prices are in cents per pound. 


Average week ending 

May 27 13.98 

June 3 13.86 

m 13.7"^ 

" 17 13.65 

1 13.28 

8 13.44 


Julv 2 13.35 

3 13.35 

4 Holiday 

5 Sunday 

6 13.40 

7 13.50 

8 13.60 

1913. 1914. 

Jan 16.54 14.21 

Feb 14.93 14.46 

Mch 14.72 14.11 

Apr 15.22 14.19 

May 15.42 13.97 

June 14.71 13.60 


The Copper Producers' Association statement for June shows 
a decrease in production and increase in stocks on hand. The 
details are as follows: 

Stocks of marketable copper of all kinds on hand at 

all points in the Fnited States. June 1, 1914 84,342.6*1 

Production of marketable copper in the United States 
from all domestic and foreign sources during 

June 141,310,000 

Deliveries for consumption, June 45.927.000 

Deliveries for export, June 73,350,477 

I uly 



Julv 14.21 

Aug 15.42 

Sept 16.23 

Oct 16.31 

Nov 15.08 

Dec 14.25 


Stock of marketable copper of all kinds on hand and 

at all points In the 1'. S., July 1 97,142,863 

Recent changes in surplus have been as follows, in pounds: 

Increase. Decrease. 

June 1913 14,569,619 

July 690.330 

August 15.280,908 

September 8,531.043 

October 2,773,288 

November 15.363.U47 

December 43,509,438 

January 1914 4.142,182 

February 8,924,833 

March 13,762.533 

April 5,727,682 

May 14,005,640 

June 12,768,022 


The following data, covering 1913, is from the U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey: 

Miners Coal Coke 

em- mined, made, 

ployed. tons. Value. tons. Value. 

Alabama $ 3,323,664 $ 9,627,170 

Arkansas .... 4,660 2,234.107 3.582,789 

Illinois 1,859,553 8.593,581 

Indiana 2,727,025 13,182,136 

Iowa 15.679 7.490.641 13,431,061 

Kansas 12,479 7,202,210 12,036,292 

North Dakota 495,320 750,652 

Tennessee ... .11,263 6,903,784 7,883,714 

Texas 2,429,144 4,288,920 

Virginia 9,162 8,828,068 8,952,653 

Each of these states produced more coal than in 1912. Alaba- 
ma coke output was 348,175 tons over the previous year, and 
this increase was from by-product ovens. These yielded 2890 
tons per oven, against 212 tons from the beehive type. Coke 
made in Illinois and Indiana comes from West Virginia mines. 
Iowa is primarily an agricultural state, and excepting the 
coal used by railroads, the sale depends on rural communi- 
ties. Kansas operators had little to complain of in 1913. The 
North Dakota output is all lignite. The year was satisfactory 
in Tennessee. Texas produces lignite and bituminous coal 
in equal quantities. 

Production of abrasive garnet in the United States in 1913 
amounted to 5308 short tons, valued at $183,422, according to 
the U. S. Geological Survey. This was the largest in the his- 
tory of the industry, and an increase of 361 tons in quantity 
and of $20,185 in value, compared with the production for 
1912. The industry was confined to three states. New Hamp- 
shire, New York, and North Carolina. 

Tin statistics for June show the following movements, ac- 
cording to L. Vogelstein & Co. of New York: Shipments of 
standard metal to America. England, and Europe, 7894 tons; 
deliveries, N995 tons: visible stocks, 18,562 tons: average price, 
30.60c. per lb. Figures for May were 11,744, SsT. and 19.663 
tons, and 33.25c. respectively. 

Bullion received at the San Francisco mint during June 
was as follows: Gold. 14:'.. 156 oz. worth $2,959,303: and silver, 
21,632 oz. worth $12,114. The coinage executed was $3,000,000 
in double eagles, and $21,500 in one-cent pieces. Coin, bullion, 
etc., on hand at the end of June amounted to $246,370,370.83. 

Tine Lake Superior Minim; Institute will hold its nine- 
teenth annual meeting at Ishpeming and Detroit at the end 
of August and beginning of September. A first-aid demonstra- 
tion will be held, and the mines visited at Ishpeming. 

Artificial graphite manufactured at Niagara Falls in 1913 
was valued at $973,397. 

July 11, 1914 




The twelfth annual report of this Company for the financial 
year ended March 31, 1914, shows gross profits amounting to 
$6,366,786. After deducting depreciation, 'exhaustion of min- 
erals,' and all other charges, the net profits amounted to $4,- 
792,605. Dividends on the preferred and common stocks to 
the amount of $4,337,906 were paid, and the sum of $454,759 
wa3 carried forward. The assets of the Company are placed 
at $53,941,207, of which $9,210,442 are current assets, cash on 
hand being $3,243,07:!. During the year, the unsatisfactory 
conditions prevailing in the steel industry, coupled with lower 
prices received for the output of copper, resulted in the earn- 
ings being slightly less than for the previous year. Many im- 
provements have, however, been made in the smelter and at 
the mines which will result in a greater output at lower costs. 
The benefit of these expenditures will probably be felt during 
the present year. 


The report of this Queensland Company covers the half- 
year ended February 28, 1914. In the six mines, a total of 
3187 tt. of development was done. The Duchess shaft was 
sunk to 727 ft. Three winzes, sunk below the 550-ft. level, 
have opened IS to 20% ore at depths of 97 to 126 ft. Reserves 
in this mine are estimated at 67,000 tons. At 350 ft. in the 
Hampden, a sulphide orebody has been opened for 220 ft., it 
being from 4 to 9 ft. wide, averaging 10% copper. This ore 
contains less than 20% silica. No. 1 shaft was sunk to 523 ft. 
A low-grade shoot was cut at 490 ft, and driving at 500 ft. 
has opened ore assaying 10.1% silica, 51.2% iron oxide, 39.1% 
sulphur, and 3.8% copper. Reserves total 57,000 tons. Seven 
per cent ore was opened at 200 ft. in the Trekelano mine. Re- 
serves in all mines are estimated as 241,000 tons averaging 
about 10% copper. Ore smelted was 33,105 tons producing 
6.885,760 lb. copper, 1023 oz. gold, and 26,172 oz. silver. The 
revenue was £222.158; profit, £65,847; and dividend, £35,000. 

gold, 1.85 oz. ; silver, 351.18 oz.; lead, 6.6%; and copper, 1.53%. 
The mills yielded 4199 oz. gold and 1,220,028 oz. silver, valued 
at $811,456. The total recovery was 92.8%. By shutting down 
the old mill a saving of about $2500 per month will be made. 
The gross value of ore milled and shipped was $1,577,526, or 
at: average of $21. S5 per ton. 

Net realization from operations was $729,657, and including 
cash at the beginning of 1913, the total available was $871,077. 
Out of this, 12 dividends were paid totaling $450,601'. and the 
cash on hand at the end of the year was $125,943. 


As will be seen from the accompanying map. this Com- 
pany controls a large area at Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, 
on which it is doing a considerable amount of work, also 50 
tributers or lessees, who mostly worked in the oxidized ores. 
The report covers the year ended December 31, 1913. The 
superintendent is P. Fitzgerald, and general manager, Bewick, 
Moreing & Company. 

Development in the various claims totaled 5960 ft., also 
station cutting and surface trenching. The expenditure was 


This Company has its general office in Kansas City, 
Missouri, and controls the Tigre Mining Co., which operates 
mines and mills ;it El Tigre, District of Moctezuma, Sonora, 
Mexico. The report covers the calendar year 1913. The re- 
ports of the consulting engineer, James W. Malcolmson, and 
general manager, L. R. Hudrow, contain the following infor- 

Development totaled 4984 ft., of which 2400 ft. was diamond- 
drilling, the latter cutting the Kelley vein on No. 3 level 150 
ft. east of the main vein. No. 2 level cut this shoot, which 
has developed about 300 ft. of a good grade of ore. Crosscuts 
were driven on No. 1, 3, and 3M> levels to cut the vein. No. 3 
reached it, and 89 ft. of driving was done in ore. The other 
cross-cuts have since cut the vein. Stoping was started on 
this vein in February. 1914. Work on the main Tigre vein 
totaled 2291 ft., and on the Sooy vein, 39 ft. Development 
cost 59.2c. per ton. There was 56,081 tons of ore broken, of 
9.2c. per ton. Concentrate produced was 235S tons, assaying. 
0.493 oz. gold, 285 oz. silver, 2.32% copper, and 12.05 r /< lead. 
Broken ore in stopes amounts to 28,907 tons. Mining cost 
$2.80 per ton. 

The mills crushed OS, 528 tons of ore, and the cyanide plant 
treated 64,757 tons of current and 21,778 tons of dump tail- 
ing, at a cost of $3.99 per ton. Ore transport to the mills cost 
9.2e. per ton. Concentrate produced was 2358 tons assaying. 


£14,526, equal to 50c. per ton milled. A good deal of work 
was done at and above 750 ft. in the Eclipse mine: the Croesus 
Proprietary shaft was sunk from 750 to 935 ft. (now 94T> ft.), 
the lode being cut at 932 ft.; work was confined mainly to 
the oxidized portion of the Brownhill west lode: and in the 
Oroya north block, the Magazine lode worked by tributers 
was followed down to the boundary in rich ore, but above 
110 ft. there was nothing of importance disclosed. Ore re- 
serves are estimated at 146,775 tons worth $5.N2 per ton. an 
increase of 32,466 tons and 16c. per ton in value. Tributers 
on nine claims mined 4183 tons of ore yielding £9589. on 
which the royalty was £1831. Results were as follows: 

Ore extracted from five mines (Eclipse and Oroya 

North mainly), tons 139,130 

Gold from 50-stamp mill, slime and concentrate plant, 

etc £151,819 

Net profit in Western Australia 15,899 

Forward to 1914, including balance from 1912 IS. ISO 

Cash at bankers, in hand, and on loan 01,910 

Total cost per ton $3. SO 

During the first quarter of 1914, 35,630 tons of ore %V as 
treated at a profit of £4826. 


The Inspiration property in Gila county. Arizona, is the 
scene of great activity. Aside from mine development, a 
mine plant, a 10,000-ton concentrating plant, and the testing of 
the flotation process at the rate of 600 tons per day is 
under way. The report of the general manager, C. I'-'. 
Mills, covers the year 1913. The property now totals 2S57 
acres. I'nderground preparation for ore extraction continued, 



July 11, 1914 

and development totaled 37,760 ft., making a total of 110,609 ft. 
to date. There was hoisted 47,200 tons of 1.867c copper ore, 
and 196,783 tons of waste. Ore on hand in stockpiles amount- 
ed to 195,000 tons, averaging 1.79%, at the end of the year. 
In the Live Oak claims 17 holes were drilled an average depth 
of 241 ft., and 6,S5S,000 tons of carbonate and sulphide ores, 
assaying from 1.33 to 1.45%, was developed. Churn-drilling 
has been very satisfactory. Reserves are as follows: 

Class of ore. Tons. Per cent. 

Sulphide 45,000,000 2.00 

Low sulphide 28,322,000 1.26 

Oxidized 12,445,000 1.34 

Mixed carbonate and sulphide 3,876,000 1.24 

Total S9,643,000 1.64 

Mining operations will probably be confined for many years 
to the higher-grade ore. 

Surface equipment at Inspiration for a capacity of 10,000 
tons per day is as follows: Steam power-plant of three 6000- 
l;w. generators, head-frames for two main shafts and receiv- 
ing bin of 2000-ton capacity, two electric hoists of the Ilgner 
system, air-compressors to supply 11,000 cu. ft. per minute 
for mine drills, high-pressure compressor for underground 
locomotives, coarse crushing plant with four No. 8 gyratory 
crushers and eight 48-in. disc grinders, ore storage bins on 
railroad at mine to hold 25,000 tons, ore-bins at mill to hold 
12,000 tons, concentrating plant 1% miles from mine, water 
supply plant of 5,000,000 gal. daily capacity, and 7% miles of 
standard-gage railroad to the mine, mill, smelter, and con- 
necting railroad. The plant should start at the end of 1914. 

To provide the funds necessary for extensions to original 
plans, etc., five-year 6% convertible debenture bonds, amount- 
ing to $4,500,000 were authorized. Assets totaled $20,586,996, 
including $1,781,146 cash. Liabilities include accounts paya- 
ble, $127,836; and 10-year 6% convertible bonds, $6,000,000. 


The report of this Tasmanian company covers the half-year 
ended March 31, 1914, and is replete with data on mining, 
smelting, and new power scheme; with photographs, plans 
of the district, and of the North Lyell mine. The combined 
reports of the general manager, Robert C. Sticht; engineer 
in charge of mines, R. M. Murray; local superintendent, Basil 
Sawyer; metallurgist, R. P. Roberts; chief mechanical 
engineer, G. W. Wright; superintending engineer of rail- 
ways, E. Carus Driffield; and engineer for supplies, Huntley 
J. Clarke, contain the following information: At the Ml. 
Lyell mine, overburden was removed from benches No. 2a, 3a, 
3b, 4c, and 5. Ore was broken from No. 4 bench. Only 19,934 
tons was taken from the open-cut. No. 6, 7, and S levels un- 
derground were actively worked producing 88,507 tons. Dia- 
mond-drilling 545 ft. yielded promising results. This mine 
supplied 5021 tons of pyrite (45% sulphur) for the Com- 
pany's chemical works in Australia. Ore reserves in the 
parent mine amount to 2,097,072 tons averaging 0.531% cop- 
per, 1.96 oz. silver, and 0.0275 oz. gold. 

Prospecting was done in the south Mt. Lyell mine. 

The north Mt. Lyell mine produced 60,461 tons of ore, 
and 120 tons of copper precipitate from underground water. 
A station was cut at the 1100-ft. level for a new hoist winze 
being sunk to open the orebodies below this level. Work was 
also started to connect the 200, 700. and S50-ft. levels with 
the Crown Lyell shaft. Ore reserves in the North Mt. Lyell 
are 1.025,651 tons averaging 0',; copper, 1.33 oz. silver, and 
0.005 oz. gold. 

Prospecting was done on five levels in the Lyell Comstock 
mine. Development in all mines totaled 4531 ft., including 1836 
ft. of drilling. The blast-furnaces treated a total of 163,513 

tons of ore, fluxes, etc., Mt. Lyell supplying the basic, and 
North Mt. Lyell the silicious ore. The average mixture 
smelted contained 2.49% copper, 1.62 oz. silver, and 0.028 oz. 
gold. From 9360 tons of matte, there was produced 3433 
tons of blister copper, assaying 98.78% copper, 67.5 oz. silver, 
and 1.312 oz. gold per ton, equal to 3391 tons of copper, 
231,740 oz. silver, and 4504 oz. gold. Costs were as follows: 
Mining, $2.43; smelting, $2.13; and converting, 30c, a total 
of $4.86 per ton, against $5.32 in the previous term. 

After deducting all charges, the net profit was $298,000. 
With the balance from the previous half-year, the amount 
available was $2,980,000, out of which $385,000 was paid as 
dividend No. 17 of 30c. per share. On June 15, 1914, No. 


18 was paid, amounting to $300,000, or 24c. per share. Assets 
show a surplus of $1,680,000 over liabilities. 

Rainfall at various points in the district was from 31.18 to 
68.28 in. on 87 to 119 days. Good progress is being made 
with the Lake Margaret hydro-electric scheme, the plant 
being well under way, and all transmission poles erected. 
Power should be available in September, 1914. 

An experimental plant has been erected at the smelter 
to test ore by flotation methods. Trials on North Mt. Lyell 
ore have been made, and those on Lyell Comstock were 

The three chemical and superphosphate plants in Australia 
operated in the usual satisfactory manner. The South 
Australian interests were amalgamated with those of the 
Wallaroo Phosphate Co., Ltd.. and a new company registered. 
The railways were kept in good order, the revenue being 
$97,000, and expenditure $77,000. 

The Company's metal production since August. 1903. is: 
Copper, 127, 49S tons: silver, 10,626,593 oz.; and gold, 321,104 

July 11, 1D14 



1,097,336 — Electric furnace working with an electric arc 
or arcs for melting and extraction of metal from ore. Peter 
Krefting, Christiania, Norway. 

An electric furnace comprising a closed melting chamber, 
a vertical charging shaft above the chamber, provided with 
a plurality of extensions with charging apertures, said aper- 
tures being normally closed by the charging material, a flue 
leading from the melting chamber through the material being 
charged, said flue extending through the shaft, and a plu- 
rality of electrodes extending into the melting chamber sub- 
stantially as described. 

1.098,282 — Process for treating so-called carnotlte and asso- 
ciated and similar vanadium and uranium minerals. Herbert 
N. McCoy, Chicago. Illinois. 

A process of treating carnotite and allied ores, consisting 
in heating the ore in presence of sulphuric acid until a mass 
is obtained which is solid when cold and which contains sub- 
stantially all of the vanadium and uranium in a readily solu- 
ble condition, extracting the soluble constituents from the 
said mass, treating the solution thus obtained to recover the 
values therefrom, and treating the residue for the concen- 
tration of its radium content. 

1,098,183 — Ore concentrator. John L. Signorette, Los An- 
geles, California. 

In an ore concentrator, the combination with a base, of 
resilient supports carried by said base, a tray mounted on 
the support, a longitudinally extending bumper bar connected 
with the bottom of the tray, a standard mounted on the base 
adjacent to each end of the tray, resilient means for recipro- 
cating the tray, means carried by the standards adapted to 
be engaged by the bumper bar during the reciprocation of 
the tray to jar such tray and independent adjusting devices 
for the resilient means and last-mentioned means whereby 
the shock at either end of the reciprocation may be regu- 

1,100,217; 1.100,218; 1.100,219; 1,100,220; 1,100,221: 1,100,- 
222; and 1,100.22:; have been granted to Charles Butters. Oak- 
land. California, covering apparatus for filtering slime. This 
includes, respectively: lit a suction filter-leaf having means 
for admitting water thereinto to dislodge a cake therefrom, 
and a relief valve in communication with the upper portion 
thereof to relieve said leaf of air as water is admitted there- 
to; (2) in a suction filter-leaf, the combination of a frame 
filter media carried thereby and a water-supply pipe for cake- 
dislodging purposes connected to said leaf, said pipe having 
an opening to atmosphere near its point of attachment to the 
leaf; (3) a filter-leaf having means for equalizing the exter- 
nal and internal water pressure thereon while said leaf is 
submerged; (4i a suction filter-leaf having a manually 
operated valve connected with a submerged portion thereof; 
(5) the step in the process of treating slime which consists 
In running water tli rough the filtering means while sub- 
merging said means in the slime; (6) a filter-leaf having a 
header, a frame, filter media mounted on said frame and sup- 
ported by said header, and a perforated pipe mounted on 
said leaf above said header; and (7) the process of dislodg- 
ing slime cakes from filter-cloths, which consists in saturat- 
ing without pressure substantially the entire surface of the 
cloth while the cake is thereon. Patent 1.100,2117. consisting 
of a filter medium for a suction filter-leaf open across the 
bottom was granted to William Arma Stedman, of Wonder, 
Nevada, assignor to the Butters Patent Vacuum Filter Co., 
a corporation of Nevada. 

Effect of the Soot in Smoke ox Vegetation. By J. F. 
Clevenger. Smoke Investigation Bulletin 7. P. 26. Illustrated. 

Boletin de la Sociedad Nacional de Mineria, No. 201-2, and 
203-4. P. 96 and 87, ill., maps, index. Santiago de Chile 1913 
and 1914. 

Some Graphic Methods for the Solution- of Geologic Prob- 
lems. By W. S. Tangier Smith. Reprint from Economic Geo- 
logy. P. 58. Illustrated. 

The Manhattan Schist of Southeastern New York State, 
and its Associated Igneous Rocks. By Charles Reinhard 
Fettke. From Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 
P. 68. 15 plates. 

Petroleum Industry of California. By J. H. G. Wolf. Re- 
print of address given April 17, 1914, before the San Francisco 
chapter of the American Society of Civil Engineers. P. 17. 
Maps and charts. 

Geology of the Standing Rock and Cheyenne River Indian 
Reservations, North and South Dakota. By W. R. Calvert, 
A. L. Beekly, V. H. Barnett, and M. A. Pishel. Bulletin 575. 
P. 49. 111., maps. 

Mineral Resources of Washington, with statistics for 1912. 
By Henry Landes. Bulletin 11. P. 55. Maps. Washington 
Geological Survey, Olympia, 1914. This will be reviewed in 
another issue of this journal. 

.Mining Advance Into the Inland Empire. A comparative 
study of the beginnings of the mining industry in Idaho and 
Montana, eastern Washington and Oregon, and the southern 
interior of British Columbia; and of institutions and laws 
based upon that industry. By William J. Trimble. A thesis 
submitted for the degree of doctor of philosophy at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. P. 254. Map. Madison, Wisconsin. 
Price, 40 cents. 

Coal. Oil, Gas, Limestone, and Iron Ore Map. Revised edi- 
tion by the West Virginia Geological Survey, February 1, 1914. 
It contains a thorough revision of the coal, oil, and gas develop- 
ments, several anticlinals being added and others corrected 
from later observations. The names and addresses of 918 
coal companies operating in the state are given by counties, 
as well as the locations of their mines. The names of many 
new towns, post-offices, etc., are added, and the valuable iron 
ore deposits of the state are also indicated on this map, and 
all the special features of previous editions corrected and 
brought up to date, showing the approximate areas of the sev- 
eral coal series, as well as the oil and gas pools. Scale 8 miles 
to the inch. Price, enclosed In strong envelope and delivered 
by mall. 50c. each. 

Kanawha County. By Charles E. Krebs, D. D. Teets, Jr., 
W. Armstrong Price, and I. C. White. West Virginia Geologi- 
cal Survey publication. P. 679. 111., maps, 38 plates, index. 
Morgantown, 1914. In addition to the description of the 
Kanawha coal series and all the geologic features of the 
county, tne geologic map gives the structural contours on the 
Pittsburgh coal horizon north from the Kanawha and Elk 
rivers, and on the Kanawha Black Flint south and east of the 
Elk and Kanawha rivers, as also the location of the anticlines 
and synclincs showing their relations to the several oil and 
gas poois of the county. The soil map and report of the ex- 
p< rts of the U. S. Department of Agriculture covering this 
region of the state should prove of especial value to the agri- 
cultural and horticultural interests. Price, with ease of maps, 
delivery charges paid by the survey. $L\ 



July 11, 1!)14 

A New Use for Belt Conveyors 

Using a belt conveyor for the rapid transportation of wet 
concrete is quite a new departure and especially so is the 
elevation of such material on belt conveyors, owing to the 
tendency of the water to separate out and run back. How- 
ever, by speeding up the belt to over 400 ft. per minute this 
tendency is overcome and the success of this method can be 
appreciated through the fact that over 2000 cu. yd. of wet 
concrete were thus conveyed to the forms in a working day 
of 10 hours in the construction of the Pacific Gas & Electric 
Co.'s dam at Lake Spaulding. 

The concrete is mixed in a house on the mountain side, not 
shown in the illustration, where five one-yard mixers of the 
revolving drum type are kept in constant operation, which 
discharge the mixed concrete directly upon the horizontal belt 

fuel valve may be varied while the engine is in operation; 
starting valves are operated by air; a direct connected in- 
jection air compressor forms an integral part of the engine; 
and a continuous system of lubrication with a filter and 
cooler in circuit is a part of the equipment. The engine is 
adapted to all classes of fuel oil. 

Autotraction Drill Rigs 

The drilling of deep blast holes of relatively large diameter 
is coming to be more general practice in the conduct of all 
large mining operations, in railroad work, quarries, and 
all classes of large excavations. To meet the demand for 
drill rigs to drill deep vertical blast holes the Sullivan Machin- 
ery Company offers the autotraction drill. The purpose of 
this machine has been to serve the public with a drill which 


conveyor traveling at a speed of about 400 ft. per minute. 
This conveyor discharges into a gravity chute leading down 
the hillside to the first elevating belt conveyor, which carries 
it upward at an incline of IS to a tower erected on the 
dam, from which it is chuted down to another belt conveyor, 
operating at an incline of about 15° and again carried up 
to the final gravity chute. The conveyors used in this in- 
stallation were furnished by the Meese & Gottfried Company 
of San Francisco, through whose courtesy the halftone is also 

The Fulton Iron Works of St. Louis, Missouri, in Bulletin 
'A' describe the Fulton-Tosi oil engines, which are a high 
compression Diesel type engine. This particular engine is 
built in the vertical form and with two, three, and four 
cylinders. It is claimed the engine may be started from cold 
within one minute without any trouble or time consuming 
preliminaries. The points of advantage claimed for this 
particular engine are the open A' frame construction, per- 
mitting easy access to main bearings; the cylinder is cast in 
the form of a removable liner from hard iron; all valves are 
in separate cages and in the cylinder head; timing as well as 

will drill deep holes faster and at a less expenditure of labor 
and power than the heavy tripod or cable drills, which are 
the two methods in common use. Toward this end the Com- 
pany has designed the autotraction drill which permits of 
the length of run or feed of from 10 to 20 feet, thus obviating 
the frequent stops necessary to insert longer steel in the well- 
known tripod types. Another advantage claimed for this 
drill for deep hole work is the ease and speed with which 
the autotraction drill can be moved from a completed hole 
to the site of a new one. The moving of a 4% or 5-in. tripod 
drill, as those with experience will appreciate, is a slow job 
requiring several men. As compared with drills of the cable 
or well-boring type, the autotraction machine, with its 
reciprocating air or steam-driven piston is claimed to be a 
much faster driller. These outfits consist of a vertical stand- 
ard or carriage, currying a rock-drill cylinder attached to a 
heavy iron recoil block, which is suspended in guides, or ways, 
by steel cable passing over a sheave and alternately paid out or 
taken in, as needed, by a hoisting drum. The standard and 
hoist are mounted on a wagon truck made of structural 
steel. A 2-cylinder reversible engine provides power for the 
hoist and for moving the outfit from place to place. 

July IS. 1914 






M. W. von BERNEW1TZ) 
T. A. RICKARD. London - 


Assistant Editors 

Associate Editor 

Editorial Contributor 

- Correspondent 


A. W. Allen. Charles Janin. 

Leonard S. Austin. James F. Kemp. 

Gelaslo Caetani. F. H. Morley. 

Courtenay De Kalb. C. W. Purington. 

F. Lynwood Garrison. C. F. Tolman, Jr. 
Horace V. WInchell. 

AN 'absolutely .new discovery' in metallurgy heralded 
some time ago as the Clapp process, which would 
make "extraction recoveries as follows: copper ores, 96 
to 99.6 per cent; nickel, 99.6 per cent; iron and lead. 
96.7 to 99.6 per cent. - ' and would "revolutionize mining 
in the Western states," for some unknown reason has 
failed to revolute. There must be a reason. 

THE passing of Victoriano Huerta from Mexico's 
political arena marks another change in the aspeel 
of Mexican affairs. In that no good could possibly re- 
sult to the Mexican people from his continuance in 
office, with revolution, secession, and bankruptcy ever 
upon the ascendency, it can only be hoped that in the 
reconstruction which now seems pending, broader po- 
litical foundations, which will meet the requirements of 
the mass of the people, will be laid and peace will ensue. 
Adiox Don Victoriano y salud a su rucesor. 

HALF-WATT NTTRO LAMPS, the latest develop- 
ment in the field of electric lighting, according to 
report bid fair to modify the present methods of illu- 
minating. The advance which this new lamp marks may 
be better understood by a comparison of efficiency with 
the time-honored carbon filament and its current con 
sumption of over six watts per candle-power. The new 
half-watt nitro lamp is of the tungsten filament variety 
with the bulb filled with nitrogen gas. At present the 
lamps range in size from 600 to 5000 candle-power, but 
with the perfection of methods of manufacture it may 
be expected that the half-watt nitro lamp, which is equal- 
ly suited to both alternating and direct current, will 
be available in all of the commercial sizes. 

TAECORATION of Mr. Charles P. Rand with the 
-*-^ Order of Isabella by the King of Spain is a pleasing 

recognition of his humanitarian and other services in 
•Cuba during the Spanish-American war. It almost 
makes us regret that America has no official 'Order of 
Merit," since it could so worthily be bestowed upon Mr. 
Rand as recognition from our side of his equally great 
work in the interest of sanitation and improvement of 
living conditions in time of peace. We shall have the 
pleasure shortly of printing a description of this work 
written by Mr. Rand himself. The able president of the 
Spanish-American Iron Company is an exponent of sue. 
cessful business on the highest plane, and we are glad 
to congratulate him upon an honor worthily won. 

A NNUAL drilling contests, which are the ancient 
sport of the mines and have long formed the chief 
attraction in many of the mining camps on the Fourth 
of July, were in evidence this year as usual. Results 
are recorded in the •Mining Summary' of this issue. 
While first-aid contests have come to divide attention, 
brawn, drill-steel, and granite continue to hold the cen- 
t re of the stag". 

CCRAP METALLURGIST is a degree not conferred 
^ by any of the accredited technical schools, but is 
nevertheless a real vocation amounting to a profession, 
according to Mr. William Jacobus, the original 'scrap 
metallurgist.' While most of us will associate the 'scrap 
metallurgist' witli the -ragman." we must admit that 
Mr. Jacobus is worthy of- an S.M. at least, if he has 
saved the Navy Department .+2.000.000 a year by the 
institution of his methods in disposing of scrap metal. 

WHUFF the Australian Labor Federation is debat- 
ing the feasibility of insisting upon the dismissal 
of all non-union men from the Australian goldfields, the 
Chamber of Mines of Western Australia announces 
that it will close every mine in that region rather than 
be dictated to by labor unions. Mine operators and 
labor have always maintained amicable relations in this 
district having met in convention every three years and 
adopted a labor agreement. It is to lie hoped that this 
policy may be continued and a crisis avoided, since if 
the business of mining continues it must be at mutual 
profit of men and operators. 

jl/TINERAL LANDS on Indian reservations is the 
J -' A subject of a bill recently passed by the United 
States Senate. According to the new regulation, all 
lands containing the minerals, kaolin, kaolinite, fuller's 
earth, china clay, and ball clay, within such parts of 
Indian reservations as have heretofore been opened to 
settlement and entry under acts of Congress which did 
not authorize the disposal of such mineral lands, shall 
be open to exploration and purchase and he disposed 
of under the general provisions of the mining and coal- 
land laws of the United States, and the proceeds arising 
therefrom shall be deposited in the treasury. Senator 
Sterling of South Dakota, who proposed the hill, claims 
it to he of considerable importance to his state, in that 
deposits of fuller's earth of economic importance await 
such action to be profitably exploited. Recent produc- 



Julv 18. 1914 

tion statistics of the United States Geological Survey 
show the production of fuller's earth in 1913 to have 
been 38,594 tons, valued at $369,750, which is an in- 
crease of about $65,000 over the preceding year. The 
imports of fuller's earth during the year totaled 

rpilE Committee on Mines and Mining, to whom was 
-*- referred the bill to provide for a commission to 
codify and suggest amendments to the general mining 
laws, has reported it back to the House of Representa- 
tives with the recommendation that the proposed code 
shall not deal with lands containing deposits of coal, 
oil, gas, phosphates, or soluble potassium salts, and that 
the bill be passed as amended. This amendment was 
suggested for the reason that the deposits named occupy 
a somewhat different status from the other minerals with 
respect to formation, methods of mining, and their use. 
The Department of the Interior has recommended legis- 
lation peculiarly adapted to the development and dis- 
position of coal, oil, gas, phosphates, and potassium, 
which bills are now pending before the Senate and 
House committees on public lands. In the event of this 
bill being passed, which seems highly probable, there 
will undoubtedly be a commission created to make a 
thorough and exhaustive investigation of the subject and 
report its conclusions to Congress. The time is oppor- 
tune for a discussion of the proposed revision, and we 
therefore take pleasure in presenting a discussion of the 
subject by Mr. F. R. Ingalsbe under the title of 'The 
Mining Law — Proposed Revision,' together with an- 
other contribution written by Mr. Clarence K. Colvin. 
Both recognize the importance of the subject, and their 
different viewpoints are both interesting and timely. 
We trust that a complete discussion of the subject will 
bring out the opinions of those interested so that re- 
vision may be undetraken with full knowledge. 

T^HE American Petroleum Society, which was organ- 
-*- ized to promote the science of petroleum technology, 
gives promise of becoming a most useful organization, 
and it is to be hoped that the membership campaign 
now being conducted will meet with the hearty response 
of those interested either directly or indirectly in the 
production and use "of petroleum, bitumen, and gas. 
The importance of the oil and gas industry is evidenced 
by the value of the production in the United States last 
year, which amounted to over $250,000,000, approxi- 
mately 71 per cent of the world's supply. In 1907 the 
technologic branch of the United States Geological 
Survey, acting under authorization of Congress, under- 
took a comprehensive study of petroleum and its prod- 
ucts, which work was and is being continued by the 
Bureau of Mines. It became evident to those in charge 
of the work thai without the cooperation of the many 
men engaged in the industry and the funding of their 
knowledge for the advancement of the industry, this 
stinly would lose much of its effectiveness. The object 
of the Society is to consider, primarily, subjects relating 

to the science and technology of petroleum and its 
products, with the purpose of investigating those phases 
of the subject which are of direct and pertinent value 
to the industry, to join the wisdom of the scientist to 
the knowledge of the practical oil man for the advance- 
ment of the industry. In that the leading petroleum 
associations of the United States plan to make this so- 
ciety the arbiter of standards for the trade, it at once 
gains a prestige which other new societies of the other 
industries might only hope to attain after years of or- 
ganization. At the present time there are not only a 
number of individuals but there are about 44 different 
committees in 43 different societies in' the United States 
which are investigating subjects pertaining to petroleum 
with no forum available for the general discussion of 
this subject. That there is a need for this society is ap- 
parent and its success as an organization should be 
assured. The first annual meeting will be held in New 
Orleans on October 15. 1914, and the second in San 
Francisco from October 25 to 30, 1915, where the Society 
will act as host at a World's Petroleum Congress. 


Lead poisoning as contracted by employees of the 
smelters and refineries in the United States has recently 
been the subject of investigation by the Department of 
Labor. While the results of the investigation are largely 
statistical, they show conditions at the works toward 
correction of which real effort should be made. At the 
19 plants, employing about 7400 men, investigated in 
the United States there were no less than 1769 cases of 
lead poisoning during the year 1912. From the cases 
reported it is seen that the exceedingly high figure of 
22 per cent of the employees at these plants have been 
afflicted with lead poisoning. The hospital records at 
nine plants showed that 5 per cent of the employees 
were afflicted with this malady. 

Of the plants investigated there were three which 
used blast-furnaces and large flue systems. While these 
plants employed only about 1000, or 13.5 per cent, of the 
total 74(K) employees involved in the investigation, there 
were 387 cases of poisoning reported at these smelters. 
The figures presented may be, and probably are. in some 
instances exaggerated, as there is a tendency among 
workmen to attribute all of their ills to their vocation, 
regardless of origin, hut it cannot be denied that there 
is an unnecessarily high percentage of men poisoned and 
a stronger effort toward reducing the prevalence- of this 
disease should be made. 

Lead poisoning became a very serious problem with 
the Austrian ore hearth workers in 1889. when there 
were 14 cases of lead colic among 61 men at one smelter. 
A change in working conditions whereby the hours of 
labor were reduced, four men working alternately in 
pairs for two hours at a lime during each 12-hour shift 
and having rest periods of 24 hours between, resulted in 
such improvement that in 1902 and 1903 not a single 
case was recorded among the 49 men employed at the 

July 18, 1914 



same smelter. In Great Britain in 1912 there were only 
37 cases of lead poisoning among 2009 men employed at 
lead smelters, or less than 2 per cent. . In Austria and 
Germany conditions are said to be less favorable. The 
governments of these countries are at present regulating 
this phase of the industry and a marked improvement 
is reported in recent years. The experience at the Port 
Pirie smelter in Australia is also worthy of notice. Here. 
a number of years ago, lead poisoning was exceedingly 
prevalent and the management undertook investigation 
and correction of existing conditions which has prac- 
tically eliminated the disease. In addition to reducing 
smelter fume and dust to the minimum, the Company 
made it a rule, and this is important, that every man 
wash before eating. 

In order to prevent lead poisoning, the cooperation 
of the men is as essential as is modern construction with 
every possible means of preventing dust and fume, and 
adequate sanitary appliances. Most operators agree 
that it is one thing to provide sanitary facilities for the 
men in the way of change rooms, wash rooms, dust-free 
lunch rooms, respirators, and the like, and it is another 
to get the men to take advantage of these facilities. In 
the majority of cases the laborer is lax, and the only 
remedy is a rule making violation of sanitary regulation 
cause for dismissal. The matter is largely one of habit. 
and when the men see results of these regulations in the 
form of a decreased number of cases of lead- colic they 
will realize their value. 


One of the curious things about mining is that while 
the production of certain mineral substances is gener- 
ally regarded by everyone as the application of that 
ancient art, the exploitation and extraction of certain 
other substances, no less truly mineral, is scarcely con- 
sidered, even by the profession, as being really mining. 
Roughly speaking, the digging of metallic mineral out 
of the ground is true mining; the digging of a non- 
metallic mineral (excepting coal) is something else 
Conversely, if a substance is desired for its metal con- 
tent, its digging is mining; if a non-metallic constitu- 
ent is the object of the quest, its extraction from the 
ground usually fails to rise above the level of quarry- 
ing. Possibly one reason why quarrying is considered 
less dignified than mining is that a 'porphyry copper' 
is operated by a highly paid and efficient staff, while 
a quarry struggles along with ordinary laborers, paid 
about $2 per day. under the direction of a $250 per 
month superintendent, who nevertheless manages to 
keep operating costs down. Similarly, the small size 
of the producin 1 .' units may be the reason why the 
disrging of the 350.000 tons of pyrite each year pro- 
duced in this country for its sulphur content does not 
usually come to mind in a hasty review of the mining 
industry of this country. The production of sulphur. 
whether from ore containing the elemental substance, 
from barren pyrite. or from the copper-bearin<.' pyrite 

of Spain, is at least a distant relative of real mining, 
and one that can scarcely with good grace be rele- 
gated to the back door and the attic chamber. 

The smelting industry is so busily engaged in burn- 
ing off its sulphur and allowing it to escape into the 
atmosphere, keeping a wary eye on agriculturists and 
politicians the while, that it is easy to overlook the 
annual return from the sulphur which is being utilized. 
The value of the sulphur production of the United 
States last year has been estimated by Mr. YV. C. 
Phalen, of the United States Geological Survey, at 
$5,500,000. The chief difficulty about sulphur is that 
it occurs abundantly in places where nobody wants it, 
and is generally absent from those places where it is 
required. Since it commands only a comparatively 
low price, the production of sulphur-bearing material 
involves business considerations rather than mining 
technology. Thus, for example, pyrite is imported 
from Spain to points on the Atlantic seaboard, since 
the railway freight in this country, with additional 
handling charges, makes the domestic pyrite cost more 
in the vicinity of the principal ports than imported 
material. Sulphur from Sicily used to be imported 
into the United States in considerable quantities, but 
of recent years the Louisiana sulphur has been pro- 
duced and sold so cheaply that Italian imports only 
amounted to 125 tons of sulphur in 1913, according to 
Mr. Phalen. Two-thirds of the total sulphur imported 
comes from Japan, most of it entering at Portland and 
Hawaii, though some of it enters San Francisco in 
competition with the copper-bearing pyrite of Califor- 
nia. The Hall process, in course of development at 
Coram, is likely to cause a change in the California 
situation, but can scarcely affect other points; for 
freights will not permit the California sulphur to com- 
pete with the Louisiana and Japan product at any 
u:reat distance from its point of origin. 

The Louisiana producers are now carrying the war 
into Africa, and competing with Italian sulphur on its 
own ground. The principal American company has 
established a distribution depot in Rotterdam and has 
chartered steamers for carrying its product. The Sicil- 
ian producers are rather dejected, as working costs 
there go up as the mines go down. Wages go higher, 
because of the emigration of laborers to America, 
while the Italian government has restricted the grant- 
ing of concessions. Some of the deposits have been 
worked out, and corresponding new discoveries have 
not been made, so that there is every reason to believe 
that the Sicilian output will steadily decline. The in- 
creasing production of sulphuric acid by the copper 
smelters is also a factor in the sulphur situation, though 
probably not a disturbing one ; for the smelters are 
commonly so situated that they cannot compete to ad- 
vantage with the present makers of acid on account 
of freight rates. The smelters will, in many instances, 
have to create a market for their acid, and, since its 
output of sulphuric acid is often called the index of 
a country's civilization, progress will thus lie made. 



July 18. 1914 


©mifayiOMS Desaeftaitnoira sit 

irowira Mmnies 


Tlie Porcupine Crown Mines is situated on the T. & 
N. 0. Ry., 250 miles from North Bay in the Porcupine 
mining district, Ontario, Canada, and one-half mile from 
the town of Timmins. In February, 1913, a small amal- 
gamating mill was built and put into commission pri- 
marily for the purpose of testing the mine sampling and 
also for producing revenue. 

The small mill was operated until November 15 of 
the same year during which time experiments made 
(both in the laboratory with cyanide tests and the mill 
on a larger working scale) indicated that the contin- 
uous decantation process would be the most economical. 
This was erected and running by November 15 with- 
out interfering in any way with the existing mill, which 
was made a unit of the new one, the amalgamating plates 
during the erection of the larger mill being placed in a 
temporary building which was later removed. 

The factors determining the choice of the process 
were: (1) short time factor for solution of gold; (2) 
low solution strength required (1.25 lb.) ; (3) rapid set- 
tlement of pulp; (4) low costs of installation and opera- 
tion (5) small quantity of water required. 

The ore is a hard quartz containing approximately 
1% of iron pyrite. The grade of mill-run varies from 
$15 to $30 per ton. Some of the gold is coarse, but gen- 
erally it is fine and freely disseminated in the quartz 
gangue. often associated with the pyrite. With the ore 
proper from 10 to 20$ of count ry rock is sent to the mill. 

Crushing and Elevating 

The ore is delivered in cars from the shaft house to 
the mill, where it is weighed and dumped upon a grizzly 
spaced iy 2 -in. Tin' oversize falls into an ore-pocket of 
60 tons capacity and feeds a No. 3 Chalmers & Williams 

bronze ball gyratory crusher set at lV-j-in. The dis- 
charge from the crusher joins the undersize from the 
grizzly and feeds a vertical belt elevator carrying 120 
buckets 9 by 9 in. traveling 225 ft. per minute; this de- 
livers the ore to a short conveyor belt 16 in. wide travel- 
ing 200 ft. per minute, which distributes the ore in 
the bin equally to each battery of ten stamps. The ore 
bin lias a capacity of 265 tons. 

The ore is fed to twenty 1050-lb. gravity stamps by 
standard Challenge feeders. The stamps drop 102 times 
per minute. The height of drop is 7y 2 in. and height 
of discharge 4 in. A stamp duty is obtained of 8.8 tons 
for the 2i L ,-iiiesli screens. The battery posts are 12 by 
26 in. for the side pests and 20 by 26 in. for the king 
posts. The top girt for the 20 stamps is framed in one 
piece giving the 20 stamp structure considerable extra 
support. Fairlie belt tighteners are used. The mortars 
are standard narrow type for quick discharge and coarse 

Two and one-half and 6-mesh screens are used on the 
batteries and varied to suit the mill requirements. The 
21-,-mesh has openings 0.25 in., and the 6-mesh has open- 
ings 0.111 inch. 

Classifier and Tube-Mill Closed Circuit 

The stamps discharge to two Dorr classifiers, a duplex 
in circuit with a 5 by 16-ft. tube-mill and a simplex in 
circuit with the 4 by 20-ft. tube-mill. The 5 by 16-ft. 
makes. 29 r.p.m. and the 4 by 20-ft. 31 r.p.m. The 
elevation of the classifiers is such that the discharge 
from the tube-mills wiil flow by gravity back to the 
classifiers. In the case of the 5 by 16-ft. tube-mill, this 
was accomplished by adding 4 ft. to the standard length 
of classifier, the oversize being fed to the scoop with a 

July 18, 1914 




solution jet regulated to give 38% moisture. With the 
4 by 20-ft. tube-mill the desired result was obtained by 
increasing the radius of the scoop, the one used having 
a radius of 52 inches. 

Twenty-four feet above the tube-mill floor are placed 
two amalgamating plates. 9 by 5 ft., receiving the slime 
discharged from the tube-mills; which is elevated by a 
triplex plunger pump and suitably diluted. The slope 
of the plates is iy 2 in. per foot. The plunger pump has 
ball valves, the seats of which in time wear elliptical in 
shape, necessitating the use of a small amount of air to 
assist the pump, and later the valve seats must be taken 
out and reseated. 

The plates have now been in use six months without 
material damage. The amalgam forms on the plates as 
a hard skin, and is removed with a scraper, care being 
taken not to get down to the copper. It is impossible 
to keep the plates soft and in good condition for catch- 
ing fine gold, as practised in modern amalgamating 
mills, and this is not attempted. It does, however, pick 
up the heavy coarse gold, for which purpose only it is 
required. About 30',' of the total recovery is made from 
these plates. 


The cyanide plant essentially consists of five 30 by 
12-ft. Dorr thickeners, working in series, with an agi- 
tator, 16 by 16 ft., between thickeners No. 1 and No. -. 
together with the various pumping and precipitating 
apparatus. The pulp is delivered to a No. 1 thickener 
at a ratio of 5.25 tons solution to 1 ton solids. The over- 
flow from this tank is the 'pregnant solution.' All of 
this solution is not necessarily precipitated. Tf the 
overflow is of lower grade than required, a portion is 
allowed to by-pass to the pump returning the solution 
from No. 2 thickener to the battery storage, which is 
allowed to build up in value to a limited amount see 
tabulation following . 

The underflow or thickened pulp is directly con- 

nected by 4-in. piping to the suction end of two 4-in. 
diaphram pumps. These are set 3*/. ft. above the level 
of the solution in the tank. These pumps will handle 
pulp containing as low as 25% moisture over short 
periods of time. Each pump has a sufficient capacity to 
handle the maximum output of the mill, thus leaving 
one pump in reserve. There are two speeds and three 
lengths of stroke to vary the volume pumped, giving 
ample variation to accommodate the mill tonnage. 

The thick pulp (35% moisture) from No. 1 flows from 
the diaphram pump by gravity to the agitator. Here 
the moisture is raised by adding barren solution until 
the same has reached 60%. One-third of the cyanide 
is added at this point, the balance at the tube-mill feed. 
The pulp is discharged from the agitator continuously 
to thickener No. 2. Then from this point to thickeners 
No. 3 and No. 4 the decantation is continuous, each tank 
having a 2-ft. elevation above the next preceding, giving 
the overflows a gravity flow from No. 5 to No. 2. 

The barren solution from the precipitating presses is 
delivered to No. 4, a small portion going to the agitator. 
Water only is added to No. 5 equal in amount to the 
solution leaving with the thick pulp as tailing, thus 
maintaining a constant volume in the circuit. No. 5 is 
discharged through a spigot, with an average moisture 
content of 30% only. The diaphram pumps in each case 

raise the thick pulp at 35',' 

isture from the various 

tanks as already described for No. 1. The solution over- 
flows pass by gravity from No. 5 to No. 2, while the pulp 
flows in the opposite direction from No. 2 to No. 5. The 
value of the barren solution from the precipitating 
presses varies from 1 to 3c. per ton solution. The av- 
erage assay values of the pulp and solutions in the va- 
rious tanks during the months of March and April are 
shown in the tables. 


Zinc dust is used as the precipitant and is fed to the 
suction of an Aldrieh triplex pump by a .Merrill zinc- 



July 18, 1914 

dust feeder. The pump raises the emulsified dust and 
solution to two 52-in. Merrill precipitating presses. 
These presses are used alternately for periods of 15 days, 
when regular clean-ups are made. By this system all 
delays are obviated and a press is in reserve. One-sixth 
of a pound of zinc dust per ton of solution has been 
found sufficient. The barren solution carrying 1 to 3c. 
per ton flows by gravity to No. 4 thickener and the 
agitator. The grade of precipitate obtained was $27.50 

subject to a thorough washing with hot water, which is 
run to waste. The time for filtering and washing is 
about 12 hours. 

After thoroughly draining and partly drying, the 
treated precipitate is dropped into a 6 by 11-ft. steam 
dryer and the moisture reduced to about 10%. The pre- 
cipitate is mixed with the required amount of flux and 
briquetted in a Grath Little Giant brick press. Drying, 
fluxing, and briquetting take about 15 hours. The 


per pound from pregnant solution averaging $2.87 per 


The process in brief consists in acid treating the pre- 
cipitate with sulphuric acid, filtering, washing, drying, 
fluxing, and briquetting the resultant material. This is 
smelted in a Rockwell furnace. 

For acid treating a wooden lead-lined tank, 4 by 6 ft., 
fitted with a mechanical stirrer is used. The ratio of 
acid to water is aimed to be kept at 1 to 5, the amount 
of acid required is three-quarters to one times the weight 
of dry precipitate treated. The time allotted to acid 
treating is 6 to 8 hours. The sludge from the acid tank 
is run into a Perrin press and the strong filtrate of 
ZnSO,. etc., allowed to run into a wooden tank to settle 
until the next clean-up. The material in the press is 

briquetting machine is made by the Illinois Construction 
Co. and will handle, when operated at maximum ca- 
pacity, 960 lb. per hour of mixed precipitate and flux. 

The briquettes are charged to a double chambered No. 
2 Rockwell furnace using crude oil as fuel. About 8 
hours are allowed lor Hie charge to melt down before 
pouring. The resulting bullion averages about 750 fine 
in gold and 90 in silver or 840 in precious metals. The 
slag carries $400 to $500 per ton. Some matte is pro- 
duced which retains a small amount of gold and silver. 
The following are the acid and fluxes used per 100 
lb. precipitate: Pounds. 

H,,SO, 75 to 100 

After acid treatment: 

Borax glass 11.5 

Soda 5.7 

Silica 3.0 

Julv 18. 1914 




Itemized Cost per Fixe Ounce of Bullion Produced 



H 2 SO„ 1260 lb. at $0.125 $ 15.75 

Borax glass, 270 lb. at $0.12 32.40 

Soda, 185 lb. at $0.02 3.70 

Silica, 50 lb. at $0.05 2.50 

Oil, 250 gal. at $0.1006 25.15 

Labor 196.08 

Repairs, miscellaneous 12.27 

Mint refining charges 167.31 

Cost per 
fine oz. 



$0.1 10S 


4108 fine ounces produced. 


Power for the mill is furnished by the Northern 
Canada Power Co. from its hydro-electric plants on the 
Mattagami river. The high-tension current is delivered 
to the property at approximately 12,000 volts, where it 
is stepped down to 550 volts, and at this pressure is used 
throughout the mill for motors. Lighting transformers 
step this down further to 110 volts. Power is paid for 
on a maximum 3-minute peak obtained during the month 
at the rate of $50 per horse-power year. 

The mill as above described has been in operation 6 
months, a sufficient length of time for any errors or 
weak features in the process to develop indicating its 
adaptability or otherwise to the ore for which it was 
designed. During this time many further experiments 


3-D. Ocrtes 

Legend . 


Pulp or Slime. 

Solution or Wafer 

-i-i-i- Precipitate. 

Bucke f E/eva tor 




July 18. 1914 

have been made, more especially toward making a more 
complete extraction without further grinding. As may 
be seen by a study of the attached assay averages, a 
further benefit may be obtained by increasing the time 
for agitation, some metal continuing to be dissolved in 
the thickeners following the agitator. In this connec- 
tion it may be stated that a second agitator is now in 
process of erection. Re-cyaniding the washed tailing 
pulp with the working solution for 12 hours indicates 
that not more than about 3c. additional can be expected 
to be recovered without finer grinding. 

of March and April. These are the labor, stores, and 
power costs only, and do not include proportion of 
assaying, administration, depreciation, etc., which are 
normal for a property of this size, our total operating 
costs for the first quarter of 1914 being $6.75. including 
all overhead charges. 

Miscellaneous Data 

Per ton Unit cost 

milled, lb. per lb. 

Consumption of KCN 0.74 $0,160 

Consumption of Zn ' 0.98 0.065 

Consumption of CaO 3.50 0.005 


There has been milled and cyanided 18,460 tons of ore 
with the plant described. The extraction has been be- 
tween 96 and 97. The loss in dissolved metal content in 
the tailing for March and April was as follows: 

March. April. 

Value of solution per ton $0,120 $0,100 

Value of solution loss per ton of ore milled. . 0.052 0.043 

The above result compares most favorably with any 
class of filter which might be used on a pulp such as 
that here treated. The pulp as discharged from No. 5 
thickener, containing an average moisture content of only 
30%, is in an ideal condition for sampling, and while 
this has been done by hand up to the present time, an 
automatic sampler will be installed in the near future. 

Attached hereto are the milling costs for the months 

Milling Costs for Months of March and April 1914 

March 1914 

(tons m 

lied, 4420) 







per ton. 


. . $333.89 






.. 334.23 





Tube-mills .. . 

.. 18S.56 






. 195.27 





. . 216.92 





Thickeners . . 

. . 219.4S 






. . 132.68 

3 i i .88 



Clarifying . . . 

.. 150.4H 





.. 115.S1 




.. 267.25 





Mktg. bullion. 


144. S3 



...$2,154.49 $2,154.09 $1,034.16 $5,342.74 $1.21 

July 18, 1914 



April 1914 

(tons mi 

lied, 35S8) 


. $304.73 





. 280.13 





. 239.46 






. 150.80 






. 20S.11 





Precipitation .. 

. 128.98 








Thickeners . . . 

. 215.72 






. 120.95 




. 110.56 








Totals $2,030.50 $1,655.16 $785.45 $4,471.11 $1.25 


arbitrary term used for want of a better. Any stand- 
ard method of computation would have given a similar 

In the description of the method adopted it is stated 
that the sand tested must be obtained from wet-crushed 
samples. This principle can be safely deviated from 
at times, and if the sample to be tested is put through 
and through a sample crusher until the required weight 
of -20 -f-40-mesh sand is obtained, the result will be 
accurate. The object is to keep the physical character- 
istics of the sand always the same. Particles of sand 
derived from the wet crushing of rocks, and those de- 

Av. heads, $2.87. 
Av. tails. $0.04. 


Thick. 1. Agitator. Thick. 2. Thick. 3. Thick. 4. Thick. 5. Battery. Storage. Sol. pptd. 

Dissolved gold $3.83 $2.43 $0.88 $0.31 $0.17 $0.12 $0.50 $1.38 613 tons. 

Undissolved gold . . . 2.13 1.55 1.25 0.88 0.69 0.52 

Ratio pulp to sol. un- 
derflow 1 to 0.588 1 to 1.32 1 to 0.614 1 to 0.614 1 to 0.614 1 to 0.540 

Ratio pulp to solution 

feed 1 to 5.250 1 to 1.32 1 to 5.300 1 to 4.500 1 to 4.500 1 to 1 .100 

Percentage pulp to 
percentage sol. un- 
derflow 63 to 37 43 to 57 62 to 3S 62 to 38 62 to 38 65 to 35 

CYANIDE MILL AVERAGES FOR APRIL 1914 (120 tons per day) 
Thick. 1. Agitator. Thick. 2. Thick. 3. Thick. 4. Thick. 5. Battery. Storage. Sol. pptd. 

Dissolved gold $3.17 $1.74 $0.80 $0.26 $0.14 $0.10 $0.46 $1.37 487 tons daily. 

Undissolved gold . . . 1.82 1.06 0.82 0.60 0.53 0.36 Av. heads, $2.32 

Ratio pulp to sol. un- Av. tails, $0.03. 

depflow 1 to 0.562 1 to 1.37 1 to 0.54 1 to 0.54 1 to 0.54 1 to 0.43 1 to 5.25 

Ratio pulp to solution 

feed 1 to 5.250 1 to 1.40 1 to 5.25 1 to 4.41 1 to 4.41 1 to 0.97 

Percentage pulp to 
percentage sol. un- 
derflow 64 to 36 42 to 58 65 to 35 65 to 35 65 to 35 69 to 31 16 to 84 

1 IPmdtk© sunidl ftlrn© 
Hsurdhniess of Oir®§ 


•A simple and accurate method for comparing the 
hardness of ore sand, judged from a tube-milling stand- 
point, has resulted from experiments which I have con- 
ducted. The principle of crushing in a tube-mill is 
quite different from that employed in the grinding-pan 
or the stamp-mill, and what might be considered as ex- 
cellent crushing material for one machine may prove 
quite unsuitable I'm- another. This is illustrated by 
the fact that the most easily ground sand shown in the 
subjoined table is derived from an ore which in bat- 
tery parlance is the "toughest' in the series. Institute 
of .Mining and Metallurgy screens are used because they 
are the only screens available whose aperture diameter 
can \xt guaranteed for a given mesh. 

Ktadler'sl- excellent method for computing grinding 
efficiencies is used to illustrate the respective hardness 
of the ores tested, hut the regrind factor is only an 

•Abs.ract from Monthly Journal of the Chamber of Mines 
of Western Australia. 

(Trans. I. M. M. XIX.. p. 471. 

rived from dry crushing in rock-breakers are always 
angular, but the particles derived from crushing rock 
in ball-mills or disc pulverizers are rounded. Naturally, 
the grinding result on a sample of sand will vary 
greatly, according as to whether the sand particles are 
round or angular; and this is necessary to prepare 
the sand by either of the processes above described. The 
capacity of tube-mills varies a great deal on different 
ores, and only experiment will indicate the work that 
will be performed in any given case. 

In designing new plants, the duty of a grinding ma- 
chine causes the designing engineer a lot of anxiety, 
as the expected value of the tailing is often strictly 
proportionate to the fineness to which the ore is ground. 
At present, the duty on an untested ore can only be 
guessed from its appearance, which is often similar. A 
standard preliminary small-scale test from which the 
capacity of a tube-mill can be accurately estimated 
would be of value, and the suggested scheme endeavors 
to supply that want. The attached table of hardness 
gives the tabulated results of testing sand from 15 
mines, and also that derived from crushing an average 
sample of Danish flints. Unfortunately, it is quite 
impossible to get correct tube-mill crushing data in each 
case. I do not have sufficient faith in any method 
yet propounded for comparing grinding efficiencies to 



Julv IS. 1914 

attempt a comparison from the grinding results of tube- 
mills working under different conditions. Successful 
comparison can only be attempted when the tube-mills 
are working under similar conditions with regard to 
speed, pebble load, grade and tonnage of feed, etc. In 
only two cases in the subjoined table has it been pos- 
sible accurately to compare the work done by similar 
sized tube-mills in the respective plants. In the case 
of No. 5 mine, whose sand has a regrind factor of 354.5, 
a tube-mill has a 30% greater capacity than on the 
sand from No. 11 mine with a regrind factor of 266.3. 

Necessity of Having a Standard 

Tests on tube-mills working under different conditions 
on other mines indicate that this ratio will remain about 
the same, but these tests cannot be accepted as reli- 
able. An elaborated table of this nature would allow 
operators, working in different parts of the world, ac- 
curately to compare grinding efficiencies under similar 
conditions. Some standard should be established, and 
this is introduced as a test which can be made by any 
operator who can secure a set of I. M. M. screens and 
a 5-gal. glazed earthenware barrel. A study of tech- 
nical literature dealing with grinding capacities and 
grinding efficiencies illustrates the fallacy of generaliza- 
tion. It is quite useless comparing capacities and effi- 
ciencies of grinding machines unless the ores operated 
on can be accurately compared. 

to 2 in. diameter, and 16 lb. of water, is introduced 
into a 5-gal. glazed earthenware barrel and ground for 
90 minutes at 60 r.p.m. A sample of the ground prod- 
uct is then taken, dried, and graded with a mechan- 
ical grader 40, 60, 100, and 150-mesh I. M. M. screens. 
The value of the grading in energy units is then cal- 
culated by Stadler's method, and this amount, minus 
the original value in energy units, represents the re- 
grinding factor in the table. 


— Feed — 

























. o 




. -s 




+ 40 







+ 60 




+ 100 














. 2218 7 




ailing, = 


Total energy units, 

feed =1750. Difference 

468.7 = 

regrinding factor. 

A table of hardness based on grinding capacity of 
tube-mills run under the same conditions, with regrind- 

2l— ^~ „'» lift:/' Sti LJ°^ 


1. Accumulated sand from crushing No. 2 ore. 

2. Quartz and schist in highly-sheared dolerite. 

3. Sand feed to tube-mills (Broken Hill). 

4. Sand feed to grinding pans (Broken Hill). 

5. Sulpho-telluride ore (Kalgoorlie). 

6. Return raff screen to rolls (Queensland copper ore). 

7. Queensland sulphide copper ore. 

8. Blue quartz and greenstone (Murchison, W. A.). 

9. Concentrated ironstone sand (East Murchison, W. A.). 

10. Concentrated jasper sand (Murchison, W. A.). 

11. Concentrated ironstone sand (Murchison, W. A.). 

12. Queensland sulphide copper ore. 

13. Concentrated ironstone sand and garnets (Yilgarn. W.A.). 

14. Clean white brittle quartz (Kalgoorlie). 

15. Concentrated jasper sand (Murchison, W. A.). 

16. Danish flints (tube-mill pebbles). 

The method of computing hardness is as follows: A 
sample of ore to be tested (wet crushed) is graded (I. 
M. M. screens) until 8 lb. of -20 +40 sand is obtained. 
A charge consisting of 8 II). of sand. 8 lb. of flint, 1 

ing factors in terms of energy units, is shown in the 
diagram above. 

The higher the regrinding factor the greater will be 
the capacity of the tube-mill. 

July 18, 1914 



pica! R@p®irih on ftfin© 


aim Comifc&dt WafcMm fth© Sunaim 
e§sI®inio K@if©a 


*The general location of the Suan mining district, 
Korea, is in central Korea, about 55 miles east-south- 
east of the city of Pyeng Yang, Korea. The Suan con- 
cession covers an area forty by sixty Korean K, or an 

The general geologic features of the district mapped 
consist of a series of sedimentary formations in- 
truded by a granite batholith. This granite in com- 
ing up through the outer part of the earth has up- 

Map or ■Suam Concession . 

— KOR£A . — 

area of about two hundred and sixty square miles. 
The area mapped in detail in the present survey is 
in the shape of an elliptical ring, shown by the heavy 
line on the map, averaging three-fourths of a mile 
wide and about twenty-five miles in circumference. 

•Reprinted by permission from geological report made for 
the Suan Mining Company. 

lifted and pushed aside the overlying and surround- 
ing rocks with tremendous force. Erosion has bared 
the mass, showing a rim of upturned edges of the 
sedimentary rocks around the granite. In the imme- 
diate vicinity of the granite, the sediments have been 
changed — metamorphosed — to schists, marbles, and 
other metamorphic aggregates. 



July 18, 1914 

The granite core forms the highest part of the eon- 
cession, and hence the drainage lines all go outward 
roughly like the spokes of a wheel. Where the streams 
cross the contact between the granite and the sedi- 
mentary rocks, if there is gold present at the con- 
tact, they carry the metal for greater or less dis- 
tances down from the contact over the outer rocks 
whose upturned edges often form excellent natural 
riffles for catching the gold. The principal streams 
in the district are the Nam Tai Tong Kang, which 
flows westward along and near the north edge of the 
concession, *the stream which flows northward from 
near Tul Mi Chung through Pai Mi Chang, about a 
third of the way from the west side of the conces- 
sion, and the stream which flows eastward from Suktari 
to Oo Kang, just inside of the north edge of the con- 

Extent of the Intrusion 

The general shape of the main intrusion is an el- 
lipse, with its long axis northwest and southeast, about 
eight miles long, and the short axis about five miles 
long. The sides or contact of the main granite in 
general dip away from the centre of the mass. The 
angle of dip varies from about 30° to vertical. At 
no place have I seen a dip of the contact toward the 
granite, though a local bulge might cause such a con- 
dition to arise in some particular spot. The separate 
areas of granite southeast of Hoi Kol are not sep- 
arate intrusions. The steep granite hill back of the 

Near Nam Nol (and one at Tong Am) there were 
noted a few quartz porphyry dikes, very light in color 
and very much fractured into splintery and angular 
blocks. They have no significance in relation to the 
mineralization of the district. They may be connected 
with the Song Hyun granite. 

The rocks of the region as a whole, with few excep- 
tions, are doubtless Paleozoic in age. I would make 
a guess that the Suan slates and the Hoi Kol lime- 
stone approximate the Carboniferous, and that the 
quartzite at Tol Ko Kai marks an unconformity be- 
tween them and lower rocks. The quartzite at Tul 
Mi Chung may be a separate quartzite, but assuming 
that it is the same one, it may be assumed for pres- 
ent purposes to mark an unconformity between the 
Suan slates and the Hoi Kol limestone on the one 
hand, and the Tul Mi Chung and Tong Am limestones 
on the other. 

The fact of the intrusion causes the general struc- 
ture of the surrounding sediments to be a quaquaversal 
one in general ; that is, the sediments all dip away from 
the granite, or outwardly. From about Nam Nol to 
Tul Mi Chung there is a very important exception to 
this rule, however, for the sediments dip toward the 
granite. This anomalous condition has been brought 
about by the great opposition to the Unjinsan uplift 
offered by the Siroo Pong San massif in the western 
part of the concession, which was also very likely be- 
ing uplifted at the same time. The contact along 
this place is about vertical, but the slates dipping 

Fig. 1. 

outcrop of the ledge at Hoi Kol is almost a similar 
separate outcrop. A cross-section through these areas 
would look as shown in Fig. 1. Erosion on the east 
side of the ridge has reached the granite before the 
sediments on the top of the ridge have been taken 
away. More in particular, the contact at Hoi Kol is 
as shown in Fig. 2, where the dotted line indicates 
the continuation of the contact in its approximate posi- 
tion before erosion. I show this in detail here so 
that it may be clear that the conformation (which, it 
must be remembered, is only the horizontal ortho- 
graphic projection of the intersection of the surface 
of the contact and the topographic surface) of the 
contact at Hoi Kol does not indicate that a sharp 
bend or any bend at all may be expected to the south 
in the east workings, but the contrary. 

Fig. 2. 

toward the granite have probably had their east edges 
resorbed by the granite. 

Regarding contact metamorphism, it may be said 
that there is evidence that there was reerystallization 
of the minerals and rearrangement of the elements 
both with and without the help of materials from 
the granite magma. The metamorphism is divided 
into two very distinct stages. In the first were formed 
principally silicates, and in the second were formed 
principally sulphides and the metallic gold-silver alloy. 

The Suan Orebodies 

At the Suan mine at Hoi Kol there are two distinct 
types of or,e in two distinct groups of orebodies. I 
shall call these the western and the eastern groups. 
The western group takes in the locally known 'west- 

July 18, 1914 



em orebody ' and the eastern group takes in the locally 
known 'central orebody' and the 'eastern orebody' 
with both its 'north split' and its 'south split.' 

The western group is formed of tabular or lenticular 
bodies with their surface of greatest extension in the 
great fault zone which extends along the west side of 
the Hoi Kol valley. The last movement on this fault 
has been nearly in the dip of the fault. The eastern 
group consists of far more irregular bodies on a series 
of interlocking fault zones which all together make 
up one large zone running about parallel to the con- 
tact and at about right angles to the west fault. The 
average movement in this zone was last down to the 
south at about 30°, probably a settling of the granite 
in cooling, and the zone as a whole dips 60 to 80° 
toward the contact in the upper levels, but seems to 
be about vertical in the lower levels. The western 
zone dips 55 to 60° to the south. The western zone 
continues out into the granite, while the eastern one 
runs at about parallel to the contact. 

The distinctive minerals of the western group are 
tetrahedrite and dolomite in addition to the other 
ore and gangue minerals. Sphalerite and galena may 
also belong in this category. Tetrahedrite and dolo- 
mite are never found in the eastern group. 

It is clear, then, that the two ores have an entirely 
separate origin. The western ore was deposited from 
gold-silver- copper- iron-zinc-antimony-bismuth-magnes- 
ium bearing solutions working laterally along the fault 
zone from the granite into the already somewhat al- 
tered limestone. The caleite in the limestone was the 
mineral most easily ousted by the newcomers. Bismuth- 
inite is less than in the eastern group. Impregnation 
into the walls did not extend a very great way from 
the principal fault surface. 

In the eastern group, gold-silver-copper-iron-bismuth 
solutions working upward from some source in the 
granite below flowed along the complicated channels 
of the fault zone. As in the eastern ore the caleite 
was most easily replaced, but diopside and phlogopite 
were also replaced. The presence of pyrrhotite as an 
important sulphide in the main east north stope ore 
must be emphasized here, as it has not been recognized 

The Gangue Minerals 

The principal gangue minerals of the western group 
are caleite, dolomite, quartz, diopside, phlogopite, and 
a little garnet. The principal gangue minerals of the 
eastern group are diopside, caleite, garnet, phlogopite, 
an asbestos (probably a fibrous amphibole), tremolite 
(f), wollastonite (?), and a little quartz. 

The eastern group is doubtless associated in origin 
with the miarolitic IIol Kol granite, and the channels 
deep down in the earth along which the solutions which 
carrie'l the metals of the eastern group arose, are un- 
doubtedly connected with the 'pipe' of the Hoi Kol 
granite, which is itself a phase of the magma given 
off after cooling had commenced and after the, mass 

of the batholith as a whole had become stationary. 

At Kung Kol there was a deposit of pyrite and 
other minerals, probably including some magnetite, 
along the contact. Then the pyrite was partly altered 
to hematite and the granite to a green soft rock quite 
unlike the granite in appearance, and part of the 
limestone was made of a chalky appearance. The 
present digging may be at a place which is only the 
bottom of a deposit which has all been eroded away 
leaving the gold for the most part, of course, in the 
placers below. 

The Tong Am Ore 

The ores at Tong Am are different from all of the 
others in that they do not owe their origin to the Suan 
granite. They are genetically connected with certain 
dikes which also occur at the prospect. These dikes 
have been highly metalliferous. They have both meta- 
morphosed the enclosing limestone and have imparted 
to it metal-bearing solutions, from which the sulphides 
have been precipitated. The place is very interesting 
in its occurrence of molybdenum and of cuprite. The 
latter mineral was seen nowhere else on the conces- 
sion, and the former only at Peh Wha. The diorite 
( ?) may be an offshoot from the main granite, but the 
indications are that it is not only separate, but much 
older than the granite. Some prospecting should be 
done at this place up the little valley in which is 
the main adit, several hundred feet above the adit. 
At that place copper float may be seen, and there is t 
evidence of one of the dikes nearby to the northwest. 

The long directions of the orebodies at Tul Mi Chung 
seem to be from about parallel to about 30° to the 
contact, and to be along shear or fault zones. They 
are more or less closely associated with the 'Weigall 
granite' and probably bear much the same relation to 
it that the IIol Kol ores bear to the Hoi Kol granite. 
There is very decisive ocular evidence of pneumato- 
lytic action at Tul Mi Chung; that is, that the circu- 
lation and work of magmatic waters has been very 
active, even altering the 'Weigall granite' to a form 
scarcely recognizable. There seems to have been con- 
siderable secondary concentration, and a critical study 
of the orebodies might give valuable hints as to the 
depth to which the deposit may be expected to go. 
Such a study, to be of great value, should be made 
before the ore on the upper level is stoped out. At 
Peh Wha also there has been an unusual activity of 
the emanations from the granite, but the gold content, 
at least as far as the prospecting to date indicates, 
seems to have been a little low. 

At Sang: Dai there are two larjje masses of so-called 
' garnet-actinolite rock,' which contains also much cal- 
eite and considerable amounts of quartz and epidote 
as important minerals, formed by the metamorphic 
action of the granite. The ores are associated with 
certain aplite dikes which are, in part at least, a little 
later than the granite. The mineralogic and meta- 
morphic changes which have taken place at Sang Dai 
are very complex and need not be entered into here. 



July 18, 1914 

Tong Mu Cheh is of interest on account of the 
presence of a good deal of asbestic material, and on 
account of the occurrence of considerable amounts of 
chalcocite which the Koreans mined in olden times. 
The diggings at Moonbowie are in a very impure meta- 
morphosed limestone and hornfels with a great deal 
of garnet rock in the neighborhood. Chemical activ- 
ities originating in the granite do not seem to have 
been very active here. At Myung Tang Morru I saw 
no signs of mineralization. The opening is rather far 
from the contact. At Chan Na Kol the mineralization 
present is probably of the same type as that at Peh 
Wha, and I have already spoken of the area between 
the two. 

Criteria for Guiding Prospecting 

From the observations made in the Suan district, 
the following criteria for guiding prospecting have 
been deduced. These criteria are probably not com- 
plete, and other persons might suggest alternative or 
additional ones. 

(1) Leached, oxidized, rusty-looking, and copper- 
stained outcrops (this criterion is, of course, a gen- 
eral one for all districts). (2) Placers either at or 
below the contact. (3) Old Korean workings. (4) 
Contact minerals, such as tourmaline, diopside, garnet, 
etc. (5) Evidences on the surface of faulted or sheared 
zones in the rock just outside of the contact. (6) 
Limestone contacts are more likely places than schist 
contacts with the granite. (7) Especial activity of 
magmatic waters, as shown by the degree of intensity 
with which the metamorphic minerals are localized. 
(8) Evidences of differentiation in the magma, as 
shown by the presence at the contact against the 
granite of small bodies of igneous rock related to the 

These criteria are intended to apply only to depos- 
its along the contact. Especial attention is called to 
the importance of the fifth and the eighth ones. The 
last one is the feature which separates Hoi Kol and 
Tul Mi Chung from all the other present openings. 

In outline the geologic history of the region seems 
to have been as follows: First, there was a granite 
or granite-gneiss land area, now the central granite- 
gneiss of the Siroo Pong San and the Tai Chung San 
area, on the west of the concession. This land was 
submerged, and on it were deposited various sediments 
now seen in remnants, as mica schists, folded in the 
Siroo Pong San granite-gneiss. The area was uplifted, 
folded, and eroded. It was again submerged and a 
series of sediments with a thin quartzite at the base 
was laid down. The Tul Mi Chung and Tong Am 
limestones belong to this period. The area again 
emerged from under the sea, was folded, intruded 
by certain igneous rocks, eroded, and submerged a 
third time. Quartzite, the Hoi Kol limestone, the Suan 
slates, and possibly other rocks were deposited. After 
the following uplift, erosion, and intrusion by the 
dolerite, and part erosion, there is a great gap in th° 

history which would require observations far outside 
of the region to fill. There was probably another series 
of sediments laid down which have now entirely dis- 
appeared from the central part of the earth. It is 
likely that at the same time there was a doming to 
the west whicli is now seen as the Siroo Pong San mas- 
sif. With the cooling of the Suan granite sundry 
after actions took place, including the appearance of 
the Hoi Kol granite, Tul Mi Chung quartz-porphyry, 
etc., to which are due the formation of the ore depos- 
its around its border, and the last of which was the 
rising of the basalt. The settling of the region south- 
east of the concession while lava poured out over it 
and buried the former topography was the last chap- 
ter. Today the processes of erosion are busily at work 
leveling the mountains for the beginning of another 

General Conclusions 

To recapitulate the origin of the ores, referring, of 
course, in particular only to those along the contact 
with the Suan granite, one must conceive of the gran- 
ite as being in a molten state or in a liquid state 
somewhat akin to the molten state, in which a large 
amount of superheated water may be thought of as 
acting as an exceedingly powerful solvent. An excess 
of potash and alumina having crystallized out as the 
orthoclase phenocrysts, the rest of the substances be- 
gan to crystallize together with the slowly cooled 
magma. When the outer shell of the mass was hard 
it cracked to relieve the tensile stresses set up in it- 
self by its further cooling, and through these cracks 
came parts of the inner unconsolidated magma, and. 
more important for our purposes, the water released 
by the solidification of the inner parts of the magma. 
Much evidence suggests that this water was alkaline in 
nature and that it bore in solution metallic sulphides 
such as iron, copper, bismuth, etc., as well as gold and 
silver in some soluble form. It contained also fluor- 
ine, boron, and silica. It changed gradually in com- 
position. The substances, notably ealcite, in the wall- 
rock against the granite precipitated the sulphides (and 
the sulphides precipitated the gold and silver), which 
the water exchanged for the materials of the wall rock 
and took its new load of non-metallic material away 
with it (the process of metasomatism). Finally ero- 
sion bared the whole thing so that man has been able 
to get at the mineralized places, and locally surface 
water has worked a secondary concentration of the 
sulphides while erosion was in progress. Such is the 
history of the ore deposits of the Suan district. The 
Suan district probably offers one of the finest exam- 
ples of contact metamorphic phenomena to be found 
in the whole world. With study and some good chem- 
ical analyses. I am certain that some of the mooted 
problems of the formation of ore deposits and of con- 
tact phenomena in ceneral would be definitely settled 
for that district at least, and the district could be 
made a classic one in the annals of sreoloarv. 

July 18, 1914 



A Gmorefc© He&<dUF]f&inm<! 

The No. 1. ver- 
tical shaft at the 
Perseverance mine 
of the Alaska Gas- 
tineau Mining Co. 
has a total depth 
of 1544 ft. The 
collar of the shaft 
has an altitude of 
2300 ft. above sea- 
level. The shaft is 
intersected by the Alexander cross-cut at a depth of 
905 ft., and the main hoist is built on this level in a 
station cut in the foot-wall. The ropes from the drums 
pass up a raise and under deflecting sheaves, then up 
the ladder-way compartment of the shaft and over the 
main sheave wheels near the top of the reinforced con- 
crete head-frame, and then return to the cages. 

Owing to the collar of the shaft being on a hillside 


and also at this elevation a very heavy snowfall being 
experienced during the winter months, a reinforced steel 
and concrete head-frame was designed, in which the 


sheave wheels are placed at a sufficient height to pro- 
vide a safe margin for over-winding. 

In building the concrete head-frame all lumber for 
forms, cement, and sand was hoisted up the shaft and 


the rock was taken from the hillside nearby and washed 
before using. A small gasoline mixer was used for 
mixing the concrete. The mixture was. 1 of cement, 
3 of sand, ami 5 of rock. The mixer was placed on the 
hillside near the rock pile at a sufficient elevation so 
that the concrete from the mixer was wheeled along a 
scaffold and dumped into the forms and tamped. The 
reinforcement used consisted of old 12-lb. rails and worn 
hoisting cable. The walls of the head-frame have a 
thickness of 2 ft. 6 in. at the base, and taper to 1 ft. at 
the top. 

After the concrete had set a few days the forms were 
removed at the back, and a dry wall consisting of large 
rocks was built up to a height of about 25 ft. Loose 
gravel and rock was then sluiced down and placed at the 
back of the head-frame to a depth of about 25 ft., giving 
it a batter from the head-frame to the hillside, so as to 
take up the heavy snow pressure. 

New plant on the Government Gold Mining Areas 
< onsolidated mine. Johannesburg, during the first quar- 
ter of 1914 cost $490,000. A 50-drill Praser & Chalmers 
air-compressor was installed, and good progress was 
made with foundations and buildings of the mill. This 
is to consist of the following: one hundred 2000-lb. 
stamps to crush 50,000 tons of ore per month, ten 6 by 
161/2-ft tube-mills, amalgamating plates after the tube- 
mills, three sand-collecting tanks 56 ft. diameter to hold 
740 tons each, belt conveyors and Blaisdell distributer 
to fill eight leaching vats 56 ft. diameter, six 19y 2 by 
70-ft. slime-collecting tanks, nine 15 by 45-ft. air agi- 
tators, and a Butters filter plant. 

Gypsum Production of the United States in 191:! was 
2,599,508 short tons worth $6,774,822, compared with 
2,500,757 tons and $6,563,908 in 1912. Gypsum sold 
crude amounted to 463,136 Ions, of which 85$ was 
used for portland cement. 



July 18, 1914 

TSu© Mkkg Law — Proposed Rewloini 


It seems almost self-evident, considering the many 
articles on the subject which have recently appeared 
in the mining journals, that there is a basis of fact 
for some of the criticisms aimed at our federal statutes 
relating to the locating and patenting of mining claims 
on the public domain. I believe that the law is good 
in the main, and in the discussion which follows cer- 
tain changes are proposed, none of which, however, 
would conflict seriously with the basic principles upon 
which our law was written. For instance, I believe that 
the discovery requirement is basically sound and an 
annual amount of assessment work is consistent with 
the proper development and disposal of our public min- 
eral lands, for it is only by development that ground 
can be classed as mineral or non-mineral. To do away 
with the discovery requirement would mean either one 
of two things: the Government would be confronted 
with the necessity of classifying all its mineral lands 
and alienating them from all other forms of entry, which 
would be an immense task, and, on the face of it, im- 
possible; or it would mean that a leasing system must 
be worked out which would provide for the reversion 
of such lands to the Government as were shown upon 
exploration or abandonment to be non-mineral bearing. 
It seems unlikely that the mining industry of this 
country would look favorably at the present time upon 
any leasing system which could be devised as applied 
to the whole body of metal-bearing mineral lands, and, 
on the other hand, it scarcely seems probable that the 
Government will attempt the classification of all its pub- 
lic lands as to mineral character at the present time. 
Great cost and unsatisfactory results would probably 
stand in the way. If such a classification were certain 
of fairly accurate results the cost would probably not 
be seriously considered, but any field engineer who has 
spent a few seasons in examining promiscuous undevel- 
oped mineral claims can fully appreciate the difficul- 
ties in the way of classifying areas on which 'gophering' 
has been done, not to mention those where no prospect- 
ing at all has been done. The reasons for this depend 
upon geologic principles which are outside the purpose 
of this discussion. Those persons who are prone to find 
fault with a Department for enforcing the mineral laws 
should not forget that there are thousands of mineral 
claims in the Western states on which not a stroke of 
work has been done since the day patent was issued. 
This condition becomes the more deplorable when we 
realize that our public mineral land is fast passing into 
private control, and it is only a matter of a few years 
when there will be no mineral land to patent. 

Admitting that our present system is better than a 
new one which would entirely overthrow the present 
law as a whole and the interpretations of the courts 

for many years past, we will assume that it needs mod- 
ernizing in some respects, and that Congress should pro- 
vide means for universal enforcement. I believe the fol- 
lowing points are worth consideration in detail: 

1. There is considerable ignorance in some localities 
as to just what our law means. 

2. Certain injustices are possible under the present 

3. Opportunities for fraud under the present law exist. 

4. The lode claim is not large enough to provide ade- 
quate protection to a valuable mineral discovery, hence 
the so-called 'protection claims' have come to be a cus- 
tomary means of supplying that protection, although 
these claims have no legal existence other than that con- 
doned by custom. 

Ignorance of the Law Too Common 

If any revision of our mining statutes is made, it 
should be in such clear language that its exact meaning 
cannot be doubted; and then the Governemnt should 
undertake a crusade of instruction by posting the laws 
in all postoffice, land office, and other public buildings 
in the public land states, and by supplying copies of 
it at all public offices for free distribution to interested 
people, without making it necessary for them to write 
to the proper officials for a copy. Out of the several 
hundred prospectors and locators whom I have visited 
I cannot recall one who had a copy of the Federal min- 
ing statutes at hand. 

I am satisfied that in the past, and to a great extent 
at the present time, a great deal of the criticism of the 
present law is based upon ignorance of its exact mean- 
ing and interpretation by the courts. The Govern- 
ment has not been careful enough to educate the pub- 
lic. In the course of my own work I have been asked 
many times by old prospectors and by officials of min- 
ing companies just what are the requirements for 
patenting mineral claims. Probably most of these peo- 
ple knew the approximate wording of the law, but they 
did not know the interpretation placed upon it by the 
courts. Some were inclined to emphasize the mineral 
discovery requirements, thinking it necessary to have 
pay ore, while others were inclined to emphasize the 
good faith requirements, believing that properly per- 
formed assessment work was sufficient evidence that 
the prospector believed he had mineral in sight or in 
reach and that such a condition should pass for a min- 
eral discovery. There is little doubt that in some 
localities custom had condoned the latter situation be- 
fore examinations were made by the Government; in 
fact, in some localities the mineral discovery require- 
ments of the federal statutes were overlooked entirely 
by locators, and naturally when the Government in- 
augurated the system of examining claims which came 

July 18, 1914 



up for patent there were many disappointed people, a 
few of whom were attempting to obtain patent to land 
with no apparent mineral value, but with very apparent 
value for some other purpose, while others were in abso- 
lute good faith but did not know the actual requirements 
of the law. 

Certain' Injustices Possible 

Under the present law there are certain injustices ap- 
parent, the most conspicuous one perhaps being under 
the placer law, which makes it possible for an associa- 
tion or company of 8 people to locate and hold legally 
160 by doing the same amount of assessment work re- 
quired of a prospector on his 20 acres, which is the 
maximum area he can locate as one claim. If he wishes 
to locate 160 acres, he must make 8 locations and do 
$800 worth of work, whereas if he is dishonest he will 
locate 160 acres as one claim by making use of 7 dummy 
locators, thus saving $700 worth of work, the labor of 
locating 7 claims and the expense of recording them. 
Such a law encourages crookedness, and what is the 
reason for such provisions? Why not require $800 
worth of work of the 7 locators on the 160 acres? I am 
unable to answer the query to my own satisfaction. The 
same principle was not carried out with regard to lode 

Another injustice sometimes arises in cases where a 
poor prospector has a valuable location on which he has 
done his work honestly. The large company or indivi- 
dual with money overlaps the prospector's location and 
applies for patent. The prospector is compelled to re- 
sort to law for protection. To be sure, the deputy min- 
eral surveyor should exclude the conflict when it is an 
earlier valid location, but he is not always in possession 
of the facts and may take the statement of his client, 
since in such cases he can hardly collect fees for time 
spent in such investigation. A valid mineral location 
should be automatically protected by the Government 
against such encroachments, for it often happens that 
the ground is lost to the prospector simply because he 
cannot afford to carry his case into court. 

I believe an effective method of protection could be 
brought about by requiring every mineral location to 
be examined at the expense of the Government within 
a reasonable time after location, as to conflicts if any. 
location work, marking upon the ground, and roughly 
as to its dimensions and relation to nearby public monu- 
ments, accepted surveys, or other fixed landmark. This 
work would require a competent man in each important 
public-land mining district who would do the field work 
and keep complete accessible records of his work. This 
would also prevent another evil, which has flourished 
in some localities, that of staking out oversized claims. 
It probably would not be necessary at this time to 
examine the claim ;is to mineral discovery (unless the 
claim is made larger than at present), but the examiner 
should be in possession of any facts which tend to prove 
fraud on the locator's part. Such an examiner would 

be in a position to report quickly and accurately upon 
claims which were protested by neighboring locators for 
lack of discovery or assessment work, either at time of 
making application for patent or earlier if the necessity 
should arise. The Government would always be in 
possession of the facts as to whether the locations were 
fraudulent or valid and would place itself in a position 
to protect effectively the poor locator. It would also 
decrease largely the fraudulent locations and save to 
both the Government and individuals a great deal of 
litigation, all of which is a heavy expense and too often 
creates hard feeling. By thus nipping the trouble in 
the bud I believe that the Government would do itself 
and its citizens, and particularly the mining industry, a 
great service. It would have a tendency to stimulate 
prospecting by men with the physical and mental equip- 
ment for such work. If such a federal office were 
created it would be a good place to record all mineral 
locations made in the district, thus supplying the Gov- 
ernment with such records. 

Protection for Locators 

In a few mining localities, where it is in most instances 
impossible to make a mineral discovery at an expense 
of $500, some provision should be made to protect a 
locator while searching for ore. In such districts ore is 
found only at depth and it is unreasonable to require a 
mineral discovery at the time a claim is located. I be- 
lieve such districts should be set aside by the Interior 
Department and a plan devised for allowing prospectors 
to make a limited number of locations under adequate 
protection for a fixed period which would be long enough 
to allow mineral discovery to be made. In return for 
such protection the prospector should consent to do a 
reasonable amount of properly conducted work on each 
location each year, such work to be done with the view 
of making a mineral discovery at the earliest time con- 
sistent with good work. The Government should have 
a competent engineer in the district, whose duty it would 
be to supervise for the Government's interest the locat- 
ing and developing of these protected claims. As soon 
as a mineral discovery is made on any claim it should he 
alienated from the protected area and subject to the 
general mining laws in force on the public domain at 
large. At the time the mining laws were made by Con- 
gress no provision was made for such a condition, and 
it seems only proper now that such a condition is known 
to exist that the Government should make adequate 
provision to meet the situation. 

Under the Act of January 22. 1880, (26 Stat. 61 I the 
locator is allowed the full calendar year next succeeding 
the one in which the location is made within which to 
perform first assessment work, that is to say, if a loca- 
tion is made in January 1914. the claimant has until 
December 31, 191"), a period of two years (Mills v. 
Fletcher, -'54 Pac. 6:]7), in which to do assessment work 
for one year. By relocating the ground evvvy two years 
a valuable piece of ground can he tied up indefinitely 



July 18. 1914 

and put beyond the reach of locators in good faith, or 
even of the Government itself. This statute is notor- 
iously abused by that class of men who make fraudulent 
mineral locations on ground valuable for agriculture, 
water power, townsite, right of way, etc., and thereby 
make no end of trouble. I believe this law should be 
stricken from the statute books and another substituted, 
if necessary, which would make it necessary to perform 
$100 worth of assessment work not later than one year 
from the date of location, or in case of failure to do so, 
automatically proclaim the location legally abandoned. 
And in case a claim becomes automatically abandoned 
there should be a period of at least one year between 
the date of automatic abandonment and the date on 
which it might be relocated by the same person or 

The Door Thrown Open to Fraud 

It has been possible in the past to locate land valua- 
ble for timber, agriculture, water-power, or townsite, 
as mineral claims, and even to patent such a group with- 
out having any indications of valuable mineral in sight, 
because the Government has not supplied the means of 
enforcing its laws. It is possible, even now, to do so on 
public lands outside of the national forests, for only a 
fraction of such claims are ever examined by Govern- 
ment officers to determine their mineral or non-mineral 
character. Such examination has been carried on with- 
in the forests and the records show that hundreds of 
claims have been canceled, after a hearing was had, 
because of lack of compliance with the Federal statutes. 
It is true that a good proportion of such canceled claims 
were protection claims but many cases of absolute fraud 
have been brought to light. A perusal of pages 5 to 10 
of the United States forester's report for 1912-13 will 
leave no doubt as to this fact, and to my mind is a very 
eloquent argument for the examination of all mineral 
claims for which patent is asked. As to the protection 
claims, there is a strong argument in favor of the miner, 
sufficient in many cases to justify the conclusion that 
there is a defect in the law as it now stands. 

The Size op the Lode Claim 

In order to avoid the necessity — for it is often a real 
necessity — of making these blanket locations around a 
discovery, I propose the enlargement of the lode claim 
from 20 acres to say 40, in the form of square or 
rectangular tracts, laid out by legal subdivision of the 
public survey. Such a change would make the claim 
large enough for protection against speculative locators 
whose policy it is to take advantage of the real dis- 
coverer's labor, and at the same time would automatical- 
ly do away with the necessity of extralateral rights, thus 
forestalling for the future the greatest cause for litiga- 
tion the mining industry has had to cope with. This 
would automatically stop much of the injustice perpe- 
trated by the wealthy mine owner upon the prospector 
and miner, under the guise of the present apex law. 

In case the size of the claim is increased it might be 
wise to require $100 worth of work for each 20 acres, 
or fraction thereof, in the claim and to enforce the dis- 
covery requirements very strictly in order to prevent 
tying up of large areas of country. I realize that this 
is touching upon dangerous ground, but it is presented 
only as a suggested way out of a real difficulty. 

In this argument, for which I am personally responsi- 
ble and act in no manner as a spokesman for any Gov- 
ernment bureau, 1 have proceeded upon the assumption 
that criticism has very little or no constructive value 
unless it is backed by suggestions for a cure. In fact 
I recognize that it is absolutely impossible to make a set 
of mining laws which will suit every one. 

Right here I can do no better than to quote from the 
'Twentieth Annual Report' of the Bureau of Mines of 
Ontario, Vol. XX, Part 1, p. 270, 1911, where mine 
commissioner S. Price has so aptly expressed the situa- 
tion when he says, speaking of mining laws in general: 
'** * * Probably no law upon the subject anywhere 
has ever had the unanimous approval of those working 
under it, for individual opinions and points of view 
differ even more widely than the laws. Poor prospectors 
and rich capitalists, men with little and those with large 
experience, those who want to find something to develop 
and those who desire merely to get something to sell, 
the miner who wants to work the land for the valuable 
mineral he expects it to produce and the speculator who 
desires only to hold it while neighboring development 
increases its value, can hardly be expected to view mat- 
ters in the same light or to desire the same kind of a 
law ; nor is the interest of any of them always identical 
with the paramount interest of the community as a 
whole to which the property in the first place be- 
longs. * * *" 

In the above argument I have had in mind justice to 
the poor prospector, the interests of the mining industry 
at large and that of the country as a whole. The diffi- 
culties in making and administering mining laws are 
largely brought about by unscrupulous locators and 
stock venders who are 'in the game for what there is in 
it,' and I freely acknowledge that such do not belong to 
the mining fraternity proper. If everyone were honest 
there would be very little difficulty under the present 
law, but human beings are still human and to some ex- 
tent selfish, all of which requires that the central gov- 
ernment should take a strong hand in the administration 
of its public land laws in the interests of common 

It Is a Curious Fact that the United States, with 
enormous deposits of iron ore, depends on deposits in 
foreign countries for most of its supply of the metals 
used as alloys in the manufacture of steel, such as 
manganese, nickel, chromium, and vanadium, according 
to the U. S. Geological Survey. The production of 
ferromanganese. spiegel.-isen. and other alloys in 1913 
amounted to 226,475 tons, against 128.147 tons in 1912. 

July 18, 1914 




D©^©l©pm@imte ©f ftfia© Alaska G®M Mimes C®inmipgiimy 

By C. E. HUft J A 

Probably nowhere in the world has mining on such 
an immense scale been undertaken by so many com- 
panies as in the Juneau (Alaska) district; so therefore 
a review of the present status of the Alaska Gastineau 
property, held by the Alaska Gold Mines Co., may be 
of interest to mining men generally. The Company has 
three miles of claims along an orebody varying in 
width from 70 to 400 ft., and carrying from $1.50 to $2 
per ton in gold, with a net profit of from 50 to 75 cents 
per ton because of the large-scale production. The 
mining work of the Company is conducted from Slice]) 
Creek, four miles south of Juneau, and the work on 
the power project is on Salmon creek, four miles north 
of Juneau. The main offices of the Company are at 
Juneau, with B. L. Thane in charge. 

Mine Development 

The underground development up to the present time 
includes the Alexander adit, known as tunnel No. 10. 
at the Perseverance mine, in Silver Bow basin, which 
has been extended and is now 5000 ft. long. Cross- 
cuts are being driven from this and from the main adit, 
known as the Sheep creek tunnel, which connects the 
Perseverance workings with the millsite overlooking 
Gastineau channel at the mouth of Sheep creek. A 
vertical three-compartment shaft, 1544 ft. in depth, con- 
nects with the 8 by 10 adit having a length of 9178 ft. 
The work on the adit was started in November 1912 and 
was completed April 1, 1914. During the last six 
months a monthly rate of 600 ft. was maintained. Three 
shifts were worked on the bonus system in completing 
the tunnel. Thirty-three feet were made in a single 
day during November. 

An electric tram 1 \\ miles long connects the portal 

of the adit with the coarse-crushing plant on Sheep 
creek. The present gage of 24 in. is to be changed to 
'Mi in., and the storage-battery locomotives will be re- 
placed with the trolley system. All the mining will 


be conducted through the main adit, and ore hauled 
to the reduction plant in 300-ton trainloads. 

Reduction- Plant 

The first unit of the reduction plant of the Company 
probably will be completed by January 1. 1915. The 
coarse-crushing plant, situated on the hill 700 ft. above 
the beach, is almost completed. The foundation and 



July 18, 1914 

steel framework are completed and the machinery is 
now being installed. The ore falls into underground 
storage-bins and is hauled by a bucket line through an 
underground tunnel, 300 ft. long, to the fine-crushing 
plant. The concrete foundations for the fine-crushing 
plant are nearly completed, and the steel for the frame- 
work is all on the ground. The sides of the building 
will be of galvanized iron. After a preliminary sort- 
ing, the ore is crushed by Hardinge conical mills, then 
taken over amalgam tables to the concentrating depart- 
ment. Wilfley tables and Garfield roll mills will pre- 
pare the concentrate for the re-treatment plant. Ex- 
periments with a view to cyanidation of concentrates 
are still in progress. The first unit will have a capacity 
of 6000 tons daily. 

Machine-shops, sawmill, six bunk-houses, mess-house, 
office buildings, and dock have been built on the beach, 
immediately below the reduction plant, the floor of which 
is 300 ft. above sea-level. 


The Salmon creek power project will be completed by 
July 25, 1914, according to statements of the engineers 
in charge. The first concrete for the dam, which is of 
the variable radius arch type, was poured July 25, 1913. 
The dam will have a height when completed of 177 ft., 
with a length along the crest of 650 ft., and the thickness 
at the base will be 47 ft. On June 25, 26 ft. remained 
to be built. Following the completion of power-plant 
No. 1, which is on the beach at the mouth of Salmon 
creek, in 1912, a ±y 2 -nii\e tramway was built and build- 
ing erected for work on power-plant No. 2 and the 
dam. Power-plant No. 1 has one unit of 1500 kw. in- 
stalled. The second unit will be installed in the spring 
of 1915. The plant is closed down for repairs at pres- 
ent. Power-plant No. 2, with two generating units of 
1500 kw. each, is completed, and is furnishing all the 
power for present operations of the Company. The 
beach at Salmon creek is being bulkheaded to protect 
the buildings and road from tide action. A concrete 
tail-race will be built. 

In order to handle cement and supplies with dispatch, 
a special dock was built, with a highly practical apron 
track by which loaded cars of cement can be moved 
from the barges directly upon the tramway. Barges 
bearing fifteen 3-ton cars are unloaded and empty cars 
put on board in 40 minutes. Three hundred and five 
tons of cement is the record amount handled during a 
single day. A 2000-ft. cable tramway raises the cars 
300 ft. to the steam road leading to the dam-site. 

When complete, the dam will impound 20,000 acre- 
feet of water. Above the dam, in what will be the 
reservoir area, the quarry, gravel, and washing plants 
are situated. Belt conveyors carry gravel, sand, and 
cement to two mixers with a daily capacity of 700 yd. 
As much as 860 yd. has been poured in 24 hours. The 
concrete is hoisted in a 2-compartment tower 75 ft. 
high, shown in the halftone, for distribution. A ditch 
3850 ft. long is being built to drain the north slope 

of the basin below the dam into the reservoir. The 
construction camp at the dam is roomy, clean, and well 
drained ; shower baths, toilets, and other conveniences 
are provided. 

Computing the width of the ore at 70 ft., the orebody 


above the main adit is estimated to contain 50,000,000 
tons, assuring operation of the mill for many years to 

C©§te aft ftfin© Gire&ft Fnmigall Mini© 

Ore extracted from the Great Fingall mine, Western 
Australia, is of a free-milling class, which is stamped, 
concentrated, concentrate roasted and cyanided, sand 
leached, and slime treated in a vacuum-filter. It was 
mined down to the No. 18 level, a depth of 2480 ft. on 
the incline. Costs per ton were as follows: 

Ordinary development. . .$0.91 
Special development.... 0.99 

Breaking ore $1.25 

Filling st opes 0.12 

Tramming and hoisting 1.52 

Total mining $2.S9 


Crushing $0.15 

Transport 0.04 

Stamping 0.62 

Concentrating 0.04 

Concentrate treatment. 0.07 
Grinding sand 0.32 

Leaching sand $0.22 

Filtering slime 0.24 

Pptn. and clean-up 0.08 

Disposal of residue... 0.18 
Treating custom ore 
and concentrate .... 0.12 

Total treatment $2.0S 

Less custom account.... 0.19 

Net treatment cost...$l.S9 

Bullion expenses 0.06 

General expenses 0.62 

Grand total $7.36 

Crude Barytes Production of the United States in 
1913 was 45,298 tons worth .$156,275, an increase of 7820 
tons and $2962 compared with the yield in 1912. Most 
of this mineral is used as a pigment in the manufacture 
of mixed paints. 

Coke Production of New Mexico in 1913 was 467.945 
short tons, valued at $1,548,536. an increase of 54,039 
tons and $191,590 over 1912. The coke is from the Raton 
field coal. 

July 18, 1914 




Readers of the Mining and Scientific Pbess are invited to use this department for the discussion of technical 
and other matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor icelcomes the expression of vieics contrary 
to his own. believing that careful criticism is more valuable than casual compliment. Insertion of any contribu- 
tion is determined by its probable interest to the readers of this journal. 

Woirlkifinisiim's C©mp®im§aftE©ini 

The Editor: 

Sir — While on a recent trip through Sierra and Ne- 
vada counties, I noticed that the workman's compensa- 
tion law is not altogether popular. The general com- 
ment is, that it is hard on the small mine owner. One 
man who is developing a prospect, and 
who says he can't afford the extra tax. 
is employing only unmarried men. An- 
other, has leased his mine and mill to 
the men, giving them a bonus of ten per 
cent of the net ; above wages and sup- 
plies. The lease runs only 30 days, 
being signed over again at the begin- 
ning of each month. He says this works 
very well. The men are more saving 
with supplies, and the increase in the 
amount of work done, more than repays 
the ten per cent. But I doubt if this 
would evade the law in case of an acci- 
dent. Being the owner, he is probably 
just as responsible as the man who lets 
a contract. 

Insurance is a good thing, — for the 
workman, — and good for the owner, as 
protection against possible damage suit. 
But it is not fair that the mine owner 
should stand the whole expense when 
the miner is the chief beneficiary. Let 
the mine owner pay one-third of the tax, and the miner 
two-thirds. It can be deducted from his monthly pay- 
cheek, just as some of the mining companies used to 
hold out a dollar per month from each check for the 
services of the doctor. 

Geo E. Bigelow. 

Brown Valley, California, June 28. 

V&lim© ©if Diredlgmg Os°ouaini<dl 

The Editor: 

Sir — In Mr. Decoto's article, I can see where he can 
prove his contention that no part area of a given area 
of dredging ground is representative of the total area, 
as regards its value, but it does not seem to me that 
the correct value per cubic yard of his theoretical plot 
has been arrived at by his method of computing the 

I get from his article that the dredging operations 
are limited, in this theoretical ease, by the lines con- 

necting drill-holes No. 1, 3, 18, and 16. This being so, 
these corner drill-holes, taken individually, would be 
representative of only 14 the area of that of an interior 
drill-hole, say No. 5 or No. 7. Likewise the holes No. 2, 
8, 13, 12, 6, and 11 would be representative of only y 2 
the area represented by holes No. 5 or 7. 

The computations, then, to arrive at the correct 


value of the area bounded by lines connecting drill- 
holes No. 1, 3, 8, and 6, would be: 

1 130 X (40 X %) or 10.0 = 1300 

2 35 X (30 X Vj) or 15.0 = 525 

3 «0 X ( 20 X Vi ) or 5.0 = 300 

4 50 X (20 X 1 ) or 20.0 = 1000 

5 40 x ( 20 X 1 ) or 20.0 = S00 

fi 50 X ( 30 X Vt ) or 7.5 = 375 

7 60 X (20 X M>) or 10.0 = GOO 

S 42 X (30 X Vt) or 7.5 = 315 

95.0 5215 

This gives the value per cubic yard for this part 
area of 54.89c. In a like manner, the total area gives 
a value per cubic yard of 28.76 cents. 1 

To get a value of 37.69c. per cubic yard as calcu- 
lated by Mr. Decoto, it is obvious that the ground 
would have to be dredged to take in the area enclosed 

'This gives a difference of S.93c. per cubic yard, or 31';. 
which might in some close dredging propositions change a 
calculated profit to a loss. 



Julv 18, 1914 

by the outside boundary lines shown in the sketch. It 
might be posisble for a dredge to work such a boundary, 
but it is improbable that the operations would be so con- 

E. Bryant Thornhill. 
Cobalt, Ontario, May 20. 

Re^kiioini of ftlhi© Mmairflg Law 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have just been reading the article, 'Revision of 
the Mining Law,' by Frank P. Davis, in your June 13, 
1914, issue. I have given this subject, particularly the 
location and title of quartz mining claims no little 
thought and study since the question of a 'Mining 
Code Commission' has been agitated, and I give Mr. 
Davis credit for advancing some good ideas in his fifteen 
different suggestions. Taking them in the same numer- 
ical order, I will present some of my views of the ques- 
tion, in a brief manner. 

1. All mining locations to be made only by citizens of 
the United States. 

2. Size of a full quartz mining claim to be 1320 ft. 
on a side (40 acres) and located relative to the legal 
subdivisions, if surveyed. In any event, all boundary 
lines to be north and south and east and west. 

3. Location monument, with a legible notice, a true 
copy of the record, posted at the discovery work. 

4. Boundaries to be plainly marked with stakes, or 
monuments, on all sides of the claim, so that they can be 
easily traced. Corners established with large prominent 
posts (6 in. square or more) set in mound of stone, at 
least 4 ft. above ground, giving name, number, and 
identity of the corner, with right to fence but not to 
encroach on public trails or highways. 

5. Discovery work to consist of a shaft, adit, or open 
cut, not less than 10 ft. deep, and more if necessary, to 
expose the vein in place, and it must show a vein, to be a 
legal location. This work may be done at any point 
within the boundary of the claim, at the option of the 
locator, regardless of any 'centre line.' The position of 
this discovery work, with relation to the boundaries, 
must be accurately located and appear in the record, by 
giving the distance from all four lines of the exterior 
boundary of the claim. 

6. Have location notice describe the location, as far as 
possible, by legal subdivisions, giving section, township, 
range, etc., so that it may be accurately located from 
the field notes of record. If it cannot be located and 
platted from the record it is not a valid location. 

7. No extralateral rights, but to own all mineral with- 
in its vertical boundary lines. 

8. Claim must be recorded within 30 days from the 
date of discovery, at which time the discoverer must post 
a temporary notice, bearing date of discovery, and de- 
claring his intention to locate and record. 

9. No overlapping of claims. 

10. Fix a penalty for fraudulent dating. If the title 
to a claim has lapsed the original owner can only secure 

it again by paying up his back tax, as prescribed below, 
and not then if it has been located by others. 

11. Let the first day of January be the date from 
which all locations are fixed, relative to the tax, etc., so 
there will be no confusion of dates. If a claim is located 
in 1914 the tax must be paid in 1915 or it is subject to 
location by other parties. 

12. To pay a yearly tax, until patented, of a fixed 
amount, on each location, in lieu of the assessment now 
required. Said tax to be due in the second year of the 
location. This tax receipt to be proof of non-abandon- 
ment. Make all unpatented claims subject to this tax. 

13. Proceed to patent under the same rules and regu- 
lations that exist today. Get your survey number and 
a U. S. deputy mineral surveyor to mark and establish 
the corners. It is absolutely essential to have these 
monuments correctly fixed, particularly so if it is a 
patented claim. 

14. Accept no agricultural filings in known mineral 
area, or reserve all mineral rights, with surface restric- 
tions, so they can be prospected. Fix a penalty for post- 
ing 'scare notices,' such as "No trespassing on these 
premises" on territory that is not absolutely owned. 
This keeps prospectors off. 

15. If the above suggestions were adopted, I can see 
no reason why claims should not be located by proxy or 

I believe in giving the prospector and locator every 
possible chance, but there are some of them who abuse 
their rights, which is made possible by the present laws. 
They get 'hoggish' or 'dog-in-the-manger' like. They 
won't develop their locations, in fact, they can't, nor 
will they let any other prospector in. I know of a case, 
and I dare say the same condition prevails, to some ex- 
tent, in every mining camp in the West, where a pros- 
pector has 20 claims, and he has held them for years. 
Now, it is a physical and financial impossibility for him 
to do this assessment work legally, yet he keeps other 
prospectors away. In many cases he does not make a 
pretext of doing the assessment, but gets very busy at 
midnight of December 31, posting new location notices, 
in his own and other people's names. I think my sug- 
gestion in paragraph 1 2 would remedy this. 

If a person should discover something near these '20 
claims' it would be impossible for him to determine 
whether or not he was trespassing on one of them. The 
description, in the location certificate is so meager, in- 
definite, and consequently flexible, that it would be im- 
possible to locate the position of any one of them on the 
ground. The course is generally given as northeast and 
southwest. If there is any tie at all, it is to a pine tree 
or a log cabin that has long since burned down. Hence 
my suggestion in paragraphs 4 and 6. 

In paragraph 2 I suggest the size of a quartz claim to 
be 1320 ft. square. I do not think this is any too large, 
and it would be very easy for a prospector to locate it. 
so there would be no excuse for his not having a valid 
location. For example, he locates the S.E. i/i of the S.E. 
14 of Sec. 16, T. 19. N. R. 6 E., M.D.M., etc. Or, if the 

Julv 18, 1914 



claim cannot be conformed to the legal subdivision, in 
this manner, he can measure off, from or to the section 
or quarter corner, as the case may be, any distance north, 
south, east, or west, to a starting point, and describe it as 
follows: Beginning at corner No. 1, whence the S.E. 
corner, Sec. 16, T.. ,R., etc., bears E. 1000 ft., thence N. 
1320 ft. to corner No. 2, thence W. 1320 ft. to corner No. 
3, thence S. 1320 ft. to corner No. 4, thence E. 1320 ft. to 
corner No. 1, the place of beginning. Suppose half of 
the claim was in section 16 and the south half in section 
21, it would be described in the same manner, only the 
starting point would be on a side line instead of a corner, 
viz.: Beginning at a point 1000 ft. W. of the S.E. corner 
Sec. 16., etc., thence N. 660 ft. to corner No. 1, and 
around to corner No. 4. thence N. 660 ft. to the place of 
beginning. These would be valid locations, affixed to ami 
made part and parcel of the public survey. It is a won- 
der to me that something after this fashion was not 
adopted long ago. What is the public survey made for, 
if not just for this purpose ; to locate and identify posi- 
tively different tracts of land ? 

It would be possible to locate any claim desired, in this 
manner, so that it would cover the vein apex for the full 
distance. That is one reason for leaving the position of 
the location work optional with the locator, as suggested 
in paragraph 5. Another reason for this is so the locator 
may take into consideration the dip of the vein, relative 
to the vertical side lines, and locate his surface ground 

I have made particular mention of some of the features 
of our mining code. and. in my opinion, some of the 
worst things the prospector of today has to contend with, 
especially in the newer camps, where so many men make 
a practice of rushing in and staking all the ground pos- 
sible and holding it for 60 or 90 days, or even longer, 
by re-staking it, without doing a tap, much to the detri- 
ment of the camp and a hardship to those who arrive 

In many places 1 have even seen these stakes stuck 
in the snow. Paragraphs 8 and 10 are suggested as a 
remedy for this fault. And I believe if the time limit 
for recording was cut to 10 days, instead of 30, it would 
be still better. The law giving the locator 90 days to do 
his discovery work, survey, and record, in a way. was 
necessary, as it required some time to trace out the 
apex of a vein before it could be covered intelligently 
with the location. But with the claim square, as sug- 
gested, this would not be necessary, and a 10- ft. hole 
could be sunk in any ground in 10 days. This would 
mean that the 'stake hog' or 'ground hog,' as he might 
well lie called, would have to get busy 'throwing dirt.' 
instead of trying to stake the whole landscape as a 
speculative enterprise. 

As has been suggested, 'now is the time to holler.' 
Don't wait until the drill strikes the bottom of the shaft, 
and then shout, 'Look out below!' 

Clarence K. Colvin. 
Porbestown, California, June 18. 

Wlhiaft Is the Matter Watfin Proapecftkg? 

The Editor: 

Sir — From the point of view of an operator actively 
engaged in examining prospects with any promise, I 
would state that in my opinion the chief difficulty the 
prospector encounters is interposed by himself, in the 
form of prices and terms. These are often so severe 
that an examination is not justified, even on the basis 
of the rosy statements made. If the risk of the ex- 
pense of an examination is taken, the matter usually 
boils down to the question of putting up cash for the 
privilege of putting up more. 

When trade is quiet in real estate, railroad bonds, 
winter wheat, or mining prospects, there is always one 
underlying reason, namely, that sellers are asking more 
than the buyers can pay. The conundrum is not a 
difficult one from an economic standpoint. If the ques- 
tion were put in another form, namely: How shall we 
stimulate prospecting'.' 1 would say by making known 
prospects attractive to the operators. 

If I were a prospector, and had a prospective moun- 
tain of ore, exposed at one or two points, and were 
sure of being able to find these points again, I would 
request an operator to examine it and offer him a 
year of development, giving him an option to purchase 
at from $1000 to $10,000, according to circumstances, 
this price to be paid within three years at a rate of 
not less than $25 per month. As soon as this deal 
was closed, and it would not take long if the one or 
two points of ore could really be found again, I would 
hunt for the next available mountain of ore and en- 
deavor to close in due course a similar deal if such 
mountain were available. If my prospects were really 
interesting, I would hope to get a raise in my income 
of $25 per month once or twice a year, and come into 
an occasional bonus when some of the prospects proved 
to be more than interesting. 

If I could not earn a good living on this basis, I 
would go into some other business, and from a safe 
distance, would amend my contribution to this topic. 
I would say it was not because prospects were held 
too high to be interesting to the buyer, that the busi- 
ness of prospecting was dying, but because there were 
not enough prospects to justify the search for them. 

Unless more prospects are offered on terms which 
will justify examination and development, the art of 
prospecting will perish, and a post-mortem examina- 
tion will probably show that it died of wilful starva- 
tion in sight of food. 

San Francisco, May 29. 

Load factor in electric power being supplied to 11") 
classes of industries by the Pacific Gas & Electric Co. 
of California is 59 per cent. 

Coke Production of Kentucky in 1913 was 317,084 



July 18. 1914 



Most of these are in reply to questions received by mail. Our readers are invited to ask questions and give 
information dealing icith the practice of mining, milling, and smelting. 

India, Russia, and Brazil produce 90% of the world's 
supply of manganese ores. 

'Wireless' telephony is now used in the Lindsay col- 
liery of the Fife Coal Co. in Scotland. Current is car- 
ried through the rails in the drifts. Four receivers 
weighing 50 lb. each have been installed, and each in- 
strument has a battery of four cells producing current 
at 15-volt pressure. 

A process for making pressure-sustaining coke con- 
taining a minimum of detrimental sulphur constituents, 
from coal, consists of adding to the coal before coking 
a phosphorous compound of lime, and coking said mixed 
mass. The process has been devised by Leon Franek, of 
Luxemburg, Germany. 

Plunger pumps are made with several important ad- 
juncts to permit of better operation, which may be de- 
scribed as follows : An air vessel, charged with air, which 
acts as a reservoir of energy. During the discharge 
stroke the air in the vessel is compressed. The energy, 
which is stored up in the compressed air, is given out 
again during the pause which takes place when the 
pump is changing the direction of its stroke. The water 
in the delivery column is thus kept in motion during 
the pause, and shock to the pump is reduced. The power 
required at the beginning of the stroke is also reduced 
as the force of inertia is eliminated, due to the water 
being kept in motion. Snifting cocks are used where 
the suction pipes are too small. If such is the case the 
water in the suction pipes rushes into the pump at a 
high velocity. This prevents the suction valve closing 
until the ram has made part of its stroke, and conse- 
quently causes a considerable amount of shock to the 
pump when the two columns of water come into contact. 
By using snifting cocks a certain quantity of air is ad- 
mitted at each stroke. The air acts as a cushion to the 
water, and allows the valve to close at its proper time, 
thus reducing shock to the pump. The suction valve 
prevents the water from being forced back into the 
suction column during the discharge stroke of the pump. 
The delivery valve holds the water in the delivery 
column, and prevents it running back into the working 
barrel during the suction stroke of the pump. 

Gas pumps for lifting water are coming into more 
general use. The Humphrey system, as installed to 
pump 180,000,000 gal. of water per day for London, 
with a fuel consumption not exceeding 1.1 lb. of anthra- 
cite coal per pump-horse-power hour, was described in 
the Press of June 28, 1913. Another Humphrey plant 

is to be erected at Mex, three miles west from Alexan- 
dria, for the Egyptian government. Certain lands in 
the district have become 'water-logged,' and it has been 
decided to drain Lake Mariut, having an area of 50,000 
acres and 3 ft. deep, and reclaim the area under water. 
To do this, the lake water is to be pumped into the 
Mediterranean Sea, a lift of from 19 to 20 ft. from a 
drainage canal, over a narrow protecting ridge on the 
seacoast. Ten Humphrey pumps, eight of which will 
be sufficient to lift 792,000,000 gal. per day, are being 
made by Messrs. Beardmore and Messrs. Brown, Boveri 
& Co. Each machine will have a combustion chamber 
8 ft. 8 in. diameter by 14 ft. high. The valve-box will 
be the same diameter and 7 ft. high, and is to have 100 
valves of the hinge type, which will close on any ob- 
struction without straining the hinges. The 'play-pipe' 
of the pump will slope upward so as to deliver water 
at the required elevation in the discharge basin. The 
pumps are started by admitting into the combustion 
chamber a mixture of gas and air. The Power Gas 
Corporation will supply an anthracite Mond plant capa- 
ble of gasifying 44 tons per day, consisting of nine 6- 
ft. producers. The guaranteed consumption is 1.15 lb. 
coal per horse-power. Two Venturi meters will measure 
the water delivered from the pumps. 

A dredge may be constructed to handle so many cubic 
yards of gravel per day, yet this capacity is entirely 
dependent on the skill of the winchman. He has con- 
trol of the motors which drive the winches for side-lines, 


spuds, and other gear; also the main motor for driving 
the bucket-line, and lowering and raising the digging 
ladder. In his department, at the top of the dredge, is 
a switchboard and a large number of levers, by which 
he is able to control all operations of swinging the boat, 
stepping ahead, and digging gravel. The accompany- 
ing cut shows the levers on Yuba No. 14 dredge. Cali- 

July 18, 1914 




as seen at the world's great mining centres by our own correspondents. 

'Mineral Resources of the United States': More Appropria- 
tion Wanted for This Publication, Its Value Explained 
by the Director of the Survey. 

Congress has not proved indulgent this year to the at- 
tempt of the U. S. Geological Survey to procure an extra 
$10,000 for the preparation of the report of the Mineral Re- 
sources of the United States,' allowing only $75,000 for the 
coming fiscal year as heretofore. An appropriation of $85,000 
had been asked by the director, George Otis Smith. "Under 
this item," Mr. Smith told the House Committee on Appropria- 
tions, "there is taken every year a census of the mineral pro- 
duction of the whole country, which amounts at the present 
time to something over $2,000,000,000." Mr. Smith was asked 
how this census is obtained and thereby revealed some inter- 
esting facts as also the implied plans for the future by the 
Survey on this census. "It is done," he said, "by correspond- 
ence and a certain amount of visiting the different mining 
districts and especially of Western mining districts. The 
report is a very accurate statement of the mineral production 
of each year, by reason of the fact that we have a permanent 
force that is in almost constant correspondence with the 
individual producers. It is not like waiting 10 years and 
then getting in touch with the industry, for our statisticians 
are in constant touch with them. We believe that by the 
various checks we use, that is, by compiling not only the 
returns of the individual producers in the Western states, 
but by using the returns of the smelters to which the ores 
have been sent, and, then also, by using the double check 
of the statistics of the shipments which are furnished by 
the different railroad companies, that we have the truth 
of it. It may be surprising, but there have been instances 
where individual producers several years afterward have 
asked us what their production was for certain years, getting 
this from our books, and in some cases the return was 
based not so much on what the man might send in himself, 
but on what we learned through railroad shipments at the 
particular siding where his ore was loaded. We are more 
and more giving the public, or are trying to give the public, 
a fair statement of the mineral production of the preceding 
year on or near the first of January, that being the time 
that a good many people interested in the subject desire the 
statistics. We make these preliminary estimates, which are 
usually based on what we know of the eleven months prev- 
ious, and then we estimate for the twelfth month. Then 
we are also trying to give to the public before July 1 the 
complete report, which gives the totals, including not only 
the state totals, but the county totals. Our printed report is 
issued first in the form of separate chapters which are de- 
voted to particular products, like iron ore or coal or coke 
and later they are assembled in two volumes that make up 
the annual report. The work is steadily increasing by reason 
of the greater number of producers. I ask for an increase of 
$10,000 partly because I am not satisfied with the promptness 
with which we can issue the reports under the present appro- 
priation, nor am I satisfied with the thoroughness with which 
we cover the whole field. With the additional money the 
telegraph would be more freely used to get the reports from 
the producers last to report. Sometimes the expensive part 
of a report is the last of one-half of one per cent, that is to 
grt the men who are staying out to send in their returns. 

Ninety-nine per cent of the returns may be in, but a wait of 
several weeks is incurred to get the remaining one per cent. 
It is a decided advantage to have a geologist or clerk ready 
to go out from the nearest Survey office to solicit the returns 
in person. One such visit will keep a producer in line for 
several years, simply because he realizes the importance of 
the information to the whole industry. Offices of the Survey 
are in Washington, Denver, Salt Lake City, and San Fran- 
cisco. The increase would also enable the employment of 
better men." 

An inquiry by Congressman Mondel of Wyoming, as to 
why the statistics from certain states were lumped, brought 
an interesting and explanatory answer. The Congressman 
said he was especially interested in the showing of Wyoming. 
For instance after an industry, such as iron in a state was 
below 500,000 tons per annum that state was simply lumped in 
its iron with other states. "If there are only two producers 
in a state," explained Mr. Smith, "we will lump that state 
with some other state, because by giving the total production 
for two producers only we are giving each one of those pro- 
ducers information regarding the tonnage of his competitor." 
"What objection is there to the people knowing how much the 
Colorado Fuel & Iron Co. produces at Sunrise, in my state?" 
asked Congressman Mondel. "There is no objection," replied 
Mr. Smith, "unless the operators prefer to have their returns 
confidential. Our returns are usually confidential." Mr: 
Smith added that he was able to show that when Congress 
called for the figures of the individual production of large 
corporations supplying the U. S. Steel Corporation, 20 large 
producers were in the list. He said that the reports had 
practical value moreover as was shown in the case of a 
small miner in Missouri who was not satisfied with the prices 
of zinc he was obtaining and who asked of the Survey the 
range of prices for zinc ore. The Survey gave him a report 
showing the range of prices month by month, and in his re- 
turn letter the miner said that through the report he had 
been able to get a considerable advance over the prices that 
the ore-buyers had been allowing him. "The big people do 
not need this kind of help so much as the small producers," 
said Mr. Smith. "The large copper mining companies, for 
instance, have an agency of their own whereby they keep 
monthly statistics. It is of course interesting and gratifying 
to us that when they started that system a few years ago they 
came to the Survey and took the geologist who was compiling 
the annual statistics on copper for this volume, and he has 
since been issuing every month for the benefit of those large 
producers the monthly figures on copper production." Mr. 
Smith was referring to L. C. Graton, secretary of the Copper 
Producers' Association. Legislation in Congress on mining 
continues to make no advance worth noting. 

Business Situation. — National Copper Mine. — Granuy Con- 
solidated. — Heinze Suits. — International Steam Pump 
Co. — Gold Hill Affair. 

There seems to be something of a new undertone in New 
York markets. The past three years have constituted a long 
period of depression, a lane that seemed to have no turning. 
It would be too much to say that a turn in the lane is in 
sight. There are too many railroad receiverships and too 
many reorganizations obviously necessary, but there is be- 



Jiilv 18. 1914 

coming more and more evident a prevalence of the belief that 
the worst is known and has been adequately discounted, and 
students of underlying conditions are getting back to the posi- 
tion that the country's tremendous production spells pros- 
perity. There are readjustments making and yet to be made. 
There are some reformations of spirit yet to be accomplished 
in financial circles, the lesson that service is the only work 
that deserves reward has been taken to heart by manufactur- 
ers, by railroad operators as distinguished from financiers 
much more fully than it has by the banking element that is 
still feeling the public disapproval. The stagnation of gen- 
eral business is typified by the copper situation. Domestic 
deliveries have been far below normal during all of the cur- 
rent year, while June makes a low record for the year, and 
a new low record for the corresponding month of the past six 
years. Surplus stocks show an increase, but it is so well 
recognized now that the producers are in control that there 
is no attempt to make market capital out of this feature. 

At the National mine, in Idaho, while milling operations 
are still in the tuning-up stage, the process used has appar- 
ently overcome the question of the cost of oil, having reduced 
this from about 6 or 7c. to between 1 and 2c. per ton of ore 

The Granby Consolidated's fiscal year just completed has 
been a rather important one for the Company, as the manage- 
ment had in hand the task of putting the Hidden Creek prop- 
erty on a producing basis. The Company has maintained its 
dividend, but while producing some 22,16S,614 lb. of copper 
the margin of profit has not been large. 

Judging from appearances, the Heinze entanglement of 
various descriptions will receive 'Gordon knot' treatment in 
the near future. Heinze lies at his home ill. United Cop- 
per, Stewart Mining, Ohio Copper, are all in snarls, which, 
like the Amalgamated-Heinze fight in Butte, will not be un- 
raveled, but will be cut. Unfortunately for Heinze, he no 
longer has an H. H. Rogers attempting to oust him from 
great properties, and the man who once fought the Standard 
Oil element in Montana to such a standstill is likely to make 
an almost unnoticed exit from the financial world. 

The International Steam Pump Co. management has been 
attacked by John Drew in a suit alleging the existance of 
fraud in the deal by which the Pump company absorbed the 
Power & Mining Machinery Co. Quite recently the preferred 
dividends on two of the companies controlled by the Pump 
company were passed, and there has been some talk of the 
possibility of a receiver. 

The 'regulars' down in the financial district have been en- 
joying many a good laugh over the publicity recently achieved 
by Walter George 'Newman of Gold Hill notoriety. Gold Hill 
was discredited on the New York Curb years ago, and Mr. 
Newman likewise. That he should be able to go to Washington 
and get officials there interested in his proposition is some- 
thing of a triumph of nerve and perseverance. Gold Hill has 
been the vehicle of several spectacular market operations on 
the Curb, but as a mining operation it has been looked upon as 
a joke for years. Investigation into the use of official 
stationery resulted in wiping of the whole matter off the 
Senate Committee's slate as not important enough to take 
up time of the official, but in the meantime, Newman has 
reveled in the publicity so acquired. Inasmuch as gold pro- 
duction in the Eastern states amounted to but $165,733 in 
1913, apparently Gold Hill is not the centre of a big camp. 
These figures given out by U. S. Geological Survey, included 
Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina as well as North 
Carolina, within whose borders Gold Hill has its lair. 

Extraction at the new Elm Orlu plant at Butte is from 96 
to 97% of the zinc content of the ore. The Minerals Separa- 
tion process is used. Tests are being run at Anaconda on a 

50-ton Minerals Separation flotation plant treating slime from 
Dorr thickeners. The first results are even better than was 

Big Creek Mining District: Situation, Elevation. Geology, 
and Notes on the Moscow, McRae-Goldma.n. Red Metal, 
Victor-Glasgow, Gold Coin, and Probiglo Mines. 

The Big Creek district is situated in Idaho county, about 30 
miles from Warren, and 60 miles from Thunder City. Minerals 
have been found in an area of about 17 miles north and south 
by 8 miles east and west, and which contains a large variety 
of base and free-milling ores. The district is approached from 
the railroad at New Meadow and Thunder City, both of which 
are branch terminals, over state wagon roads. Yellow Pine, the 
nearest settlement, is in the southern part of the district, and 
is reached by wagon road from the Short Line railroad at 
Thunder City about 50 miles distant. Approximately 30 miles 
of the Yellow Pine road is in the National Forest Reserve, and 
is well kept up. This part of the road is well constructed and 


is ideal for automobiles, the grades being easy; but the other 
part of the road has been allowed to get in a bad state of re- 
pair. At the time these notes were written the county was 
doing some extensive repairing. However, in summer time the 
stage easily makes the through trip. Elevations of the dis- 
trict vary from 7100 to 9400 ft. above sea-level, and is on the 
extreme heads of Profile creek, Big creek, and Logan creek, 
which has a large amount of timber and water-power in many 
places. Snow in this region begins to fall late in October, and 
lies there until May, but most of the heavy mining is done 
in the middle of winter. The district, as a whole, is one of the 
most picturesque in the state, the innumerable water-falls, 
lakes and mountain peaks can be rivaled in few places. Yel- 
low Pine is an ideal spot, there being an abundance of yellow 
pine saw timber there,' with plenty of hunting and fishing and 
may some day be a great resort. The northern route into this 
mineral belt is over the old South Fork and Warren road 
which connects with the Pacific and Idaho Northern railroad 
at New Meadow 90 miles distant. This road crosses three high 
summits, one of these summits is over 9000 ft. high, and the 

July 18, 1914 



other two are over 7000 ft. The road as a whole is one of the 
worst in the state, and the expenditure that would be neces- 
sary to put it in shape for heavy hauling would build a good 
road from Yellow Pine through the entire district. 

The geology of the district is interesting and the exposures 
of formations afford good opportunities to study the rocks. 
These are chiefly altered granite, cut by late intrusive dikes. 
The veins are from 2 to 200 ft. wide, and there are three 
distinct veins which traverse glaciated benches, which, in 
many cases, have been eroded and left the veins standing in 
bold relief. The occurrence of the intrusive dikes is quite gen- 
eral, and they are found in numbers ranging from 2 ft. in thick- 
ness to great masses. Although the formation is cut up by 
numerous fissures it is not badly faulted, the orebodies being 
generally found in place. 

The so-called Moore 'bonanza' in the Moscow mine is 250 ft. 
wide, as has been determined by shallow surface cuts, and a 
good deal of free gold may be obtained from the more favora- 
ble gangue throughout the entire width by panning. The de- 
posit, on this group of claims, has been traced for over a mile, 
and at one point has been opened by a cross-cut adit 200 ft. 
long, and has obtained a vertical depth of 150 ft. Two raises 
have been driven to the surface, and around these a 'glory 
hole' has been opened. The adit dump has been connected by 
a rope tramway hung on stumps to a flve-stamp mill at the 
foot of the mountain. With this crude affair the owner makes 
a good living. The ore is free milling to a depth of 50 ft., 
when it changes into a rich sulphide. The glory hole has pro- 
duced about 1500 tons of ore that averages $5 free gold per ton. 
A few samples taken from the sulphide horizon in the main 
adit assayed $5 in gold and silver, 85% of the value being gold. 
Some cyanide tests made on some of the concentrate show an 
extraction of 96% by grinding and agitation S hours in an 
8-lb. solution. During the past season some well known 
engineers sampled this property, and one sampling of 150 ft. 
of the main adit gave an average of $3 per ton; while the zone 
60 ft. wide, of more heavily mineralized ore, is reported to 
have averaged $4.40 per ton. 

Continuing north from the Moore bonanza, another large 
body of ore is in the MeRae-Goldman claims, shown by thick 
bands and a network of honey-combed quartz and gangue, 100 
ft. wide by several hundred feet long, which yields by panning 
$5 to $20 gold per ton. This property is also being developed by 
the owners by a cross-cut adit to determine its width and aver- 
age value. The claims are parallel with a large quartz vein 
containing some small streaks of rich ore, which were the 
basis of development work and a lot of wild-cat stock flotations 
in the early history of the camp. 

The Red Metal mine, on the west vein, has a large body of 
brown-stained quartz which contains some sulphide and gold 
and a small percentage of copper is of great width. On the 
hanging wall side of this vein, a 5-ft. body of silver ore has 
been opened by two cross-cut adits to a depth of 100 ft. In 
1905, the owner extracted five tons of ore from an 18-in. streak 
on the hanging wall, and shipped it to the Tacoma smelter, 
returning over $200, and 1 oz. gold per ton. The owner is 
now taking out a few tons which he expects to ship by parcel 

Continuing on the same vein north to the Victor and Glas- 
gow groups of claims, the ore is similar in character, but the 
gold content is much higher. In some places on these claims 
this is up to several ounces per ton. In several openings on 
the surface, small amounts of free gold can be obtained by 
panning, and from a shaft which is down 25 ft., ore has been 
extracted which assayed several ounces per ton. The main 
vein on this bench dips about 70" east, and several small string- 
ers varying from 1 to 5 ft. are dipping into the main vein at 
an angle of about 40 . The intrusive dikes are numerous 
here. The owners of this property are driving a long cross- 
cut adit which will cut this vein system over 200 ft. below 
the outcrop. Another adit has been driven in the mountain 

lower down and has cut the centre vein of the district, show- 
ing a body of sulphide ore 150 ft. wide from which assays 
yield $5 per ton. This property has over 800 ft. of develop- 
ment done. 

The Gold Coin mine is situated on the east side of Profile 
creek, and consists of a large deposit of brown oxide ore which 
assays well in gold. This vein traverses a glaciated bench 
and is cut by numerous porphyry dikes, and free gold can be 
obtained by panning. Lead-silver ore is also found in num- 
erous small streaks which often lie directly parallel to string- 
ers of siderite, and which seem to be feeding into the main 
body of brown oxide. At the foot of this mountain placer 
gold is found in profitable quantities. 

The Probiglo Mining Co.'s property consists of four quartz 
claims and one placer claim, and is situated due north from 
the Victor claims. The vein on this property is 150 ft. wide, 
as proved by several surface trenches, and gives fair assays in 
gold and silver along its full length. Several rich streaks of 
gold-silver ore have been cut between the enclosing vein mater- 
ial, varying from 4 to 12 in. wide and assaying high in gold 
and silver. The Company is planning to ship several tons of 
rich ore this summer, and will probably build a small mill. 
By driving an ?dit in from the foot of the mountain a depth 
of 2000 ft. can be obtained. 

Among other properties of the district, in various stages of 
development are the Laufer and Davis, Independence, and 
Copper Camp. 

For cheap power resources the district is unexcelled, as it 
has a number of streams which can be made to develop 50,000 
hp. at moderate cost. Big creek, in connection with Profile 
gap, affords comparatively easy railroad construction from 
the main Salmon river, and up the middle fork to southern 
Idaho. The ultimate construction of a branch over the pro- 
posed line would come up Big creek and open up the entire 
district to railway transportation. 

Activities ok the Deadwood Business Club in Mining and 
Forming hie Heidelberg Mining Co. — The Homestake's 
New Hoist.— Hidden Fortune and Trojan. 

In the summer of 1913 the Deadwood Business Club thought 
that by developing some promising mining prospect a stimu- 
lus might be given to the general mining conditions of the 
district. After considerable investigation on the part of a 
special committee appointed for the purpose, it was decided 
to do the first work on the Heidelberg property, in the Two Bit 
district. The owners offered an attractive proposition, namely, 
to give a one-half interest for $5000, with the agreement that 
the money be spent in development. Work was undertaken in 
August, 50 citizens of Deadwood each agreeing to contribute 
$100 in 10 monthly payments of $10 each. Administration of 
the funds and development was turned over to five trustees, 
two representing the owners, two representing the subscribers 
and these four selecting the fifth member. Payments on sub- 
scription commenced August 23, and the final payment was 
collected on May 23, last. During the 10 months' operations. 
380 ft. of development was done in new ground, besides en- 
larging and timbering in a substantial manner the main adit 
following the ore-shoot. In the course of the work there was 
removed, sorted and shipped 46 tons, dry weight, of ore which 
netted above treatment and transportation costs, $371. In 
addition a quantity of ore of milling grade was piled on the 
(lumps. Since this time (May 23) about 70 tons additional has 
been shipped, a large proportion of which was in the bins at 
that time. The ore is a typical refractory silicious material, 
similar to that mined in the Bald Mountain district, occurring 
in the upper Cambrian shales. The ore is principally sand 
shale enriched from a silicious 'vertical.' This vertical, which 
is an average of 1 ft. in width, has a course of north 25° east. 
The sand shale is enriched on either side of it for a distance 



July 18, 1914 

of 1, 2, and 3 ft. It is 1 to 3 ft. thick and above and below it 
is lime shale, carrying small gold content. Development along 
the vertical discloses its continuity for over 300 ft. Should 
this vertical be found to extend downward to the basal Cam- 
brian quartzite, it is quite probable, judging from experience 
in other districts, that a considerable body of ore may be 

To provide further funds for the exploration of the ore- 
body, a corporation with a capitalization of 500,000 shares 
of a par value of 25c. each has been organized. Of the capital 
one-half, or 250,000 shares, was issued in payment for the 
property, and the balance placed in the treasury. Of the 
property purchase stock, one-half, or 125,000 shares, was issued 
to the original owners, and the other 125,000 shares equally 
divided among the subscribers to the development fund, so that 
each man who paid in $100 will receive 2500 shares of stock. 
Officers of the Heidelberg Mining Co., the name selected for the 
corporation, are: Geo. V. Ayres, president; John Treber, vice- 
president; J. Goldberg, treasurer; and W. L. Treber, secretary. 
The directors are: N. E. Franklin, president First National 
Bank; D. A. McPherson, cashier First National Bank; Geo. 
V. Ayres, hardware merchant; J. Goldberg, grocer; N. J. 
Thompsen, lumber dealer; A. T. Roos, superintendent of prop- 
erty, and John Treber, wholesaler. 

For several weeks, steel for the new hoist house and head- 
frame at the B. & M. shaft of the Homestake company, has been 
arriving, and shortly the first consignment of machinery is 
expected to be delivered. Foundation work is well in hand. 
It is of massive construction, in some places the cement, rein- 
forced with railroad iron bolted into the solid rock, steel cables 
and other steel materials, will be over 20 ft. thick. The new 
hoisting engine is of the compound-condensing type, built by 
the Nordberg firm, and is one of the largest hoisting engines 
ever constructed. The machine, after its completion, was 
erected in the Nordberg shops, and has been dismantled for 
shipment to Lead. It is equipped with two clutched reels to 
carry fiat rope % by 7 in. It is designed to handle 12,000 lb. 
of ore from a depth of 3200 ft., using skips in balance. It has 
a gross weight of over 1,000,000 lb., and will require 24 freight 
cars to deliver it in Lead. Steam to operate it will be secured 
from a boiler plant close to the C. & N. W. tracks. This plant 
will also furnish steam for an electric generating station. 
Foundation work on the boiler plant is progressing rapidly, 
and it is planned to have the new hoist in full operation by 
the end of the present year. 

By the purchase of the Hidden Fortune 40-stamp mill, the 
Golden Reward company will be enabled to increase its mill- 
ing capacity to 400 tons per day. The purchase was made 
from the Homestake Mining Co., which came into possession 
of the mill a year ago, when it took over the Hidden Fortune 
property. The Homestake removed some equipment from the 
plant, but the bulk of it passes to the Golden Reward. In the 
mill was installed a full complement of cyanide tanks, piping, 
crushers, and considerable miscellaneous material. The build- 
ing was well constructed, and contains a large amount of lum- 
ber which will be used. The Golden Reward company has 
already started to remove the plant to its millsite in Dead- 
wood. With this addition to the capacity of its milling facili- 
ties, the Golden Reward will rank next to the Homestake as a 
gold producer in the Black Hills. Numerous improvements in 
the plant are under way, including a tube-mill, Trent replacing 
tank, classifiers, etc., so that even better work will be done in 
the future. 

At the Trojan a small streak of sylvanite ore was recently 
discovered that gave high assays in gold. Roasted specimens 
were as fine as the best Cripple Creek ever produced. The 
Company's mill is steadily operating on a good grade of ma- 
teria', and shipments are regularly going forward to sriPltTS. 
The Company is in an excellent position financially. It is a 
close corporation, and does not publish statements of its earn- 
ines, but they are known to be good. 


Barnato, Albu, and Consolidated Mines Selection Groups 
of Mines. — The Fab East Rand. — Diamond Mining in 
South Africa. 

The feature of the first week in June here has been the 
large number of company meetings held. The companies con- 
trolled by the house of Barnato were particularly prominent, 
as this is the only group able to report substantial progress 
during the year. The reason for this may be found in the 
fact that until a few years ago this was the most backward 
of any mining group on the Rand, its properties were be- 
coming almost derelict and the most antiquated in equip- 
ment. A few years ago, a change in the policy of this group 
was made, the Modderfontein Government Areas were secured, 
the Langlaagte properties were taken in hand, and some at- 
tempt made to bring the other mines more up to the mining 
practice of the Rand. The result now is that after the Eck- 
stein group, the Barnato is one of the leading mining con- 
cerns on the Rand, and with the exception of their oldest 
mines, can compare in a satisfactory manner with those of 
any other group. There is, for instance, the Van Ryn Deep 
mine, which made a working profit of £105,022 during 1913, 
the working costs averaging practically $4.80 per ton. Much 
better results may be looked for during the current year, as 
working costs are declining and the gold recovery likely to 
go up to $8.40 per ton. Nearly 2,000,000 tons of profitable 
ore is developed in the mine, giving an average value by 
assay of $8.68 per ton. The Consolidated Langlaagte is an- 
other Barnato mine, which during the year has done excep- 
tionally well. Working costs have been reduced 24c. per ton, 
while the profitable ore reserves are estimated at 2,194,408 
tons worth $7.40 per ton. Like the Van Ryn Deep, this is 
another Barnato mine likely to yield even better results this 
year. The Government Gold Mining Areas at Modderfontein 
are also improving in the matter of development, ore re- 
serves at present being about 1,250,000 tons averaging $6.35 
per ton. It is to these three mines that the Barnato house 
is looking for most of the improvement in the immediate 
future, and no doubt they will more than make up for any 
marked decline the older mines of the group will show for 
some time to come. 

The Albu group of mining companies also held their annual 
meetings during the week. The most promising of these is 
the Meyer & Charlton, which at the present time has. the 
highest recovery value of any mine on the Rand, while work- 
ing costs are being reduced. Several of the mines in this 
group continue somewhat under a cloud, notably Cinderella 
Consolidated, New Goch, and the Rand Collieries, and it looks 
as though some time will elapse before the necessary capital 
will be obtained for such undertakings as Cinderella Con- 
solidated, Steyn Estates, and West Rand Consolidated. 

The Consolidated Mines Selection group has also held 
meetings during the week, without, however, having anything 
particularly cheerful to report. Brakpan, the principal mine 
of the group, did worse than usual during the year, develop- 
ment assays falling away considerably; but during the first 
few months of the year quite one-half of the ore developed 
has proved unprofitable. The Springs mine seems to be open- 
ing fairly well, but the ore here is somewhat erratic. A fair 
proportion of the ore developed proved unprofitable, but there 
seems every probability of the mine falling little short of 
the Brakpan, underground conditions being somewhat similar 
on both properties. The Springs mine is situated nearly in 
the centre of the Far East part of the Rand, which is ex- 
pected to do much to restore its prosperity, and to enable 
the Rand to again report progressive gold outputs. When, 
however, the Daggafontein. sinking about six miles farther 
east, rf aches the reef, about. the end of the year, the true 
value and prospects of the Far East Rand will be better known. 

July 18, 1914 



Diamond mining in South Africa has recently suffered 
financially from the evils of over-production, especially since 
the discovery of diamonds in German Southwest Africa. At 
one time the diamond mines at Kimberley had practically 
the whole of the world's diamond markets at their mercy; but 
recent discoveries of diamond mines in other parts of South 


Africa have put quite a different complexion on the diamond 
mining industry. The Transvaal, with its Premier mine near 
Pretoria, can now boast of possessing one of the largest and 
most important diamond producers in the world, while the 
increasing production of alluvial diamonds in Africa has 
somewhat complicated the markets. So great has the diamond 
production of Africa become, that a conference was to be held 
in London during June, as mentioned in this journal of June 6. 
During May, Rand mines treated 2,196,287 tons of ore averag- 
ing $6.30 per ton, the lowest average- in the last twelve months. 
Working costs were $4. 0s per ton, which was equalled in Janu- 
ary, 1910. Total profit for the month of May was £1,011,968. 


State and National Geologists Co-operate in Experimental 
Work. — Mining Ores from Surface Down. — Notes on the 
District's Mines. 

H. A. Buehler, state geologist of Missouri, C. A. Wright, 
connected with the U. S. Bureau of Mines, and other geol- 
ogists and mining engineers who are connected with both 
the state and federal departments of mining and geology, 
have established headquarters in Joplin, and a campaign of 
experimental work which will cover many months is being 
planned. Flotation processes will be tried out, this feature 
of the work being considered of much importance in view 
of the fact that the recovery of zincblende has never bepn 
what would be considered thorough, and therefore anything 
that will tend to bring about a more perfect recovery will 
be heralded as a great boon to the local industry. The study 
of the geology of the district, the character of the ores, the 
details of mining and milling, will be given due consideration, 
and interesting reports on the work thus undertaken will be 
looked for with much enthusiasm by local operators and others 
Interested in the district. The oil flotation process has been 
tried at only one place in the district, namely, at the prop- 
erty of the Underwriters Land Co., west of Joplin, where 

a small plant is being operated by Hays & Co. The result 
of the experiment is being kept secret. Sludge from the 
Priscilla mine of the Underwriters company is being handled. 

Modern pumping equipment is succeeding in draining the 
Lone Elm bottoms, in the northwest part of Joplin, where 
old types of pumps failed, and as a result operators are now 
getting into ground that has been under water for many 
years, and are even going far below the old levels worked. 
Also, some shallow development of importance is being con- 
ducted, work at one or two points being done from the sur- 
face down in the form of strip pits. This shallow work is 
being done where the ore is found within four or five feet 
of the surface. Plans for the construction of a mill to handle 
the shallow ore, and also to do custom milling from other 
mines on the lease, are being completed. The lease is held 
by the Lone Elm Development Co. and includes 330 acres 
of the Picher Lead Co.'s land and property of the Granby 
Mining & Smelting Co. About twenty small operators are 
at work. Two large pumping plants are maintained, the 
ground being drained to a depth of 120 feet. 

Missouri will have a mines and mineral exhibit at the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition which will cost between $6000 and' 
$7000, and detailed plans for the arrangement of the various 
displays have been completed by Otto Ruhl, of Joplin, and 
forwarded to John L. McNutt, of Aurora, chairman of the 
state commission having the Missouri exhibit in charge. A 
floor space of 50 by 100 ft. has been allotted for the Mis- 
souri display, and this will be used in a manner which will 
bring forth the mining industry of this state in an attractive 
manner. By a series of progressive displays, the visitor will 
see the prospecting, mining, milling, and smelting methods 
from the time the churn-drill begins to operate until the fin- 
ished metal is produced. A complete concentrating plant of 
25-ton daily capacity will be in steady operation. Concen- 
trate will be produced from this mill just as it is from 
the larger plants of this district. The exhibit will also take 
in the disseminated lead industry of the southeastern part 
of the state, and the iron, copper, and coal mining of dif- 
ferent portions of the state. 

The Pocahontas Lead & Zinc Co.'s mill in the Thorns Sta- 
tion district, once a heavy producer, has been converted into 
a tailing mill by Bendelari & Funk; tables have been installed 
and various changes made in the equipment of the mill by 
which the plant will be in shape to handle the tailing. The 
shafts of the Company's mine are still sealed, although it 
is more than likely that the disastrous fire which broke out 
in the heavily timbered portions of the ground has long 
since subsided. It is said this famous old producer may not 
be reopened, as the land-owner, Miss Margaret Murphy, has 
refused to permit the pillars of the mine to be withdrawn. 
The pillars are rich in ore. This mine, in barely two years' 
operation, is reported to have netted Miss Murphy nearly 
$85,000 in royalties. She received a royalty of 10% of ore 

Improvements at the Wingfield mine, on a 50-aere lease 
of the Bowman, Scott & Ware land, north of Webb City, will 
mean increased production from this property, which already 
is handling 1000 tons of ore per day and which ranks as 
one of the heaviest producers of blende concentrate in the 
district. The mine is operated by Charles T. Orr and asso- 
ciates. The same company operates the Bertha A. mine, on 
the adjoining property owned by the Newell-Morse company. 
An old shaft at the Bertha A is being placed in commission 
again, and the output from this mine also will be increased. 

At the beginning of July, zinc blende was weak at $:!7 to 
$40 per ton. basis of 60% metallic zinc, compared with $41 
to $44 basis for the corresponding period of 1913. Calamine 
is strong at $22 to $23 per ton. basis of 40% metallic zinc, 
or about $1 stronger than for the corresponding week of 1913. 
Lead ore is dull at $46. basis of 80' ; metallic lead, compared 
with $52.50 for the corresponding week of 1913. 



July 18, 1914 


Cochise County 

Various mine contests were held at Bisbee on July 4, with 
the following results: Nipper drilling contest: first prize 
of $250 won by Robert Lyons, Andy Hooks, and Harry Lyons, 
who drilled 49 in. in 15 min., followed by Lawrence Ligon, 
Louis Oites, and Mitchell Bogice, winning the second prize 
of $125 with 32 in. This team had trouble with their steel 
breaking and lost considerable time. In the stope machine- 
drilling contest the first prize of $75 was won by Albert Peter- 
son, who drilled 72% in. The second prize of $50 was won by 
A. D. Fenwick, drilling 72% in. In the timbering contest the 
first prize of $100 was won by Johnson and Butbrae in 13 
min., 57 sec; also most points for having set level, plumb, 
and square, also for placing blocks and wedges. The second 
prize of $50 was won by Jacobson and Martin in 17 min., 40 
sec; also second best on points. There were four entries. 
In the first-aid contest the first prize of $75 was won by 
the Czar team, Pat Nanna, captain. The second prize of $40 
was won by the Gardner team, Francis Webster, captain. 
There were three entries. There was a difference of only one 
point between these teams and the judges had considerable 
trouble in reaching a decision. In the mine-rescue contest 
the first prize of $75 was won by the Calumet & Arizona team, 
Walter Haile, captain, and the second prize of $40 by the 
Copper Queen team, Thomas Stetson, captain. 
Gila. County 

(Special Correspondence.) — Underground work at the Miami 
mine in June totaled 2910 ft., while 106,312 tons of ore was 

milled. Lining of the Inspiration main shaft is the most 

important work at the mine. Underground bins have yet 
to be cut out. That at 600 ft. will have a capacity of 3000 

tons. Slag foundations are being poured for two of the 

reverberatory furnaces of the International company. Con- 
crete amounting to 400 cu. yd. is being poured for the blow- 
ing engines' foundation. Work on the Magma concentrator 

at Superior is well ahead. Electric power from Roosevelt 
has been available for some time. It is probable that a 
long aerial tram will be constructed from the mine to the 
smelter being erected at Miami. 

Miami, July 10. 

Competitive tests are being made at the Inspiration be- 
tween Minerals Separation and Callow flotation plants. Re- 
sults have not been made public. A. M. Cobb has been elected 

the first mayor of Miami. The new Aldrich electric pump 

is working at 1800 ft. in the Old Dominion mine. This and the 
Arizona Commercial mine are to be connected on the 1200-ft. 
level. The basic converter has been at work for a year with- 
out relining, producing 32,000,000 lb. of copper. 
Mohave County 

During June the Tom Reed 20-stamp mill and cyanide plant 
produced gold worth $106,000. Rich ore is being mined 

from the 500-ft. level of the mine. Good ore is being opened 

at 400 ft. in the Nevada-Arizona mine. A mill is being 

erected at the old Fay mine. The Schuylkill mine has been 

leased to California and Oregon men. 


The State Mining Bureau has distributed copies of Bulletin 
No. 67, 'Minerals of California.' by Arthur S. Eakle, consist- 
ing of 226 pages and an index. This work is just off the 

press, and should be in the hands of all California mining 
men. A list in 1866 included 75 minerals, another in 1884 
included about 150, while the present work includes over 
300, with many sub-species and varieties. A bibliography on 
California minerals is included. The book is divided into 
the following chapters: Native Elements; Sulphides, Arsen- 
ides, Selenides, Tellurides, and Sulpho-salts; Haloids; Oxides 
of Hydrogen, Silicon, and Semi-metals; Oxides of the Metals; 
Carbonates; Anhydrous Silicates; Hydrous Silicates and 
Titano-Silicates; Phosphates, Vanadates, etc.; and Sulphates 
and Hydrocarbons. Chapter XII covers minerals arranged 
according to the elements, and mineral distribution by coun- 
ties. With Bulletin 585, "Useful Minerals of the United States," 
recently published by the U. S. Geological Survey, mining 
men have two very useful books. 

The report of the statistician of the Industrial Accident 
Commission of the State of California for the first six months 
of 1914 has just been published. It shows some startling 
figures relative to the heavy toll of industry in terms of 
human lives and bodily injuries. A total of over 26,000 acci- 
dents has been reported to the Commission during the half- 
year ended July 30. Of these, 25,475 resulted in temporary dis- 
ability, approximately 600 caused permanent disability, while 
223 resulted in death. During June alone over 7500 acci- 
dents were reported, 10 of which were death cases, while 184 
caused permanent disability. 

Nevada County 

The Red Ledge mine has been bonded to a New York syn- 
dicate, headed by W. F. Meeks, for about $150,000. 
San Bernardino County 

Sixteen suits by Colton orange-growers against the Cali- 
fornia Portland Cement Co. have been settled for $116, 8S1. By 
agreement, the Company purchased 135 acres of land adjoin- 
ing its property for $92,450, an average of $685 per acre. 
This will permanently end all suits. The Company's plant 
has a capacity of 5000 bbl. of cement per day, and it is pro- 
posed to increase this to 9000 bbl. at an expenditure of 

Sierra County 

There are 35 men working at the Croesus or Plumbago mine, 

and high-grade ore is being extracted. The Independence 

shaft is down about 300 ft. Some good shoots of ore have 

been opened in the Kate Hardy mine. Work is to be started 

by M. W. Davis and associates on two placer locations on 
Oregon creek. A gravel channel is capped by lava, but good 
yields are expected. 

Tuolumne County 

A prize of $200 for drilling at Sonora was won by W. Pedro 
and Fred Marcus, who put in a hole 37 in. in 15 minutes, 
followed by J. Page and F. Bartlett with 34% in: J. and T. 
Lumsden with 32% in., and G. Zackovich and J. Burbank with 
31 inches. 


Clear Creek County 

A large station has been cut at the 860-ft. point in the 
main raise of the Capital mine. A good deal of water is 
flowing from this ground. An adit has been driven 610 ft. 
to meet this raise. Lessees are busy in the various sections 
of the mine. The Westinghouse mine locomotive, working 
in the main adit, gives no trouble. Eighteen inches of 

July 18, 1914 



lead-copper ore has been opened in the Onondaga mine. 

Retimbering is being done in the Colorado Central. Ore 

has been shipped from the Santiago. The Sutton, Steele 

& Steele dry concentration process may be installed in the 

Linn mill by C. E. Pughe. Denver people are said to be 

trying to jump the Ramsdale claims on Bard creek. 
Sax Juan County 
The Buffalo Boy mine, at Silverton, is again being sampled. 

Lessees at the Ledge mine are preparing to unwater the 

workings. Under foreclosure proceedings, the Gold Prince 


mine, mill, and tramway were recently sold to the Federal 

Trust Co. of Boston. The San Antonio Mining Co. is being 

reorganized. Twenty men are working at the Hamlet mine. 

Mines in the district produced 420 tons of smelting ore 

and 18,720 tons of concentrate during June. 

Teller County (Cripple Creek) 

Twelve men are laying track, cutting a ditch, and doing 
other preparatory work ai the Roosevelt drainage tunnel. 
Connection was made from the heading of the tunnel, 2600 
ft. beyond the El Paso company's main shaft. The air was 

fair. Trouble on the Short Line from Cripple Creek to 

Colorado Springs is hampering ore shipments. The Last 

Dollar mine is again being operated. Rain interfered with 

July 4 sports to some extent. In the drilling contest. Car- 
roll and Gay carried off the first prize of $100, in double-hand 
work, drilling a hole 32 in. deep in Gunnison granite 
in the ;il lot ii] time of 15 minutes. Hart and Adams, who 
drilled first, received second prize, drilling 27% in., while 
Lund and Gustafson were third with 25 in. In the single- 
hand drilling contest John P. Hinds carried off first prize of 
$50, drilling lS-fa in. William Fabry was second with 12Uj 
In., and F. C. O'Neal was third, only putting his hole down 8 

Shoshone County 

Drilling contests at Wallace on July 4 resulted as follows: 
Four teams drilled, and St. Germain and Rossman of the 

Eugene R. Day ranch at Osburn won with 34 in., Morrison 
and Walters of the Tamarack mine were second with 30% in., 
Stokes brothers of Osburn third with 30 3 » s in., and Porter 

and Kinzeila, of Butte, fourth with 29% in. At Wardner 

the contest was won by St. Germain and Rossman, who de- 
feated five other teams, drilling 37% in. in 15 minutes. The 
second prize of $100 was carried off by Morrison and Walters 
of Wallace, while Spridell and Furze took third place. The 
mucking contest was won by Herman and Johanson, and the 
log-sawing contest was won by Jess Dragon and Charles An- 
derson of the North Fork. 


Houghton County 
The cost of maintaining the militia in the copper country 
during the strike last winter amounted to $405,000, it was 
announced on July JO. 


About thirty mining districts in southwestern Montana are 
described in a report just issued by the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey as Bulletin 574, 'The Mining Districts of the Dillon 
Quadrangle, Montana, and Adjacent Areas,' by A. N. Winchell. 
The area described was of great importance in the early de- 
velopment of Montana, for it was the discovery of gold in 
the streams of this region that led to the influx of popula- 
tion and the eventual settlement of the state. The Dillon 
quadrangle comprises about 3200 square miles; the Butte 
copper-mining district is immediately north of it, and indeed 
two of the Butte smelters are within it. The projected Butte, 
Wisdom & Pacific railroad, upon which construction is soon 
to commence, will tap certain of the districts described in 
Mr. Winchell's report, notably the Elkhorn and Vipond dis- 
tricts in Beaverhead county. 

The metalliferous mineral resources of the Dillon quad- 
rangle and adjacent areas include gold, silver, copper, and 
lead, and smaller quantities of zinc, iron, manganese, and 
tungsten, and their distribution, mode of occurrence, geologic 
features, and origin are discussed in Mr. Winchell's report. 
The metallic ore deposits of the region occur in about thirty 
more or less well defined districts, and these are described 
individually. The report forecasts the future of the mining 
industry in the region, suggesting the probability that placer 
deposits were not destroyed but simply buried by the flows 
of basalt. If they are not too deeply covered by volcanic ash 
and lava flows, it is possible that they may in the future 
supply the material for extensive mining operations. 


According to F. M. Manson. general manager of the West- 
ern Ore Purchasing Co., mining conditions throughout Nevada 
are exceptionally good, and greater activity is looked for. 
The Goldfield district leads others in ore shipments to the 
Company's plants. The Seven Troughs district is develop- 
ing well. When the Nevada Short Line, or Codd railway, to 
Rochester is finished, large shipments should be made from 
that district. The Bullion, Haystack, and Pine Creek districts 
are quite promising. 

The itinerary of Bureau of Mines Billings mine-rescue car 
No. 5 is as follows: July 13 to 18, Goldfield Consolidated, 
Jumbo Extension, and Florence mines: July 20 to 25, Tono- 
pah Mining, Montana Tonopah, Belmont, West End, Tonopah 
Extension, and North Star mines; July 27 to August 1, Round 
Mountain mine; August 3 to 8, Pittsburg Silver Peak mine 
at Blair; August 10 to 15, Nevada Wonder mine at Wonder; 
August 17 to 22, Nevada Hills mine at Fairview; and August 
24 to 29. demonstrations to university mining students and 
railway employees at Reno and Sparks. 

Esmeralda County 
Great interest was shown in the double and single-handed 



July 18, 1914 

rock drilling contests held at Goldfield on July 4. In the 
doubles, Sehram and Olson won first prize ($600), drilling 
56 ft in.: McCann and Collins, second ($200), 56 ft in.; 
Impola and Hokken, third (two suits of clothes), 54% in. In 
the single handed contests, Paul Malli won first prize ($150), 
drilling 33% in.; Pete Vanola, second ($50), 30'^ in.; and 
Steven Mitrovitch, third (one suit of clothes), 28ft inches. 
Humboldt County" 

(Special Correspondence.) — Directors of the Rochester 
Mines Co. have extended leases of the Rochester Hills Min- 
ing Co. and Big Four Mining Co. one year, to December 7, 
1915. The Four J's Mining Co., which adjoins the Rochester 
Hills, expires in July 1915. The Rochester Hills has cut a 
new vein in the Cawsten adit level, a vertical depth of 400 
ft., which is believed to be the 'back vein' and has never been 
developed. The depth on the dip of the vein is 520 ft. The 
discovery was made in a cross-cut 40 ft.* east of the shaft, 
where the vein is reported by the management to be 12 ft. 
wide. Five feet is worth $24 to $32 per ton, the balance of 

the vein being good milling ore. A. A. Codd, president 

of the Nevada Short Line railroad, which is being constructed 
up Rochester canon to the mine, states that track-laying will 
commence July 20, and that the road will be completed to 
the town of Rochester by Labor Day, when a big celebration 

is planned. It is said that John F. Cowan, president and 

manager of the Rochester Mines Co., has financed a custom 
mill for Rochester ores, which may be built at Nenzel, the 
terminus of the Nevada Short Line on the Southern Pacific, 
where a reliable supply of water may be had. A Nevada syn- 
dicate, which is said to have secured power rights of the 
Lahontan dam from the U. S. Reclamation Service, is endeav- 
oring to secure a contract to furnish electric power for the 

proposed plant. The Rochester Hills and Big Four leases 

continue to ship 75 tons of ore per day. The Nevada Packard 
is shipping three to four cars per month, with an occasional 
car from other leases in the district. A feeling of optimism' 
pervades the camp. 

Rochester, July 9. 

In June there was 1400 tons of ore worth $35,000 shipped 
from Rochester. The average value of ore produced in 18 
months was about $25 per ton. 

Lincoln County 

On account of the success of the chlorination process at 
Park City, Utah, a local syndicate is planning to use the 
process to treat the low-grade lead-silver-zinc ores of Pioche. 
Old dumps contain a good deal of lead-silver-gold ore. 
Nye County 

An excellent brochure, 'Tonopah: Past, Present, and Future,' 
has been published by Charles A. Stoneham & Co. of New 
York. It consists of 16 pages with good illustrations of mines 
and mills, and also claim maps in silver tint. The history 
of the camp is described, and all necessary details are given 
to enable mining men to understand the properties being 

developed and producing silver. During the week ended 

July 4, the mines produced 9252 tons of ore worth $254,620. In 
the quarter ended May 31, 1914, the Belmont company's rev- 
enue was $829,962, of which $454,351 was profit. The avail- 
able resources amount to $1,447,761. The West End Consol- 
idated Co. has filed an answer to the Jim Butler Tonopah 
Mining Co. in the latter's suit concerning wrongful extraction 
of ore. During May the Extension made a profit of $19,090. 
There have been labor troubles during the past week at 
Tonopah, and it appears that the I. W. W. is about to make 
itself a nuisance as elsewhere of late. Extensive development 
is being started at the Jim Butler claims. The Montana mill 
is treating 150 tons per day. 

Storey County 

The U. S. Bureau of Mines rescue car No. 5 arrived at Vir- 
ginia City from Ely on July 6. in charge of E. Steidle and 

G. W. Riggs. On July 8 and 9 there was instruction on 
the 1000 and 2500-ft. levels of the C. & C. shaft with oxygen 
helmets, also in injuries of all kinds. As a result of this 
visit, two efficient teams have been developed here. The car 
left for Goldfield on July 11. 

White Pine County 
A mine-rescue and first-aid contest was held at Ely on July 
4 under the joint auspices of the American Red Cross and 
the U. S. Bureau of Mines. The rescue contest of $50 was 
won by a team from the Nevada Consolidated company's Vet- 
eran mine, captain J. C. Metcalf, with H. P. Carten, E. L. 
Vetter, W. J. Murphy, and Patrick Friel. The problem used 
in this event was as follows: Fire in miniature mine. Res- 
cue team explores imaginary smoke area, rescuing miner 
overcome by gas and smoke; every safety precaution as prac- 
tised by the U. S. Bureau of Mines being observed. In the 
first-aid contest of $75, the Copper Flat team won, captain 
C. H. Kay, with A. P. Bufflngton, R. F. Workman, W. R. Work- 
man, and John Minnock. There were also Greek and Jap- 
anese teams from McGill, who were trained in army tactics 
in their respective countries. The Japanese team is prob- 
ably the only Japanese first-aid team in America. Problems 


used in the drill were as follows. One-man events: (1) Miner 
loading round of holes; puts off shot; he is overcome by pow- 
der smoke; rescue patient and restore breathing; burned 
about face and chin. (2) Man found under fall of roof, suf- 
fering from following injuries: fracture of sixth, seventh, and 
eighth ribs on left side, fracture of left kneecap. (3) Miner 
starting hole with piston drill: helper struck in left eye by 
flying chips; cut eye, severe bleeding; falls back, spraining 
left wrist. (4) Man working in smelter severely burned on 
right side and right forearm by explosion of matte pot. 

(5) Brakeman on slag train slips on rail, engine runs over 
left leg, cutting it off 4 in. above knee; man severely shocked. 

(6) Demonstrate four methods of one-man carry, including 
assistance to walk. In the two-man events were to be shown 
three methods of two-man carry. 

According to Safety First, the Nevada Consolidated com- 
pany's monthly bulletin, there were no accidents at either 
the Veteran mine or concentrator, but at Copper Flat there 
were 15 disabling accidents. The large concrete central hos- 
pital at East Ely is described and illustrated in this bulletin. 

Jackson County 
(Special Correspondence.)— The Purkeypile mine, in the 
Gold Hill district, has been bonded by southern Oregon men. 
A stamp-mill and other equipment has been ordered from San 
Francisco. The mine's output to date is over $75,000. Gold 
Hill mines are fairly active, judging by gold receipts at the 
local bank. 

Gold Hill. July 10. 

July 18, 1914 




Bkaveb County 

Sixty tons of gold ore, averaging $1000 per ton, is being 
mined from No. 1 and 2 levels of the Sheep Rock mine, in 
the Newton district. The Beaver Gold Mines Corporation 
owns this property and a number of claims adjoining. 
Juab County 

First-class ore amounting to 3656 cars or 182,800 tons, and 
worth $4,570,000, was shipped from the Tintic district during 
the first half of 1914. The shippers were as follows in car- 
loads: Centennial-Eureka. 632: Mammoth, 605; Chief Con- 
solidated. 483; Iron Blossom, 462; Eagle & Blue Bell, 325; 
Grand Central, 289; Gemini, 286; Victoria, 119; Gold Chain, 
89; Beck Tunnel, 56; May Day, 55; Colorado, 49; Bullion 
Beck, 29; Dragon Consolidated, 28; Uncle Sam, 26; Scranton, 
25; Opohongo, 15; Sharp, 11; Lower Mammoth, 8; Godiva, 
9; Carisa lease, 12; Eureka Hill, 3; Yankee, 5; Tintic Stand- 
ard, 1; Swansea Consolidated, 1; United Ore Sampler, 2; 
United Tintic, 4 ; Black Jack, 5 ; Ridge & Valley, 2 ; Victor 
lease, 3; Salvador lease, 1; E. L. Davis lease, 1; Leaver lease, 
1; East Tintic Development, 2; Clift, 1; Sunbeam, 3; Minnie 
Moore, 4; Showers, 4; and Tesora, 1 car. 

Small shoots of rich gold-silver-copper ore are found at 
700, 800, and 900 ft. in the Grand Central mine, and two cars 
of this ore are shipped each month. About 100 tons in June 

returned the Company $10,000. Electric equipment is being 

installed in the Gold Chain mine. 


Okanogan County 

(Special Correspondence.)— Two stamp-mills are now work- 
ing in the Similkameen part of this county, both under the 
management of the United Mines, of which J. L. Harper is 
the leading man. At the Owasco are 10 stamps and Wilfley 
tables, and a ball-mill is being added to increase the mills' 
capacity to 60 tons per day. Concentrate sent to the Green- 
wood smelter assayed $90 per ton. The mill at Night Hawk 
has 20 stamps and four Wilfley tables, treating ore from the 
Caaba mine. 

Nighthawk, June 20. 


The total value of gold, silver, and copper In this state in 
1913 was $84,474, an increase of $57,527 over that of 1912, 
according to the U. S. Geological Survey. There were 15 
producing mines, of which six were deep and nine were 
placer. Silicious ore amounted to 3272 tons, and copper ore 
964 tons. The yields were 1170 oz. gold, 957 oz. silver, and 
385,239 lb. copper. Placer mines produced $1407. Four deep 
mines and three placer mines in the Atlantic City district 
of Fremont county produced $23,276 gold and 115 oz. silver. 
In Platte county, the Sunrise mine shipped a good tonnage 
of silver-bearing copper ore; and several cars of copper ore 
from the Green Hope mine. Wyoming has produced since 
1867, $1,191,178 gold, 58,680 oz. silver, and 26.383,318 lb. cop- 
per, with a total value of $5,378,908. 



(Special Correspondence.) — There have been several re- 
ports of oil and gas finds in the Calgary district, but most 
of them are unfounded. The Monarch well had a few 'drops' 
of oil. It is down 4i)0 ft. below that point, with no further 
development. Work is being done at the Lady Betty well. 
There are several small anticlines between this place and 
the United States boundary line which are worth a test, but 
In the 4500 square miles examined by four engineers, there 
is no large field of value along the Rocky Mountain front. 

Calgary, July 4. 

The Lineham area near Oil City has been purchased by 
a Calgary syndicate for $150,000 cash. The oil excitement 
continues, and there are five exchanges open in Calgary. 

British Columbia 
Zinc ore production of Kootenai and Boundary mines in 
June was 655 tons, against 301 tons in June 1913. This ore 
goes to the United States. The Lucky Jim produced no 
ore last month, while the Rambler-Cariboo, Van Roi, and 
Standard shipped 82, 32, and 541 tons, respectively. 

A good deal of work is being done in the Rocher de Boule 
district, according to The Chalcopyrite of Skeena Crossing. 
The Montana Continental Development Co., and the Hudson 
Bay Mining Co. have extensive developments planned and 
under way. An aerial tram is nearly completed by the former 
concern. A long shoot of ore has been exposed by trenching 
at the Fiddle Creek claims owned by Lew Knauss. An adit 
has opened gold-silver-lead-copper ore worth $39.60, the gold 
content being about $28 per ton. A 45-ft. adit driven in the 
Brunswick claims, has opened chalcopyrite, containing silver. 
Good specimens of bornite were recently brought in from 
Driftwood river. 

A new copper furnace has been blown-in at the Trail smelter, 
making a total of four for the copper-gold ore of the Rossland 
district. The tonnage now required from the mines is about 
1000 per day. against 6t)0 to 700 tons formerly. In June, the 
Rossland mines produced 22,811 tons of ore. 

Mineral returns published by the Bureau of Mines for the 
first quarter of 1914 are as follows: 

Quantity. 1914. 1913. 

Gold, fine ounces 61.032 $1,202,502 $1,030,910 

Silver, ounces 6.519.860 3.549,556 4,040,450 

Copper, toiiF 4,135 591,988 436,328 

Nickel, tons 6.641 1,446,012 1,309.870 

lion ore, tons 4,536 12,928 25,695 

Pig iron, tons 184,086 2,503,450 2,506,175 

Cobalt, tons 33 8,898 ■ 

Cobalt and nickel oxides 248,001 168.965 120,500 

Total $9,484,299 $9,469,938 

Silver production of Cobalt showed a decrease of 680.198 

The Buffalo mill treated 6307 tons of ore in May, averaging 
18.66 oz. silver per ton. There was 93,326 oz. recovered, and 
173,747 oz. was paid for during the month. 

Draining Cobalt lake will not commence until October, 
when all preliminary work will lie finished. In five weeks 
or so further excavation will be made to lower the water 

about 6'... ft. The pumps and motors are now on the site. 

The mill at the Temiskaming and Hudson Bay mine has 
been shut down. The mine became a steady producer in 
1907. Dividends paid since 1905 amounted to $1,940,250, equal 

to 25,0009? on the capital of 7460 shares. At 100 ft. in 

the Cochrane mine, 3 to 5 in. of 2000-oz. ore has been opened. 

A 10-ft. raise is still in ore. Development In slate at No. 

1, and in conglomerate at No. 5 level of the Penn-Canadian 

has opened good ore. The Dome mill treated 16,180 tons 

of ore yielding $62,109 in May. The Nipissing high and 

low -grade mills treated 202 and 6672 tons of ore respectively 
in June, and the refinery shipped 619,316 oz. silver. No. 64 
vein was cut at 900 ft., where it is from 4 to 7 ft. wide, but 
low grade. 



A Mexican pumpman, working at the Sierra de Cobre mine. 
near Cananea, was stabbed to death last week. The whole 
camp is now idle, only pumps at the Capote mine being at 
work. Colonel Calles is in command of about son troops. 



July 18, 1914 

standing; at least three years' subsequent experience in test- 
ing structural materials and in computations; and two years' 
field work in mining, since graduation from college, are 
prerequisites for consideration for this position. 

Philip Argall was in the San Juan this week. 
J. W. Gregory has gone to Australia and China. 
Charles Janin is expected in New York July 20. 
A. S. Howe has returned from Arizona and gone to New 

R. E. Cranston has gone to Cripple Creek from New York 
on professional business. 

Walter N. Vance has resigned as topographer in the United 
States Geological Survey. 

Frederick G. Cottrell has been appointed chief chemist of 
the United States Bureau of Mines. 

E. N. Barbot de Marny, of St. Petersburg, Russia, was in 
San Francisco on his way to Alaska. 

J. D. Hubbard, Seeley W. Mudd, and W. Y. Westervelt were 
among San Francisco visitors Wednesday. 

E. K. Soper has returned to Minneapolis from northern 
Manitoba, where he has been making examinations. 

Colin Fraser. formerly on the staff of the geological survey 
of New Zealand, is inspecting the Mt. Morgan mine, Queens- 

J. 0. Hudson, senior inspector of mines at Kalgoorlie, West- 
ern Australia, has been appointed chief inspector of mines 
for Tasmania. 

H. M. Kingsbury has left the Conrey Placer Mining Co., at 
Ruby, Montana, to accept a position with the Kyshtim Cor- 
poration at its mines in Russia. Mr. Kingsbury left New York 
for London July 7. 

Warren D. Smith has resigned as chief of the division of 
mines, Bureau of Science, Manila, P. I., to become head of the 
geological department, University of Oregon. Mr. Smith will 
spend the summer at Madison, Wisconsin. 

George B. Church has resigned his position as head of 
the engineering department for the Goldfield Consolidated 
Mines Co.. after a service of more than seven years, and 
has accepted a similar position with the Dome Mines Com- 

D. C. Jackling returned to Salt Lake City on July 12 from 
Juneau and a brief stay at Butte. Mr. Jackling will be in 
Salt Lake City for two weeks and will then go to Chicago 
and again to Alaska and back to Salt Lake City by the end 
of August. 

VV. L. Saunders, A. R. Ledoux. George F. Krxz, John Hays 
Hammond. J. F. Kemp, W. R. Ingalls, B. B. Lawrence. Brad- 
ley Stoughton, and E. Gybbon Spilsbury joined jn giving a 
luncheon at the Downtown Club in New York, July 2, to C. 
F. Rand, in recognition of the presentation to him of the 
Order of Isabella by the King of Spain. 

In the Department of Geology of Northwestern University, 
the following appointments have been made, to take effect 
on September 1, 1914: Joseph E. Pogue, of the United States 
Geological Survey, to be associate professor of geology and 
mineralogy; William H. Haas, of the University of Chicago, 
to be instructor in geology and geography; Henry R. Aldrich. 
of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, to be instructor 
in mining and metallurgy; and John R. Ball, of Northwest- 
ern University, to be assistant in geology. 

The U. S. Civil Service Commission announces an open com- 
petitive examination for assistant engineer of mine tests. 
From the register of eligibles resulting from this examination 
certification will be made to fill a vacancy in this position in 
the Bureau of Mines, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, at a salary 
ranging from $1800 to $2400 per year. An educational train- 
ing equivalent to that required for the degree of bachelor of 
mining engineering from a college or university of recognized 

George D. Whitcomb, president of the mining machinery 
firm that carried his name, and who died at Glendora, Cali- 
fornia, two weeks ago, was one of the pioneers in his line. 
He began in the coal mines, and, being of an inventive turn 
of mind, developed the Whitcomb pick mining machine. This 
led him into manufacturing, first of the pick machine itself, 
and later of gasoline locomotives and other machines for mine 
use. He built up a large business with a plant at Rochelle, 
Illinois. Though over 80 years of age at the time of his death 
and resident in another state, he retained his keen interest in 
the business. The active management has been for some years 
in the hands of his son. 

American Institute of Mining Engineers, Salt Lake City 10-14 

British Association, Adelaide, South Australia 8 

Canadian Mining Institute, Rocky Mountain branch, 

Lake Superior Mining Institute, Ishpeming, Michigan.. 

31 to Sept. 3 

American Chemical Society, Montreal 15-18 

American Institute of Electrical Engineers not fixed 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver 3 

Illuminating Engineering Society, Cleveland 21-25 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 9 

American Iron and Steel Institute 23-24 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver 3 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 13 

Colorado Scientific Society, Denver ? 


American Institute of Electrical Engineers 11 

American Museum of Safety 11-20 

American Society of Mechanical Engineers 7-8 

Lehigh University summer school in mine surveying was 
held this year at Hazleton, Pennsylvania. Sixteen men took 
part in the work, which consisted of surveying a portion of 
the Wharton coal seam. 

The South Dakota School of Mines, at Rapid City, has 
issued its Annual Catalog. The school year starts on Septem- 
ber 1G. There are 12 instructors in the faculty. In its 110 
pages, this publication gives all details of the school and 
courses given. 

The second International Safety Exposition will be held 
in New York City, December 12 to 19 at the Grand Central 
Palace, under the direction of the American Museum of 
Safety. The purpose of the exposition is to show how the 
health and safety of the worker is being looked after in the 
various American industries, manufacturing, trades, railroad- 
ing, building, business, and engineering, as well as the methods 
which have been adopted for the welfare and education of 

July 18, 1914 






Weekly Summary of Prices of Shares and Metals 

Stocks airndl Boiiadls 


(San Francisco Stock and Bond Exchange.) 
July 15. 









8 — 



Pac. Port. Cement 6s... 
Santa Cruz Cement 6s. 



General Petroleum 6s 



Union Oil 








Amalgamated Oil 



West Coast, pfd 


Associated oil 




Du Pont, pfd 



General Petroleum 





Noble Electric Steel 


Pac. Cst. Borax, com.. 



Pac. Port. Cement. 


Sterling O. 4 D 



Riverside Cement _ 

Santa Cruz Cement 

Union Oil 


Stand. Port. Cement ... 



(By courtesy of San Francisco Stock Exchange.) 
July 16. 

Atlanta f .14 

Belcher 40 

Belmont 6 15 

Con. Virginia 14 

Florence 36 

Goldfleld Con 1.40 

Goldfleld Oro .09 ' sierra Nevada 

Halifax 40 ] Tonopah Extension . 

Jim Butler 1.00 

Jumbo Extension .18 

MacNamara 01 

Mexican .45 

Midway 19 

Mlzpah Kxtenslon 22 


Nevada Hills 

North Star 


Pittsburg Silver Peak , 
Round Mountain 

Tonopah Merger 

Tonopah of Nevada . 



West End _ 

Yellow Jacket 




..$ .56 

.. .30 


.. .16 


.. .39 

.. .06 

.. 2.15 


.. 7.00 

.. .12 

.. .30 



(Latest Quotations.) 
Bid. Ask 


Brunswick Con. 
Bunker Hill . . . 
Central Eureka. 





Kennedy $8.00 

Mountain King 

South Eureka 1.37 


(By courtesy of J. C Wilson. Mills Building.) 
July 16. 

Bid Ask 

Allouez ? 38) 39i 

Ariz. Commercial 45 4j 

Butte 4 Superior 36 36J 

Calumet 4 Arizona 64) 64J 

Calumet 4 Hecla 400 410 

Copper Range 35J 36 

East Butte 9J 10 

Franklin 4) 4) 

Granby 78 78) 

Greene Cananea 31 31) 

Isle Royale 18) 19) 

Mass Copper 4j 4) 

Mohawk 44 45 


Nevada (on S 13) 

North Hutte 24) 

Old Dominion 49 

Os eola 76 

Qulncy 55 

Shannon 6 

Superior 4 Boston li 

Tamarack 34 

'■ S. Smelting, com 3ij 

Utah Con I) 

Verde _ 75 

Winona 2J 

Wolverine 38J 


(By courtesy of J. C. Wilson, Mills Building.) 
July 16. 


Amalgamated 8 69) 

Anaconda 30) 

A.S. A R», com 65) 

Calif. Pet., com 21 J 

I'll I no 40} 

Guggenheim Ex 53) 

Inspiration 19 

Mexican Pet., com 64 




Miami | 22i 

Nevada Con „ Kit 

Quicksilver, com 1 

Ray Con _ 20j 

Tenn. ('upper _ 32j 

U. 8 Steel, pfd 109) 

U. 8. Steel, com 60J 

64) : Utah Copper.. 













(By courtesy of E. F. Hutton & Co., Kohl Building.) 
July 16. 
27 Vs 



Alaska Gold 26% 

Braden Copper... 7% 

B. C. Copper 1% 

Con. Cop. Mines.. 1% 

Davis-Daly V4 

First National.. . . 1% 

Hollinger 18V4 

Iron Blossom .... 1 V 4 

Kerr Lake 5% 

La Rose ?4 



Mason Valley . . . . 
McKinley-Dar. .. . 
Mines Co. Am. . . . 


Ohio Copper 

Stand. Oil of Cal. 

Tri Bullion 


United Cop. com. 
Yukon Gold 















(By cable, through the courtesy of Hollister. Lyon & Wi 
New York.) 
July 16. 

Alaska Mexican 1 

Alaska Treadwell 7 

Alaska United 3 

Arizona 1 

Camp Bird 

Cobalt Townsite 1 

El Oro 


Granville u 

Kern River Oilfields 





Mexican Eagle, com 

Mexico Mines 4 

Messina 1 


Pacific Oilfields 

KloTinto ,, ((8 

Santa Gertrudis 

Tanganyika 1 

Tomboy 1 
















©tail Pne@§ 



San Francisco, July 10. 

9 — 9 % c 

Electrolytic copper 15 1514c 

P| K Lead 415 _ 5A0 

Quicksilver (flask) $37.50 

Tln 39 — 40Vfcc 

Spelter 6V4— 6%c 

Zinc dust. 100 kg. zinc-lined cases. 7% to 8c. per pound. 


(By wire from New York.) 
NEW YORK, July 16. — All metals are quiet and weak. What 
copper gained Inst week, it lust this week, prices being just the 
reverse. While there is a good turn-over of shares on the Stock 
Exchange, investors and others are holding hack. In St. Louis, 
lead and spelter are dull at 3.75 and 4.80c. respectively. Bar 
silver is weak in London at 25V4d. (50.5 cents) per ounce. 


Below are given tile average New York quotations in cents 
per ounce, of line silver. 

Date. Average week ending 

July 9 56.12 June 3 56.52 

" 10 56.48 

" 17 56.56 

" 21 56.24 

July 1 56.58 

8 56.42 

" 15 55.60 


11 . . SK 87 

1 2 Sunday 


Ja n. 


.1 uue 


Monthly averages. 

58 21 





. 59 : 


The primary market for quicksilver is San Francisco. Cali- 
fornia being the largest producer. The price is fixed in the 
open market, and, as quoted weekly in this column, is that at 

which moderate quantities are sold. Buyers by tl arload can 

usually obtain a slight reduction, and those wanting hut a flask 



July 18, 1914 

or two must expect to pay a slightly higher price. Average 
weekly and monthly quotations. In dollars per flask of 75 lb., 
are given below: 

Julv 2 38.50 

9 37.50 

Week ending 

June 18 38.50 

•• 25 38.50 


• 1913. 

Jan 39.37 

Feb 41.00 

Mch 40.20 

Apr 41.00 

May 40.25 

June 41.00 


'• 16 37.50 


1913. 1914. 

Julv 41.00 

Aug 40.50 

Sept 39.70 

Oct 39.37 

Nov 39.40 .... 

Utt 40.00 


Quotations on copper as published in this column represent 
average wholesale transactions on the New York market and 
refer to electrolytic copper. Lake copper commands normally 
1-5 to l-4c. per lb. more. Prices are in cents per pound. 


Julv 9 13.60 

•• 10 13.55 

11 13.50 

•' 12 Sunday " 21. 

" 13 13.45 July 1. 

" 14 13.40 " 8. 

" 15 13.35 " 15. 

Monthly averages 

Average week ending 

June 3 13.86 

10 13.75 

17 13.65 


1913. 1914. 

Jan 16.54 14.21 

Feb 14.93 14.46 

Mch 14.72 14.11 

Apr 15.22 14.19 

Mav 15.42 13.97 

June 14.71 13.60 

Lead is quoted in cents per 
pounds. New York delivery. 


July 14.21 

Aug 15.42 

Sept 16.23 

Oct 16.31 

Nov 15.08 

Dec 14.25 

pound or dollars per hundred 

July 9 

•' 10 

" 11 

" 12 

" 13 

" 14 

" 15 




Jan 4.28 

Feb 4.33 

Mch 4.32 

Apr 4.36 

Mav 4.34 

June 4.33 

. . . 3.90 

... 3.90 

... 3.90 




4 02 





June 3 

" 10 

" 17 

" 24 

Julv 1 

week ending 

" 15 



July 4.35 

Aug 4.60 

Sept 4.70 

Oct 4.37 

Nov 4.16 

Dec 4.02 



Zinc is quoted as spelter, standard Western brands, St. Louis 
delivery, in cents per pound. 




12 Sunday 

. 5.23 




" 10 

" 17 

" 24 

July 1 

week ending 







" 15 



.... 5.11 






.... 5.09 


. 5.00 




New York prices control in the American market for t 
the metal is almost entirely imported. San Francisco qu 
average about 5c. per lb. higher. Below are given 
monthly New York quotations, in cents per pound: 
Monthly averages. 

in. since 

1913. 1914.. 

Jan 50.45 37.85 

Feb 49.07 39.76 

Mch 46.95 38.10 

Apr 49.00 36.10 

Mav 49.10 33.29 

June 45.10 30.72 


July 40.70 

Aug 41.75 

Sept 42 45 

Oct 40.61 

Nov 39.77 

Dec 37.57 


Report of the Mine Inspector for the territory of Alaska, 
to the Secretary of the Interior, for the fiscal year ended June 
30, 1913. P. 10. This was mentioned in this journal of June 
6, 1914. 

Abrasive materials consumed in the United States In 1913 
were worth $4,582,949, an increase of $665,056 over 1912. 


This is the twenty-second annual issue of this Halberstadt, 

Germany, firm's 'Statistical Compilations About Copper,' and 
has been forwarded by L. Vogelstein & Co., its representative 

in New York. Production of the world in 1913 was 993,200 
long tons, compared with 1,005,740 tons in 1912, from the 
following countries: 

, -Long tons , Proportion 

Country. 1912. 1913. of total, %. 

United States 550,030 546,300 55.00 

Japan 65,000 72,000 7.25 

Spain and Portugal 58,000 53,000 5.34 

Mexico 72,400 52,000 5.24 

Australia 45,500 46,500 4.68 

Chile 37,000 39,400 3.97 

Canada 33,500 34,000 3.42 

Russia 33,000 33,800 3.40 

Germany 30,500 30,500 3.08 

Peru 27,400 25,700 2.59 

Sweden and Norway 13,600 14,000 1.41 

South Africa 7,000 9,000 0.91 

♦Katanga 2,500 7,200 0.72 

♦German Southwest Africa 6,000 6,500 0.65 

♦Servia 6,000 6,000 0.60 

Austria-Hungary 3,960 4,100 0.41 

Bolivia 2,000 3,500 0.35 

Italy 2,350 2,200 0.22 

Turkey (estimated) 500 500 0.05 

Newfoundland 1,000 

tMiscellaneous (estimated) 8,500 7,000 0.71 

Total 1,005,740 993,200 

♦Hitherto included in miscellaneous. 

flncluding Cuba, Venezuela, Argentina, North Africa, and 

The consuming countries are as follows: 

1912. 1913. 

Country. Long tons. Long tons. 

Germany 243,173 256,566 

France 106.753 107,283 

England 147,551 147,434 

Austra-Hungary 50,590 41,021 

Russia 38,818 39,475 

Italy 34.37S 30,891 

Belgium and Holland 13,000 13,000 

Scandinavia 7,500* 8,500* 

Rest of Europe 2,500* 3,000» 

Total Europe 644,263 647,170 

North America 365,922 342.52S 

Rest of America 3,000^ 3,000* 

Total America 368,922 345,528 

China 4,000* 5,000* 

Japan and rest of Asia 27,000* 32,000* 

Africa and Australia 1,000* 1,700* 

Total world consumption 1,045,185 1.031,398 

•Estimated. Australia uses 1000 tons of Its refined copper, 
and imported copper manufactures (no brass included) of 
4906 tons in 1913 from England. 

Stocks of metal at the beginning of 1913 were 55,000 tons 
in America and 43.101 tons in the rest of the world: and at 
the end of 1913, 40,822 tons in America and 29,519 tons in the 
rest of the world. The Hamburg Metal Exchange handled 239,- 
250 tons compared with 252,000 tons in 1912, and HHi.OOO tons 
in 1911. The German electrical industry absorbed about 479fc 
of that country's total Russian production included 17,280 tons 
from the Urals, 5651 tons from Siberia, 10,008 tons from the 
Caucasus, and 1375 tons from chemical works. 

July 18, 1914 



MonaftMy C@pp@)r Prodkcttloira 

ANACONDA COPPER MINING CO.. Butte, Montana. $108,312,- 
500 In $25 shares; controlled through Amalgamated Copper Co. 
which owns 3,185,240 shares by Thos. F. Cole, J. D. Ryan, and 
Standard Oil Interests; 10,000-ton concentrator and smelter at 
Anaconda; 5000-ton concentrator and smelter at Great Falls, 
Mont.; also 70-ton electrolytic refining plant at Great Falls. 
Production figures include copper from all companies which 
ship custom ore to Anaconda smelters. Total in 1913, 270,301,- 
644 lb. copper, 64,898 oz. gold, and 10,321,296 oz. silver. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 21,300,000 May 23,500,000 

March 23,800,000 June 23,800,500 

April 22,900,000 m 

ARIZONA COPPER CO., LTD., MorencI, Arizona. £703,894, of 
which £379,974 is in 5s. ordinary shares, £500.000 in 5% deben- 
tures; controlled by Edinburgh investors; mill at Morenci is 
being enlarged to 3000-ton capacity and a new 1200-ton smelter 
near Clifton has just been started. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

March 3,286,000 May 3.092,000 

April 3,570,000 June 3,742,000 

BRADEN COPPER CO., La Junta, Chile. $2,332,030 in $10 
shares and $4,000,000 in 6% convertible bonds; entire stock held 
by Braden Copper Mines Co.; $14,000,000 in $5 shares; $4,000,000 
in 6% convertible bonds, $3,000,000 7% bonds controlled by 
Guggenheim interests; two mills at La Junta; 3000-ton capacity 
smelter at Racagua. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 2.362,000 May 2,480,000 

March 1,801,000 June 662,000 

April 2,720,000 

$2,958,545 in $5 shares; owns 63% of the stock of the New 
Dominion Copper Co; controlled by Newman Erb; 600-ton sam- 
pling plant and 2500-ton smelter. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 
February 572,571 March 682,867 

$6,285,710 In $10 shares; has absorbed the Superior & Pittsburg 
Copper Co. by stock exchange; controlled by Hoatson and other 
Lake Superior Interests: 3000-ton smelter at Douglas. Total 
In 1913, 52,987.383 lb., 880,915 oz. silver, 18,989 oz. gold. Monthly 
returns include the Shattuck-Arizona. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 5,948.900 May 6. 480, 000 

March 5.870.000 June 5.S62.300 

April 5,450,000 

CALUMET A HECLA MINING CO., Calumet. Michigan. 
$2,500,000 in $25 shares; controls the Ahmeek. Allouez, Centen- 
nial, Isle Royale, La Salle, Osceola, Tamarack, and Superior 
copper mining companies, as well as a number that are non- 
productive; controlled by Agassiz and Shaw interests; 2 mills on 
Lake Linden, capacity 15,000 tons; smelter Hubbell. Mich.; elec- 
trolytic refinery and smelter at Buffalo, N. Y.; figures Include 
output of subsidiaries. Total in 1913, from Calumet & Hecla 
alone, 45,016,890 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

May 9,299,307 June 10,472,124 

Sonora, Mexico. Capital MO. 000 in shares of PlOO; entire stock 
owned by Greene Consolidated Copper Co.; $10,000,000 In $10 
shares; 945.320 shares are held by Greene Cananea Copper Co.; 
$50,000,000 in $100 shares, which is controlled by Tho&. F. Cole 
and J. D. Ryan; 30,800 shares held by the Amalgamated Copper 
Co.; 2 mills and smelter at Cananea, 3000-ton capacity. Total 
in 1913, 37,050,574 pounds. Output does not include copper from 
custom ores. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 2.282,000 April 2,044,000 

March 3.510.000 May 1,487,000 

CERRO de PASCO MINING CO, Cerro de Pasco, Peru. 
$10,000,000; entire stock held by Cerro de Pasco Copper Co.; 
$60,000,000 in $1 shares which is owned by Cerro de Pasco In- 
vestment Co.. which Is controlled by J. B. Haggin. and Morgan 
estate; 3000-ton smelter at La FundlcJon; monthly production 
figures not given out: output In 1912 was 45.000.000 lb. copper. 

CHINO COPPER CO., Santa Rita, New Mexico. 4.302.700 in 
$5 shares; 121.200 shares are held by Guggenheim Exploration 
Co.: controlled by Sherwood Aldrich and C. M MacNeill; 5000- 
ton mill at Hurley. N. M. : concentrate smelted at El Paso 

Month. Pounds. M"nth P«un«1« 

February 5.769.»4k April R. 109.888 

March 5.399.814 May 5.666.881 

000 in $5 shares; $3,500,000 in 7% convertible bonds; is a recent 
merger of the Giroux, Butte & Ely, Chainman, and Copper- 
mines companies, controlled by Thos. F. Cole, Wm. B. Thomp- 
son, Charles F. Rand, and Jas. Phillips, Jr.; reduction plant 
not yet built; production so far derived solely from Giroux; 
ore treated at Nevada Con. smelter. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

January 1914 148,411 April 471,369 

March 287,980 May 442,838 

Arizona. $2,000,000 in $10 shares; owns 100,000 shares of 
Greene Cananea; almost all its stock is held by Phelps, Dodge 
& Co., Inc.; $44,995,000 in $100 shares; 4000-ton smelting plant 
at Douglas, Ariz. Total in 1913, 85.389,630 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 6,448.770 May 7,897,070 

March 7,122,739 June 7,184,928 

April 6,922,390 

Michigan, $39,371,000, in $100 shares; owns 99,659 shares of 
Baltic M. Cc, 99,699 shares Copper Range M. Co.. 99.345 shares 
of Tri-mountain M. Co., half interest in Champion Copper Co., 
16.392 shares of Copper Range R. R. Co., and $870,000 in Copper 
Range R. R. bonds; controlled by Wm. A. Paine; production 
Is derived from the Baltic, Champion, and Tri-mountain com- 
panies, each of which mills its ore; concentrate is smelted by 
Michigan Smelting Co., Houghton, which is owned by mining 
companies. Total in 1913, 24,852,026 pounds. Reports only 
'mineral' containing 60 to 70<7r copper. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 3,518,000 May 5,908,000 

March 3.834.000 June 6.232,000 

April 4.428,000 

CORDOBA COPPER CO., LTD.. Cordoba, Seville. Spain. £182.- 
891 In 5s. shares. 200-ton concentrator, Murex plant for re- 
treating middling, 200-ton smelting plant. 

Month. Pounds. 
May 990,000 

DETROIT COPPER MIXING CO.. Morenci. Ariz. $1,000,000 in 
$25 shares; owned by Phelps. Dodge & Co.; 1300-ton mill and 
350-ton smelter. Total in 1913, 22,352,299 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 1,814,214 May 2.105,534 

March 1,973,725 June 2,129,100 

April 1.790.926 

EAST Bl'TTE COPPER MINING CO., Butte, Mont. 4.110,000 
in $10 shares; owns 83% of the stock and all bonds of the 
Plttsmont Copper Co., which holds 90% of the stock and all 
bonds of Pittsburgh & Montana Copper Co.; controlled by Wm. 
A. Paine: 350-ton mill and 1000-ton custom smelter. Total in 
1913. 14,401,108 pounds. 

Month. • Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 1,182,063 April 1.178.080 

March 1.530.717 May 1,179,762 

CO., LTD., Phoenix and Hidden Creek, British Columbia. $14,- 
998,500 in $100 shares; $1,497,200 in 6% convertible bonds; con- 
trolled by General Chemical Co. interests; 4400-ton smelter at 
Grand Forks and 2000-ton smelter at Anyox. Total in 1913, 
21,511,747 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 1,661,212 April 1,692,102 

March 1,775.852 May 1,669,334 

GREAT COBAR, LIMITED, Cobar, New South Wales. £1.000,- 
000 in 200,000 shares of £5 each; also 6% first-mortgage deben- 
tures. Operates gold, copper, and coal mines, coke works, 
dotation concentration plant, blast-furnaces, and a refining 
plant. During past fiscal year treated 361.566 tons for 13.016,640 
lb. copper, 27,136 oz. gold, and 127,542 oz. silver. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 898.240 March 896,000 

curry, Queensland. £400.000 in shares of £1 each; 350,000 issued. 
During past fiscal year treated 24,744 tons for 5,815,040 lb. 
copper, 818 oz. gold, and 24,457 oz. silver. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

March 1.332,800 May 1,473,920 

April 1,126,720 

KVSIITIM CORPORATION. LTD., Kyshtlm, Perm, Russia. 
£1,002,800 in £1 shares, £650,000 in 6'', debentures, convertible at 
£2 10s. 1000-ton smelting plant at Karabash, also electrolytic 
pl-Tt to Ireat all copper produce,!. Blister- production: 

Montli. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

Mar. 13 to April 11 ... 1.666,500 April 12 to May 17. . .1.783,280 



July 18, 1914 

MASON VALLEY MINES CO., Yerington, Nev. $770,000 in $5 
shares; $1,000,000 in 6% convertible bonds; controlled by W. B. 
Thompson; 1000-ton smelter at Thompson, Nev., also smelts ore 
of Nevada-Douglas Copper Co. and custom ore; smelter pro- 
duction. Total in 1913, 14.694,000 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 1,254,000 May 916,000 

March 992,000 June 1,068,000 

April 862,000 

sina, Transvaal. £165,451 in 5s. shares. Controlled by Leslie 
and H. C. Hoover. 250-ton mill and small smelter; ships con- 
centrate to Europe. 

Month. Pounds. 
May 920,000 

MIAMI COPPER CO., Miami, Ariz. 746,935 $5 shares issued; 
$22,000 in 6% bonds convertible at $17 outstanding; controlled 
by General Development Co. (Lewisohn interests), 3000-ton mill 
at Miami; concentrate smelted at Cananea. Total in 1913, 
33,944,795 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 3,193,300 May 3,347,000 

March 3,361,100 June 3,124,759 

April 3,227,600 

MOCTEZUMA COPPER CO., Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico. $2,000,- 
000; entire stock owned by Phelps, Dodge & Co.; 2000-ton 
mill; concentrate smelted by Copper Queen. Total in 1913, 
36.694,013 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 2,642,543 May 2,834,616 

March 2,882,884 June 3,330,807 

April 2,654,976 

MOHAWK MINING CO., Mohawk, Mich. $2,500,000 in $25 
shares; controlled by Stanton interests; 3000-ton mill, Traverse 
bay; concentrate smelted by Michigan Smelting Co. Total in 
1913, 8,016,000 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

March 790.000 May 688,000 

April 749,000 June 971,000 

Tasmania. 1,300,000 shares of £1 each. Operates an extensive 
copper property, two railways, blast-furnaces, converters, and 
three superphosphate works in Australia. During past fiscal 
half-year treated 165,594 tons for 7,705,600 lb. copper, 231,000 
oz. silver, and 4500 oz. gold. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

Feb. 18 to Mar. 18 1,243,200 May 11 1,214,0S0 

Mar. 19 to Apr. 15 .... 1,042,400 

a large gold and copper mine near Rockhampton, Queensland, 
a pyrite mine, iron and limestone quarries, a coal mine, con- 
centrating plant being built, blast-furnace plant, and controls 
an electrolytic refinery at Port Kembla, New South "Wales. 
During past half-year treated 152,016 tons lor 9,741,960 lb. 
copper and 54,992 oz. gold. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

Mar. 8 to April 5 1.447,040 May 3 to May 31 1,594,880 

285 in $5 shares; has absorbed the Cumberland-Ely Copper 
Co.; controlled by American Smelters Securities Co. through the 
Utah Copper Co., which owns half of the Nevada Con. stock; 
the Nevada company owns the Steptoe Valley Mining & Smelt- 
ing Co., $10,000,000; 16,000-ton mill and 1500-ton smelter at 
McGill, Nevada. Total in 1913, 64,972,829 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 4,588,243 April 4,880,043 

March 5,218,227 May 4,959.589 

OLD DOMINION CO., Globe, Ariz. $7,333,825 in $25 shares. 
Controlled by Phelps, Dodge & Co. Owns 155,353 of 162,000 $25 
shares of Old Dominion Copper Mining & Smelting Co., and all 
the $2,300,000 stock of the United Globe Mines; 300-ton mill, 
2400-ton smelter. Production figures include custom ore 
smelted. Total in 1913, 30,810,000 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 2,066,000 May 3,303,000 

March 2,997.000 June 2,937,000 

April 2,779,000 

$2,403,750 in $25 shares; owned by Calumet & Hecla; 2 mills, 
4000-ton capacity, at Torch Lake. Total in 1913, 11.325,010 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

May 1,411,205 June 1,784,615 

PHELPS. DODGE & CO., Inc. $44,995,000 in $100 shares; con- 
trolled by C. H. Dodge, James Douglas, and others; owns the 
Copper Queen, Moctezuma. Detroit, and Burro Mountain copper 
companies, Stag Canon Fuel Co.; indirectly controls Old Do- 

minion, United Globe, and Commercial Copper Mining Co.; mem- 
bers of the firm control the El Paso & Southwestern railway, 
and have large interests in the Rock Island and Great Northern 
railways. Production figures include all properties under its 
control and copper derived from custom ore, the latter ranging 
from 750,000 to 1,000,000 lb. per month. Total in 1913, 154,454,444 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 11,444,123 May 13,228,353 

March 12,493,651 June 13,113,626 

April 12,008,625 

O.UINCY MINING CO., Hancock, Mich. $2,750,000 in $25 shares; 
controlled by W. R. Todd; 4500-ton mill at Mason; 340-ton 
smelter at Ripley. Reports only pounds of 'mineral,' contain- 
ing 60 to 70% copper. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

April 1,232,000 June 1,588,000 

May 1,400,000 

RAY CONSOLIDATED COPPER CO., Ray, Ariz. $15,875,000 in 
$10 shares; controlled by Sherwood Aldrich and C. M. MacNeill; 
8000-ton mill at Hayden, Ariz.; concentrate smelted in A. S. & 
R. smelter adjoining. Total in '.913, 53,745,934 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 5,600,000 April 6,277,693 

March 6,22',, 617 May 6,495,719 

SHANNON COPPER CO., Metcalf, Ariz. $3,000,000 in $10 
shares; controlled by N L. Amster; 500-ton mill and 1000-ton 
smelter at Clifton. Total in 1913, 13,640,000 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 904,000 May 1,056,000 

March 1,082,000 June 1,056,000 

April 1,012,000 

SHATTUCK ARIZONA COPPER CO., Bisbee, Ariz. $3,500,000 
in $10 shares; controlled by Duluth investors, ore smelted at 
Calumet & Arizona smelter. Total in 1913, 13,219,756 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

March 1,136,458 May 1,353,043 

April 1,386,594 June 1,226,987 

SPASSKY COPPER MINE, LTD., Spassky Zavod, Akmolinsk 
(Kirghiz Steppes), Siberia. £989,815 in £1 shares. Controlled 
by F. H. Hamilton and Arthur Fell. 100-ton smeltiiig plant 
near Karagandy, 74 miles from Yuspensski group of mines. 
Atbasar group is 300 miles distant. Blister output. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 
April 13 to May 13 ... .905,000 May 13 to June 13 907,200 

TAMARACK MINING CO., Calumet, Mich. $1,500,000 in $25 
shares; owned by Calumet & Hecla; 2 mills, 3500-ton capacity, 
at Torch Lake. Total in 1913, 4,142.000 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 
May 149,835 June 424,895 

TENNESSEE COPPER CO., Copperhill, Tenn. $5,000,000 in $25 
shares; $1,000,000 in first mortgage 6% gold bonds; controlled 
by Jas. Phillips, Jr., and associates. Total in 1913, 13,493,140 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 1,232,812 April 1,370,800 

March 1,262,184 May 1,336,950 

$24,313,700 in $50 7% cumulative preferred shares; and $17,553.- 
700 common $50 shares; copper production chiefly derived from 
its subsidiary, the Mammoth Copper Mining Co.. Kennett, Cali- 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 1,629,902 May 1,750,000 

March 1,814.200 June 1,725,000 

April 1,850,000 

UNITED VERDE COPPER CO., Jerome, Ariz. $3,000,000 in 
$10 shares; owned by W. A. Clark; 1000 to 1200-ton smelter at 
Clarkdale; monthly figures not given out, estimated at about 
3,000.000 lb. Total in 1913. 37,750,000 pounds. 

UTAH COPPER CO., Bingham, Utah. $15,826,000 in $10 
shares; owns half of Nevada Consolidated; controlled by A. S. 
& R. Co., Sherwood Aldrich. C. M. MacNeill, and W. B. Thomp- 
son; 2 mills, 20,000-ton capacity, at Garfield: concentrate 
smelted at Garfield plant of A. S. & R. Co. Total in 1913. 
113,942.834 pounds. 

Month. Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

February 9.492.S9S April 13.132.463 

March 12,704,200 May 13,616.993 

$1,500,000 in $25 shares; owns $80,000 interest in Michigan 
Smelting Co.; controlled by J. R. Stanton; mill on Traverse 
bay treated 388,500 tons during last fiscal year. Total in 1913. 
5,700,000 lb. Yields are 'mineral' containing 60 to 70^ copper. 

Month Pounds. Month. Pounds. 

March 628.000 May 830,000 

April 762,000 June 944.000 

July 18, 1914 



Personal Injury — Mine Owners Liable 
A shaft boss at a mine undertook an independent contract 
with the mine owners to sink a shaft 300 ft. deeper. He 
was, however, retained on the company's payroll and his 
men employed on that particular piece of work were paid 
through the company's office. One of his men was injured 
and brought suit against the company. Held, that on the 
above statement of facts, the jury's finding that the contrac- 
tor was still an employee of the company and the company 
liable for the injury, would not be disturbed. 

Watson v. Hecla Mining Co. (Washington), 140 Pacific, 317. 
April 29, 1914. 

Grubstake Contract — "Proceeds" Defined 
In a grubstake contract entered into in "1898, providing 
for a division "of all the proceeds derived from said ven- 
ture," that wages earned should be treated as proceeds, and 
that the contract should continue so long as defendant was 
in Alaska, the word "proceeds" meant net proceeds, so that 
where the net result of the venture was that the defendant 
in 1903 finally returned sick and pemniicss. plaintiff could 
not recover. 

Troutman v. Polhill (Washington), 140 Pacific. J19. April 
29, 1914. 

Mineral Location — Requirements Satisfied 
A locator abandoned a portion of his claim in order to re- 
locate another claim including the abandoned portion of the 
first one. He wrote his location notice on a piece of white 
paper, placed it on a stick, and partly covered it by a rock 
to prevent it from being blown away. Held, that the aban- 
doned portion of the first claim was unlocated mineral land, 
open to relocation, and that the posting of the location notice 
in the manner indicated was a sufficient compliance with 
the laws of Colorado to validate the claim. 

Emerson v. Akin (Colorado), 140 Pacific, 481. April 13, 1914. 

Right-of-Way — Effect or Abandonment 
A person having the right to go upon another's land 'to 
bore and develop said land for oil and gas with the necessary. 
usual, and convenient rights' therefor, has a right to build 
a road over the land, when necessary to haul machinery and 
material to the place selected for drilling a well; but is 
liable for injury to the land resulting from the road con- 
struction if he subsequently abandons the contemplated ex- 
ploration before drilling the well. 

Coffindaffer v. Hope Natural Gas Co. (West Virginia), 81 
Southeastern, 966. May 21, 1914. 

Miner's Lien — Validity Upheld 
The Nevada statute gives a right of lien to both contrac- 
tors and laborers for materials furnished and work done on 
mining property. Held, that a joinder of a claim of lien 
under a contract of employment by the day with one under 
a contract of employment for a specified amount of work 
at an agreed price per foot, the work being continuous 
and of the same character under both contracts, would not 
invalidate the Hen. Nor need all the parties to the contract, 
where under its provisions they were to be paid severally, 
join in the lien claim. Each may file a claim for the amount 
due him. Lien statutes are remedial laws and should be lib- 
erally construed. 

Ferro v. Bargo Mining & Mill Co. (Nevada), 140 Pacific, 
527. April 28, 1914. 

Minerals of California. By Arthur S. Eakle. Bulletin 
No. 67. California State Mining Bureau. P. 226, index. San 
Francisco, 1914. This work is described in 'The Mining Sum- 
mary' of this issue. 

The Plant World. Volume 17, No. 3, March, 1914. P. 24. 
Contains the following articles: 'The Effect of Dust from 
Cement Mills on the Setting of Fruit,' by Paul J. Anderson, 
and 'Agriculture in the Nile Valley,' by Godfrey Sykes. Edi- 
torial office, Tucson, Arizona. 

United States Bureau of Mines publications, Washington, 

Weathering of the Pittsburgh Coal Bed at the Experimen- 
tal Mine Near Bruceton, Pennsylvania. By Horace C. Porter 
and A. C. Fieldner. Technical paper 35. P. 35. Illustrated. 

Relative Effects of Carbon Monoxide on Small Animals. 
By George A. Burrell, Frank M. Seibert, and I. W. Robertson. 
Technical paper 62. P. 23. 

International Conference of Mine-Experiment Stations. 
Held at Pittsburgh, September 14-21, 1912. Compiled by George 
S. Rice. Bulletin 82. P. 99, index. This contains a great 
deal of interesting information on the work of the Bureau on 
this subject, also short articles by George S. Rice, J. K. 
Clement, L. M. Jones, Horace C. Porter, A. C. Fieldner, Reln- 
hardt Thiessen, G. A. Burrell, J. W. Paul, H. H. Clark, O. P. 
Hood, C. G. Storm, and Clarence Hall. 

Reprints from Transactions of the Geological Society of 
South Africa, 1913-1914: 

The Bushman's River Cretaceous Rocks. By E. H. L. 
Schwarz. P. 3. 

The Granite Dykes of the 3520-ft. Level, Kimberley Mine. 
By E. H. L. Schwarz. P. 23. 5 plates. 

United States Geological Survey publications, Washington, 

Advance chapters from 'Mineral Resources of the United 
States, 1913': 

Production of Feldspar. By Frank J. Katz. P. 7. 

Production of Fuller's Earth. By Jefferson Middleton. 
P. 7. 

The Cement Industry. By Ernest F. Burchard. P. 27. 

Potash Salts. Compiled by W. C. Phalen. P. 23. 

Production of Silica (Quartz). By Frank J. Katz. P. 6. 

Production of Talc and Soapstone. By J. S. Diller. P. 11. 

Gold. Silver, Copper, and Lead in South Dakota and Wyo- 
ming. Mines report. By Charles W. Henderson. P. 15. 

Contributions to Economic Geology, 1913: 

Grand Gulch Mining Region. Mohave County. Arizona. By 
lames M. Hill. Bulletin 580-1). P. 20. 111. Describes the 
peculiar deposits of this district, which were published in 
the Press of July 11. 

A New Gypsum Deposit in Iowa. By Ceorge V. Kay. Bul- 
letin 5S0-E. P. 6. Illustrated. 

On. Shale of Northwestern Colorado and Northeastern 
I'taii. By E. G. Woodruff and David T. Day. Bulletin 581-A. 
P. 21. Map. 

Shorter contributions to General Geology, 1914-C: 

Dike Rocks of the Apishapa Quadrangle, Colorado. By 
Whitman Cross. Professional Paper 90-C. P. 31. 3 plates 
and relief map. 

Composition of Crinoid Skeletons. By F. W. Clarke and 
\Y. C. Wheeler. P. 5. 



July 18, 1914 

Channeling Machines 

Variable Volume Air-Compressor 

in certain types of large excavations the channeling machine 
is indispensable and the popularity and field for this machine 
is growing as it has been found adaptable to uses other than 
quarrying. In excavations for cannals, locks, wheel pits, rail- 
road cuts, the straight smooth solid wall cut by the channeler 
has advantages of economy and mechanical importance which 
render these machines as essential a part of a contractors 
equipment as the rock-drill or air-compressor. The channel- 


ing machine cuts exactly to the surveyed line of the work. 
This is difficult if not impossible, when a wall is made by 
drilling and blasting. In the latter case too much rock is re- 
moved at some points and the vacancy must be filled by con- 
crete or other expensive means. A further economy which may 
be considered is the fact that the channeled cut affords the 
powder used, in blasting rock inside of the line, an additional 
free face upon which to act. This of course reduces the amount 
of powder necessary. The wall left by the channeler remains 
as solid as the rock strata themselves, since it is not weakened 
or shattered by explosives. Retaining walls to prevent rock 
falls or slips are also obviated by the use of this machine. 
The channeled walls are less affected by weather than roughly 
hewn, blasted sides. Channeling is also desirable when it is 
necessary to excavate close to the foundations of existing 
structures, since the ground outside of the cut is not disturbed 
by explosives. A recent publication entitled 'Sullivan Stone 
Channelers' and Bulletin 68-A issued by the Sullivan Machinery 
Company, of Chicago, discusses in detail the various types 
of machines manufactured and the wide range of uses to v. hich 
they are adapted. The accompanying halftone is that of a 
Sullivan duplex channeler, with 8-in. cylinders, which is claim- 
ed to be the fastest cutting and most powerful channeling 
machine-ever built. 

The 3-cylinder variable volume air-compressor manufactur- 
ed by the Bury Compressor Co. of Erie, Pa., represents a de- 
parture from the usual compressor design. The operation is 
automatic and entirely independent from any working part 
and in no way limits the speed of the compressor. The air 
supply is controlled through separate and independent varia- 
ble volume unloading by-pass valves attached to each end 
of the two low-pressure cylinders and two similar valves on 
each end of the one high-pressure cylinder. 

These unloading valves, it is claimed, are regulated for a 
close variation of 1 lb. in pressure to control the intake sup- 
ply of air for full load. % load, % load, % load, or no load, 
to automatically meet the air requirements for any period of 
time. This automatic regulation stops compression by open- 
ing to atmosphere one, two, three, or four ends of the two 
low-pressure cylinders; and in unison with high pressure 
cylinder, divides the loads between the cylinders. In this 
manner, it is possible to regulate the peak load of compressor 
for any period of time. 

Commercial Paragraphs 

The July number of 'Leschen's Hercules,' published by the 
A. Leschkx & Sons Rope Company, of St. Louis, Mo., contains 
a short discourse on the use of Hercules rope on Alaska gold 

The Sullivan Machinery Co., Chicago, Illinois, has recently 
opened a branch office at Juneau, Alaska, which will be man- 
aged by Burt B. Brewster. The new Juneau agency has quar- 
ters in the New Brunswick building on Front street of that 

The Denver Engineering Works Co., Denver, Colo., has re- 
cently issued Bulletin No. 1068, which is descriptive of the 
tube-mills manufactured by this Company. The bulletin is 
fully illustrated and describes the many details of construction 
of this type of machine. 

The Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co., Chicago, 111., has recently 
issued Bulletin No. 34-N., which is devoted to a description of 
Class 'N' steam and power-driven enclosed compressors. This 
type of machine has been designed for both stationary and 
portable use and the various sizes together with details of 
construction are discussed in this bulletin. 

'Core Drilling by Contract' is the subject of an attractive 
little booklet recently issued by the Sullivan Machinery Com- 
pany. The purpose of the booklet as stated in the preface is 
to remind engineers, mining companies, and capitalists of 
the facilities which the Company offers for undertaking min- 
eral prospecting and test boring contracts of all kinds with 
the Sullivan Diamond core drills. 

The June number of American Vanadium Facts.' published 
by the American Vanadium Company, of Pittsburgh, is devoted 
largely to the use of vanadium in heavy locomotives. In a 
series of tests which are published in this number it will be 
noticed that the specified minimum elastic limit for heat- 
treated chrome-vanadium steel is 50% higher and the mini- 
mum tensile strength 17 V r higher than for heat-treated car- 
bon steel; while the elongation in 2-in. is about the same in 
each case and the reduction of area from 20 to 2S r ' r higher 
for the vanadium steel. 

July 25, 1914 




THOMAS T. READ, New York - - Associate Editor 

T. A. RICKARD, London - - Editorial Contributor 

EDWARD WALKER, London - - - Correspondent 

Assistant Editors 

A. W. Allen. Charles Janin. 

Leonard S. Austin. James F. Kemp. 

Gelasio Caetani. F. H. Morley. 

Courtenay De Kalb. C. W. Purington. 

F. Lynwood Garrison. C. F. Tolman, Jr. 

Horace V. Winchell. 

SMELTING has been resumed at Chihuahua, the 
American Smelting & Refining Company having 
reopened its plant. This is a concrete evidence of faith 
in better conditions in Mexico, by people who know 
the country well. 

IN these days when loans are being extended rather 
than paid and it has become a habit to issue new 
bonds to take up old ones, it is a pleasure to record the 
action of the American Locomotive Company in taking 
up from treasury funds $1,000,000 of its serial notes not 
due till October 1. following redemption of a similar 
amount in April. 

TTUME has written that "a government may endure 
■'--'■ for several ages though the balance of power and 
the balance of property do not coincide." That nature's 
balance cannot be disturbed without disastrous results 
is evidenced by a recent report from India that the 
campaign being waged against tigers has resulted in 
such an enormous increase in wild pigs that the crops 
have been greatly depleted. If the crop returns fail, 
this may well, in turn, affect the silver market. 

rpiIE political adviser of the new Chinese republic, Mr. 
•*- George Morrison, in a recent interview in London 
states that there are plenty of evidences of stability in 
Chinese public life and finances at the present. Revolu- 
tionary activity and the operations of bandits are eon- 
fined to a small area, and the £15,000,000 which was 
horded in the banks of the treaty ports is returning to 
circulation. This optimistic view of one so intimate 
with Chinese affairs is encouraging in light of the many 
rumors of incipient revolution and political unrest. 

rPHAT flotation can be profitably applied to the treat - 
■*■ ment of the low-grade porphyry deposits appears 
to be the opinion of those who are engaged in this met- 
allurgical problem. It is probable that flotation will 
be adopted as an auxiliary method of treatment, but 
not entirely to replace the present method of concentra- 
tion at the Utah Copper Company's mills, according 
to a recent statement of managing director Mr. I). ('. 
•Tackling. The importance of the subject is apparent 
when it is understood that the $20,000,000 output of 
this Company represents an extraction of only about 
70 per cent of the copper content of the Utah ores ami 
with the flotation process it is expected to save from 
85 to 95 per cent of t lie copper. 

/CONSOLIDATION of the United Mine Workers and 
^ the Western Federation of Miners is being given 
serious attention by these organizations at the biennial 
convention of the Western Federation at Denver. It 
is to lie noted that in a report by Mr. Charles H. Mover 
opposition is offered to the proposed amendment to the 
constitution of the Federation whereby any member 
who has held office for two consecutive terms is inel- 
igible for reelection. Although this attempt to oust 
the present officers of the Western Federation may not 
prove successful, it is evidence of a growing feeling 
of dissatisfaction among the better element of the or- 
ganization and would indicate that the revolt at Butte 
was but the crystallization of this sentiment in one 

A MOST interesting program is promised those who 
-^*- attend the Salt Lake meeting of the American In- 
stitute of Mining Engineers to be held from August 10 
to 14 inclusive. The program includes many features of 
both a technical and social nature, among which are 
visits to Bingham canon, the Magna and Arthur mills, 
and the Garfield, Murray. Midvale, and Tooele smelters. 
Excursions to Park City, the Tintic mining district, and 
Cottonwood canon have also been arranged. Technical 
sessions will be held on the evenings of August 10, 11, 
12. and the morning of the 13th. At these sessions a 
wide variety of subjects will be discussed, particular 
attention being given to the metallurgy of copper, lead, 
and zinc. Mining methods and practice will also be 
treated in papers dealing with some of the problems of 
modern mining. The technical sessions will be held at 
the Hotel Utah and a most successful meeting is antici- 

/CONCESSIONS in the Arequipa borax fields will be 
^ asked for by the Borax Consolidated, Ltd.. at the 
next session of the Peruvian congress which convenes on 
July 28. In that the support of the Peruvian govern- 
ment has been pledged and the measure was approved 
by the Chamber of Deputies at its last session, it is very 
probable that the privileges asked for will be granted. 
The present holdings of the Company represent an orig- 
inal investment of £150.000 for the property rights, and 
it is estimated that an additional investment of £200,00(1 
will be required to equip the fields for production. As 
the working of these deposits will require a force of sev- 
eral thousand men and economic conditions in the De- 
partment of Arequipa have been depressed for a long 



July 25, 1914 

time, it is hoped locally that the concession will be 
granted. Under its terms the Company is to construct a 
railway or tramway from the borax and salt mines of 
Moquegua to the city of Arequipa; furnaces with an 
annual capacity of 40,000 tons of borax and lime are to 
be erected ; only Peruvian workmen will be employed at 
the works ; and the Company will spend £200,000 on the 
works for which this concession treats. Congress will be 
asked not to levy duty on the exportation of borax from 
the port of Mollendo for 18 years, and the municipal- 
ities not to tax borax for this period. All machinery 
and supplies for this work are to be admitted free of 


npONOPAH has been recently the scene of operation 
-*- by agitators of the I. W. W. organization. One man 
lost his life, a boarding house was looted, and destruction 
of property and other acts of violence were openly 
preached. There is a general feeling that the peace 
officers failed in their duty, but the situation has its 
bright side in the prompt action of organized labor in 
the district in repudiating the trouble makers. "When a 
systematic effort is being made, as now, to provoke open 
defiance of the law, a grave situation is created. The 
first impulse is to stand the agitators up and shoot them, 
but so simple a solution is not likely to be final. We 
have no panacea to urge, but we do feel keenly that 
American institutions have sufficient stability to with- 
stand the attack now being made and that a way out 
can and will be found. 

"PETROLEUM producers should be keenly interested 
. in events at Washington these days, as a determined 
effort is being made to find a solution of the various 
legal difficulties that have grown out of the different 
land withdrawals, the pipe-line legislation, and the 
Southern Pacific litigation. It was supposed some weeks 
ago that a modus operandi had been found whereby 
operators on land in dispute with the Government might 
have the option of accepting a lease or by depositing 
with the court an agreed portion of the receipts, be 
free to produce and sell pending settlement of the legal 
points involved. Bills covering these points have been 
framed and were expected to go through without opposi- 
tion. Dispatches of this week indicate a hitch in the 
program. Funds, too, for the petroleum division of the 
Bureau of Mines that we discussed July 4, are in 
jeopardy, and it will take prompt and emphatic action 
of the oil men if money is to be available for doing the 
work outlined. This is particularly important, since, 
however much we may differ as to the propriety of the 
Government occupying so large a field in petroleum mat- 
ters, there can be no disagreement as to the need of its 
action being informed. Oil men are not afraid of legis- 
lation or court decisions that are based upon real knowl- 
edge of the industry; it is half knowledge in high places 
that is dangerous, and in their own protection the oil 
men should help Mr. Williams and his associates to get 
the new division on a sound basis. 

Our criticism of the plan of reorganization of Natomas 
Consolidated has provoked comment from many sources. 
It, and the general discussion of the matter, has served 
the excellent purpose of bringing out additional infor- 
mation, so that bondholders and others may more intel- 
ligently decide upon a course of action. While a revised 
list of current liabilities and quick assets, compiled by 
Mr. Emery Oliver, general manager for the Company, 
was made public July 10, the general figures already 
presented remain substantially unchallenged. Mr. 
Oliver's figures do, however, permit the matter to be 
viewed from a different angle. He lists the outstanding 
underlying bonds, consisting of the unretired bonds of 
Natoma Development Company, Natoma Land & Milling 
Company, and the Clarke & Cox Farms Company as 
amounting to $843,000. He further states that the total 
amount, with interest, now owing for lands purchased 
but not wholly paid for, is $489,024. From an accom- 
panying opinion by Messrs. Pillsbury, Madison & Sutro, 
it is learned that the floating debt, exclusive of the 
amount due the Natomas Syndicate, is now $815,000, and 
the claim of the latter, prior to return of a block of 
reclamation bonds, was $1,213,000. The last transfer 
mentioned may be disregarded, since under the proposed 
reorganization it would be, in effect, canceled. Adding 
these various obligations, it appears that Natomas owes 
$3,363,024 — provision for which sum must be made be- 
fore the so-called first mortgage bondholders can hope to 
realize upon their investment. The reclamation bonds, 
now amounting to something over a million dollars, are 
purposely omitted in the above calculations, since they 
either are now in the treasury of the Company or would 
be returned to it in event of the debts above outlined 
being paid. In addition, however, to the $3,363,000, pro- 
vision must needs be made for completing the reclama- 
tion work and for interest «harges. There is equity 
back of all these debts and, what is at least quite as 
much to the point, the creditors, in the main, have such 
security in the form of liens, cash, or underlying bonds 
as put them in a strategic position. Settlement must 
be made with them, or the bondholders will lose the 
property. The debts must, and ought to be paid. The 
question is the purely practical one of how they may 
be best met. 

Not all the money needs be paid at once. For ex- 
ample, but $100,000 of the Natoma Development Com- 
pany bonds falls due this year. Mr. Oliver lists obliga- 
tions to the amount of $1,332,226, including $554,361 
for the minimum of reclamation work, that must be met 
by January 1, 1915. He also estimates $803,000 as the 
income for the remaining months of the year. These 
are hard facts that must be met by any plan for re- 
organization and in urging caution on the part of bond- 
holders, we have had no intention of suggesting re- 
pudiation of any debt. 

Repudiation is one thing, however, and the price paid 
for money borrowed is another. Under the plan pro- 

July 25, 1914 



posed, Natomas Syndicate will pay $2,700,000 for notes 
worth $3,000,000. From this the Syndicate will, di- 
rectly or by underwriting, care for a floating debt of 
$818,000 and its own debt of $1,213,000. so that the new 
money contributed will amount to $670,000. The pay- 
ment of the floating debt will, however, release cash now 
held in banks, so that, as Messrs. Pillsbury, Madison & 
Sutro say, $1,000,000 cash will be available for use. 
Furthermore, since payment of current accounts will 
naturally extend local credits, the effective sum will 
be even larger. Interest and sinking fund to retire 
the 6 per cent notes in the five years will add an 
annual charge for that time, though interest on the 
first mortgage bonds will be allowed to accumulate. 
The plan may well, as its friends hope, clear away 
the present difficulties and eventually bring the 
bondholders more than the present value of their 
bonds. At the same time, it is true that, disregard- 
ing the new stock, which is of problematic value, the 
bondholders are scaled down to 60 per cent of their 
holdings and wait for their interest, while Natomas 
Syndicate will get full value for its advances, plus 6 
per cent interest, and a commission on the money ad- 
vanced. In case the notes are not paid within the five 
years, the Syndicate will also receive $4,500,000 out of 
the new issue of $16,500,000 bonds. The practical ques- 
tion is whether this is the best bargain that can now be 

It must be remembered that Natomas Syndicate, and 
other of the creditors, have in their possession under- 
lying securities which in any scramble would protect 
them and take the whole property. Whether such se- 
curities should have been pledged is beside the question. 
They were — and to raise money with which to pay inter- 
est to bondholders. If there was benefit from the trans- 
action the latter secured it. It is also worth remember- 
ing that an appeal to the courts and a receivership 
would probably depreciate the property so greatly, since 
the reclamation work is incomplete and there are so 
many interests to be reconciled, that no one would be 
the gainer. Whatever else may be done, we hope that 
the present sensible and economical policy of amicable 
readjustment with expenditure upon works rather than 
lawsuits, will be followed. In fact, we believe the bond- 
holders will best serve their own interests by joining 
with the reorganization committee, and working sub- 
stantially along the lines proposed. 

When we wrote of the subject a month ago we had 
in mind the possibility of a group of the bondholders 
offering an alternative proposal or working together 
to secure modification of the terms of the Natomas 
Syndicate. No adequate proposal of this sort has been 
made, and under the circumstances we would strongly 
urge all bondholders to accept the situation and come 
in on the plan offered. Any terms are better than 
a prolonged contest in the courts, and quick action 
is necessary. The management must stop the recla- 
mation work unless the project be financed within the 
next few weeks, and if the half-finished levees be 

exposed to the probable floods of the winter, much 
of the value of the work already done will be lost. 
Even if the work Mere resumed a year later, the 
mere loss of time, because of interest charges, would 
have added $10 or more to the cost per acre of the 
land. From this point of view the commission paid 
Natomas Syndicate is less important than the protec- 
tion of the work. 

It is to be remembered that the bondholders have 
never had a perfect first lien on the property. The 
underlying bonds of the constituent concerns and the 
reclamation bonds have precedence. The latter, it is 
true, were in the treasury of the Company until 
pledged as security for loans and later sold to the 
Natomas Syndicate. The plan of reorganization pro- 
poses that they be returned, and we would respectfully 
suggest that they should not be allowed to be again 
pledged. Otherwise, if the notes are not paid, the end 
of the period will find the old bondholders with about 
two-thirds of the outstanding bonds, 40 per cent of 
the preferred stock only, practically none of the com- 
mon, the unpaid notes, and the best of the gold land 
dredged. It is true this is a matter of management, and 
the new board that is proposed is one of the best guar- 
antees possible that everything will be done to make 
things go well. It is none the less a vital matter to the 
bondholders and should receive attention. 

One other matter we may venture to suggest. If 
any reliance is to be placed upon the estimates avail- 
able, the gold reserve in the dredging ground has a 
present cash value considerably in excess of all the 
debts of the Company, and, if the dredging lands 
could be sold for their cash value or nearly it, all 
debts could be wiped out and a surplus would be avail- 
able for reclamation work at least equal to. and prob- 
ably greater than, that provided by the reorganiza- 
tion plan. In the end the bondholders must save their 
capital and take their profit, if any. from the sale 
of the reclaimed land. and. while the new Natomas 
may be able to conduct gold-dredging as economically 
as any other concern, it must in the meantime pay 
more for money. In other words, future profits are 
worth less and present cash is worth more to Natomas 
than to others prepared to dredge. We believe that, 
properly presented, there would be lively bidding for 
the dredging lands, but for the directors to propose 
to sell the property most immediately valuable would 
subject them to criticism. An outsider, such as our- 
selves, may properly offer the suggestion. It would 
be entirely possible to reserve the right to do this if 
found practicable. Natomas bondholders can hardly 
expect to have their cake and eat it, too. It is a choice 
of evils they must face. Let them do it frankly. We 
have no quarrel with Natomas Syndicate or the pres- 
ent committee. They are making an effort, deserving 
of success, to avoid a receivership. They should have 
tin- cooperation of the bondholders, and if the latter 
will not fiice debts that must be paid, they can hardly 
expect to ( scape loss. 



July 25, 1914 

Merit© ftssd SdlpMdles m Le&dWll© ©ir@ D@p®§te— EI 


The derivation of vein siderite at Leadville may be 
from the slaty and thin bedded Silurian limestones or 
from the porphyries, but without doubt it is derived from 
the rocks traversed by the mineralized solutions that 
in their passage through the fissured rocks formed the 
vein and replacement deposits. It is significant that 
some of the gray porphyries on mine dumps are in a 
few years covered with a heavy film of black oxide de- 
rived from their manganese content; proving that some 
Leadville porphyry contains manganese in appreciable 
quantity, that oxidizes somewhat readily under atmos- 
pheric conditions. Emmons, in his Leadville mono- 
graph, 1 gives two analyses of comparatively fresh gray 
porphyry containing 0.0677% manganese, equal to one 
and one-third pounds per ton of rock. 

Spurr and Garrey, in their discussion of the gangue 
minerals of the Georgetown quadrangle, 2 claim that sid- 
erite may be derived from original pyrite, "as is prob- 
ably the case in one instance noted in the Harrisburg 
mine, where a post-mineral fissure had been opened in 





ea\ ScaV* 




1 "^ 1 

I'm. i 

1 X I 



Fig. 2. 


pyritic altered rock and had become lined with siderite 
that was evidently due to lateral secretion." They also 
state that when siderite occurs as a primary mineral 
or as the last formed mineral, it is usually mingled with 
other carbonates ; especially that of manganese. Sider- 
ite is thus contemporaneous with primary pyrite and 
"its iron, like that of the pyrite, has probably been de- 
rived from the rocks traversed by the mineralizing solu- 
tions. This conclusion applies also to the manganese in 
the brown carbonates." Elsewhere these authors state 

iU. S. Geol. Surv., 1886, p. 332. 

2U. S. Geol. Surv., Prof. Paper 6S (1908), p. 153. 

that siderite or ankerite in the Colorado Central mine, 
represents "the crystallization along the walls of cavi- 
ties of the carbonates abundantly formed by alteration 
of the biotite and feldspar of the wall rock." 

The latter hypothesis is entirely inadequate to ac- 
count for the Leadville replacements, nor can I con- 
ceive of iron sulphide being converted into carbonates 
on a scale commensurate with the Leadville deposits. 
In various places in the Tucson mine the beds of sider- 
ite are of such wide extent as to suggest sedimentary 
deposition. Observing a drift closely following the 
strike of the beds in such locality, samples were taken 
at intervals of 20 ft. along one particular bed and as- 
sayed with the following result: 

From fis- 

Sample. sure, ft. Iron. Manganese. CaO. Insoluble. 

% % % % 

A 40 24.3 16.2 1.8 16.6 

B 60 5.2 3.1 19.6 25.2 

C 80 3.4 1.2 24.1 13.2 

A second place was chosen where ore was mined along 
a 'flat' in the foot-wall country of a fissure where, on 
reaching the limits of pay-ore, a cross-cut had been ex- 
tended through the siderite into the unreplaced lime- 
stone following the bedding. Samples here gave the 
following results: 

Sample. Ft. Iron. Manganese. CaO. Insoluble. 

% % % % 

A 10 from ore 26.6 18.9 0.6 29.6 

B 20 from ore 19.4 21.0 0.7 19.2 

C 30 from ore 16.7 20.1 1.2 25.0 

D 40 from face of 

cut top ... 4.2 3.2 19.6 20.0 
E 40 from ore-floor 

of cross-cut 3.6 2.8 23.0 18.0 

These samples conclusively showed that practically 
complete siderite replacement of the limestone extended 
30 ft. beyond the termination of the zine-lead ore (see 
Pig. 2, cross-cut from stope) extending as a 'flat' from 
the fissure, and then gradually faded out in 10 ft., as 
shown in samples D and E. In fact, the change in the 
cross-cut is so gradual and imperceptible that no person 
with the unaided eye could determine in the mine the 
limestone from the siderite; or say between the rock 
represented by samples C and D. Consequently the 
siderite has, perhaps, been mistaken for white lime- 
stone, both by the miners and by the visiting scientists. 
To the former siderite was waste or gangue containing 
neither precious metals, zinc, nor lead in paying quan- 
tities, so lie had no use for it. These tests, together 
with other observations, prove to my satisfaction that 
the siderite beds and included orebodies are replace- 
ment deposits; and, inasmuch as the physical condi- 
tions — that is, the adjacent porphyry mass, the contact- 

July 25, 1914 



metamorphic minerals in the limestone, and the pres- 
ence of siderite in the intrusive gray porphyry sheet 
itself — suggest that the ores were derived from mag- 
matic solutions and vapors emanating directly from the 
intrusive mass of gray porphyry, I am led to the con- 
clusion that this is a contact-metamorphic deposit of 
great significance in the study of the genesis of Lead- 
ville ores. 

In his last contribution to the geology of Leadville, 
S. F. Emmons, writing of the ultimate source of the 
metals, states : 3 ' ' The questions still at issue are : 

"1. Whether the sulphide ores were originally de- 
posited as a precipitate exclusively from meteoric or 
from magmatic waters, or in part from both. 

"2. Whether the magmatic waters, if they were the 
transporting agents, reached the present locus of the 
depths directly from below, or whether they came up 
along the general channels that carried the magma of 
the intrusive rocks, and, where this magma had spread 
out in sheets between the sedimentary strata, whether 
they followed in general the contacts between intrusives 
and sedimentaries or penetrated the mass of the latter 
along cracks and joints before depositing their load. 

"3. Whether the deposits, or any part of them, were 
formed by contact metamorphism — that is, by waters 
emanating directly from the cooling intrusive bodies, 
squeezed out, as it were, from the solidifying igneous 
mass into the adjoining sedimentary beds." 

I believe that the section. Fig. 2, answers the first and 
last questions in favor of magmatic waters and of con- 
tact metamorphism. It also throws much light on ques- 
tion No. 2. The gray porphyry shown in Fig. 2 is 
the eastern edge of the huge sheet exceeding 200 ft. in 
thickness extending over the greater part of the Tucson 
claim. The folding and Assuring is coincident with the 
porphyry intrusion, but the slight Assuring shown in 
this illustration had, I believe, little to do with the ore 
deposition, though movement has occurred along the 
fissure nearest the porphyry since the formation of the 
replacement deposit and some ore breccia was developed 
along its plane. In support of the contact-metamorphic 
theory of deposition for the orebody illustrated by Fig. 
2, I call attention : 

1. To the silicification of the limestone by means of 
what I take to be emanations from the intrusive por- 
phyry. I have previously noted the silicious nature of 
the siderite, averaging in samples A, B, and C 24.6% 
insoluble. Taking these samples as representing sider- 
ite, and D and E the silicified limestone, the following 
comparison may be made: 

Iron. Manganese. CaO. Insoluble. 

% % % % 

Siderite 20.9 20.0 0.8 24.6 

Limestone 3.9 3.0 21.3 19.0 

Inasmuch as wollastonite had been noted in other por- 
tions of the deposit, lime silicates were suspected here, 
and two slides were prepared which revealed nothing 

•■"The Downtown District of Leadville. Colorado.' Butt. 320, 
V. S. Oeol. Surv.. 1907. p. 72. 

but quartz in the limestone at 80 ft. from the por- 
phyry, where the temperature was evidently not high 
enough to form lime silicates. 

2. To the massive siderite itself, which I consider a 
metamorphic mineral deposited simultaneously with the 
mixed sulphides, including pyrite and pyrrhotite, also 
specular hematite and magnetite. 

3. To the chloritic material adjoining the porphyry 
which may be derived in part from the decomposition 
of pyroxene. 

4. To magnetite bands (one 12 in. thick) associated 
with hematite, considerable of which is of the specular 
variety, and to pyrite bands, in part pyrrhotite, alter- 
nating with siderite and zinc-lead sulphides. 

Finally, the minerals appear to be derived from the 
same source and deposited about the same time, the 
zinc-lead sulphides forming in masses near the por- 
phyry, the massive siderite next, and the silicification 
of the limestone extending as the outer border of meta- 
morphism. The siderite, and to lesser extent the silici- 
fied limestone, contains much sulphide material in scat- 
tered crystals throughout the zones indicated; that is 
to say, distinct crystals of galena, sphalerite, and pyrite, 
apparently segregated from the siderite mass. 

On these facts I base my conclusion that the section 
Fig. 2 illustrates a contact-metamorphie ore deposit. 

The Tucson Fault-Fissure 

The siderite deposited in the Tucson fault-fissure and 
replacements therefrom may have had a deep-seated 
origin, or the iron and manganese may have been de- 
rived from the Silurian limestones, but inasmuch as 
the development of this fissure vein is not by any means 
extensive, the ultimate source of its siderite may even- 
tually be traced to the porphyries. 

It is noteworthy that the siderite veins briefly de- 
scribed in this paper occur in the older sedimentaries : 

Perran iron lode. . . in clay slates Lower Devonian 

Brendon Hills in clay slates Middle Devonian 

Stahlberg Musen . . .in clay slates Lower Devonian 

Slocan mine in clay slates Pre-Cambrian 

Coeur d'Alene quartzite Pre-Cambrian 

Leadville quartzite and lime- 
stone Cambrian and Silu- 

Composition op Leadville Siderite 

The following analyses were made on selected speci- 
mens from the Tucson mine, fairly free from sulphides, 
hut containing minute specks of galena, pyrite, and zinc- 
blende. For part chemical analysis of siderite from 
oilier Leadville localities, see preceding table: 

A.* B.* A.* B.* 

% % % % 

Iron 23.07 21.80 Lead 1.50 0.60 

Manganese . . . 20.70 21.10 Zinc 0.30 0.30 

CaO 0.30 0.40 Gold, oz 0.04 0.04 

Insoluble 19.60 21.20 Silver, oz 0.08 0.00 

MgO 1.40 2.40 

•P. T. Gallaher. analyst. 



July 25, 1914 

The small quantity of lead, zinc, and silver present 
in the siderite is accounted for by the scattered crys- 
tals of galena and blende impossible to separate. The 
gold is as high in the siderite as in the sulphide ore, 
and to account for it is difficult; apart from this metal, 
the siderite is apparently free from combined zinc, 
lead, and silver, and may be considered a true gangue. 


Probably the best development of siderite in Leadville 
today can be seen in the Tucson mine; at any rate, it 
is the occurrence with which I am most familiar, inas- 
much as I recently examined the mine. 

The Tucson has three important structural charac- 
teristics: (1) steeply folded beds approaching a thrust, 
reverse, fault of about 200 ft. throw, which brought the 
Cambrian quartzite of the hanging country above the 
white limestone of the foot; (2) an immense sheet of 
gray porphyry exceeding 200 ft. in thickness intruded 
below the parting quartzite; (3) the development of 
shearing in the foot and hanging wall country parallel- 
ing the fault and the deposition of ore therein. These 
structural peculiarities greatly complicated mining de- 
velopment. The shaft passed twice through the white 
limestone and Cambrian quartzite and first struck rich 
ore in the foot-wall quartzite on the 9th level, close to 
the granite. This ore has since been followed upward 
along the quartzite bedding planes for a distance of 
600 ft. from the granite quartzite contact. Through 
these structural peculiarities the mine has been worked 
from the bottom up. The 9th and 10th levels are today 
under water, while the 5th and 4th levels are only now 
being developed. 

The Tucson fault has been followed from 40 ft. below 
the granite-Cambrian contact to 60 ft. into the 'blue 
limestone' a vertical height of 600 ft. measured in 
the foot-wall formation. On its strike the fault has been 
traced a length of 1500 ft. No record of the fault is 
found on the old maps of the 'first contact' workings, 
the 'white porphyry '-'blue limestone' contact exhausted 
of carbonate ore and abandoned over 20 years ago, so 
it is highly probable that the Tucson fault flattened 
out into a bedded fault in the 'blue limestone' and be- 
came dissipated in the bedding planes below the 'first 
contact' horizon. 

The age of the Tucson fault is not easily determined, 
for the reason that present development has not been 
sufficient to fully prove up all the geologic conditions; 
particularly in the hanging wall country and in the 
'blue limestone' horizon, while the steeply folded beds 
and the intrusive sheet of gray porphyry adds to the 
complication. The fault and attendant shearing appear 
to have been coincident with the porphyry intrusion 
and earlier than the ore deposition in the Cambrian and 
Silurian horizon. The quartzite ores are certainly sub- 
sequent to the faulting as are also the siderite replace- 
ment deposits and accompanying zinc-lead ores. The 
fault in places becomes a typical fissure vein filled with 
alternating bands of leaded zinc ore and siderite. The 

normal faulting in Leadville took place after the for- 
mation of the sulphide replacement deposits of the blue 
limestone- white porphyry ('first contact') horizon. The 
Tucson fault, if I read the evidence correctly, preceded 
the ore deposition in at least the lower sedimentaries 
and is older than the normal Leadville faulting, such 
as the 'Iron fault' for example. 

Ore Deposits 

The quartzite ore deposits are found along the 
shearing planes as lining in solution cavities, along 
some bedding planes, and on the bottom and to a less 
extent on the roof and sides of irregular horizontal so- 
lution cavities or 'water courses.' The richest ore in 
the Tucson mine was found between the 9th and 10th 
levels; as well as the largest solution cavities, exhibit- 
ing the most intense action on the quartzite. Some of 
the crusted ore near the bottom of cavities on this hori- 
zon assayed 14 oz. gold per ton, 4000 oz. silver, and 
45% lead; antimony and bismuth minerals are also 
present. 4 

The photographs reproduced as Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 
illustrate the peculiar deposition. 

Fig. 3 shows an ore occurrence in Cambrian quartzite above 
the 8th level. The ore can be clearly seen partly filling an 
oval solution cavity (water-course) between tight shearing 
planes in the quartzite. One such is marked by the pick 
and the other indicated by the drill-hole at the top of the 
picture. The ore is a mixed sulphide covered with fine crys- 
tals of siderite. This figure is offered as an example of a 
typical high-grade deposit of what I shall call the 'Red Cliff 
type', for the reason that at Red Cliff similar channels or 
water courses, following tight shearing planes or cracks in 
the quartzite and in places spread out along bedding planes, 
have been worked for many years, often at great profit. The 
Eagle river at Red Cliff has cut through the sedimentaries 
and deep into the granite, exposing many veins and some re- 
placement deposits in the precipitous cliffs, which latter carry 
oxidized ores to considerable depth into Battle mountain, 
along the dip of the quartzite beds. Some of the quartzite ore 
channels produced magnificent specimens of crystalline gold 
and much gold and silver ore of high value. 5 It is evident 
these channels, incipient fissures, and bedding planes, favor- 
able to the passage of mineralizing solutions, were in part 
filled with rich ores, the oxidation of which in moist con- 
dition or in stagnant pools produced the crystalline gold 
noted above. The Leadville ore illustrated in Fig. 4 assayed: 
gold, 0.38 oz.; silver, 610.8 oz.; lead, 37.2%; copper, 0.7%; 
zinc, 24.6%; iron, 6.S r ' f ; insoluble, 4.6%. Such ore should, on 
oxidation under like conditions, produce metals and minerals 
similar to those of Red Cliff; hence these rich quartzite ores 
are common to both mining districts and elsewhere in Colo- 
rado, though but recently recognized in Leadville. The pri- 
mary quartzite ore in the Tucson is much richer than that 
found in the limestone; furthermore, it decreases in gold 
and silver content and increases in copper (ehalcopyrite) as 
followed upward along and through the beds. The deposit 
sometimes fades out on one bedding plane, rising through a 
fissure or solution cavity and continuing on a higher plane, 
being often enriched by incipient fissures. The cause of the 
varying richness of the ores in quartzite and in limestone and 

<Argall, G. O., Eng. <£■ Min. Jour., Jan. 29, 1910. p. 264. 
sArgall, Philip, Tra7is. Amer. Inst. Min. Eng., Vol. 22 (1893), 
pp. 759-760. 

July 25, 1914 



between the upper and lower beds in the Cambrian quartzite 
itself, is somewhat puzzling. I can only ascribe it to lack 
of a precipitating medium in the quartzite, rather than a 
change in the composition of the mineralizing solution. Be 
that as it may, the conditions may be tentatively stated as 
follows: The ascending hot solutions dissolved quartzite 
readily in the bottom beds, at the same time depositing spar- 
ingly in the solution cavities, partly as replacement and partly 
as crusted deposits, sulphides of iron, lead, copper, and zinc 
with much gold and silver and a little bismuth and anti- 


monial minerals, which are comparatively rare in Leadville; 
then, as the solutions in their upward passages through the 
quartzite took up more silica their solvent action became less, 
the resulting cavities and quartzite replacements smaller, and 
the sulphide deposition heavier, resulting in filling the smaller 
cavities and cracks completely, chalcopyrite predominating in 
places; at the same time the content of precious metals in 
the ore fell off very considerably. So far as the precious 
metals are concerned, it appears not unlike a case of frac- 
tional precipitation. A typical shipment of ore from the 
present working faces in the quartzite is as follows: gold, 
0.11 oz.; silver, 164.4 oz.: lead, 7.5%; copper, 1.16%; zinc. 7.5' - : 
iron, 8.4%; insoluble,' ;. Inasmuch as there is over 50% 
silica present, because of the fine dissemination of the ore 
through the quartzite, it is manifest that the pure ore is at 
least double the value stated. 

Fig. 4 shows a small fissure, F, in glassy quartzite, bifur- 
cating near the middle of the picture and the branch fissures 

apparently closing up toward the bottom of the drift. The 
ore is less than two inches wide, though worth over $150 per 
ton. The fissure shown here runs east and west. Those in 
Fig. 3 parallel the fault and are the real mineralizing fis- 
sures for the bedded deposits in the Cambrian. Vugs and 
solution cavities at this horizon contain siderite crystals in 
the partly dissolved quartzite throughout the ore, and as a 
vigorous growth of crystals forming the final mineral depo- 
sition often covered with sericite mud which represents the 
softened matrix of the quartz grains. Present development 

Fit;. 4. 

has revealed but one rather narrow channel of quartzite ore 
in the Tucson mine. 

Li nu. stone Ores. — The largest siderite veins and re- 
placements in the Tucson mine occur in the 'white 
limestone' beds at some distance from the main Tucson 
fault or fissure vein, and, so far as present develop- 
ments show, in the folded and sheared foot-wall country. 
Mr. Calkins' remarks on the Coeur d'Alene deposits 
apply here: "Although siderite has a much wider dis- 
tribution than the ores, yet it is more abundant where 
the rocks have been folded and fissured." To this T 
add. to cover Leadville occurrence, adjacent to porphyry 
intrusions. Very often one wall of a fissure deposit is 
found to be gray porphyry, while practically the whole 
siderite development in the limestone to date occurs 



July 25, 1914 

Fig. 5. 

below the great sheet of intrusive gray porphyry pre- 
viously mentioned. Occasionally the zinc-lead ores form 
on a porphyry wall, but more often a band of solid 
siderite adjoins the porphyry. Again, it may be slaty 
limestone crushed, contorted, and partly chloritic. As 
a rule, the zinc-lead ore occurs free from gangue or 
other contamination, not even intermixed with siderite. 
Such ore is broken down separately, the waste sorted 
out at surface, and the ore shipped for pigment mami- 

Fig. 6. 

Fig. 7. 

Fig. 8. 

facture. This zinc-lead ore, an intimate mixture of 
zincblende, galena, and pyrite in lesses quantity, low 

in silver, and of fine steel-like fracture, is not common 
in Leadville. It is of the variety first called 'blue stone' 

July 25, 1914 



ore in Pary's Mountain mine, Anglesea, Wales, and later 
found in some quantity in the Ovoca mines, Ireland. 6 
A similar ore occurs as a quartzite replacement in the 
Sullivan mine near Cranbrook, British Columbia. 7 

The Tucson zinc-lead ore is of somewhat coarser 
grain than the 'blue stones' referred to, yet I have not 
noticed coarse crystalline galena in any of the Tucson 
siderite repacement ores in the Silurian limestone, while 
invariably coarse crystalline galena is the more common 
form in the blue limestone 'first contact' replacement 

slaty limestone developing chloritic minerals and but partly 

Fig. 6 is a typical example of brecciated ore. The main 
piece shows at the bottom and right zinc-lead ore in siderite 
gangue. The piece at the left, molded into position by pres- 
sure, is slaty limestone, highly silicious and partly replaced. 
The black is zinc-lead ore surrounded by siderite. The bright 
white near the top at the left-hand corner (1) is pyrite. Sep- 
arating this rock from the larger is a seam of chloritic shale, 
which also forms the outer, left-hand edge of the specimen. 
Magnetite is common. A little hematite and specularite is 
also found in close relation with siderite. 

Fig. 9. 

Fig. 10. 

deposits. It is noteworthy that while in the orebody 
the zincblende and galena minerals are intimately mixed, 
yet in the massive siderite they occur as disseminated 
crystals of apparently pure minerals. 

Toward the edges of the zinc-lead replacement dei>osits 
both pyrite and siderite sometimes occur as shown in Fig. 5; 
the dark mineral is zinc-lead; the dull white, siderite; the 
scattered clear white pyrite (1), which is somewhat abundant 
near top left-hand corner. The specimen is from 5th level, 
Tucson mine, enlarged two diameters. The fissure shows evi- 
dence of reopening and of considerable movement, breccia is 
common, and stri« and slickensides are abundant, as is also 

•Argall, P., Set. Proc. Royal Dublin Soc, 1879, p. 225. 
"Argall, P., 'Report of Zinc Commission,' cited, p. 230. 

Fig. 7 is a very instructive specimen. A small veinlet of 
siderite (white) is shown in a gangue of magnetite. The left 
side is magnetite and sandy hematite, while the right is 
chiefly magnetite through which fine pyrite is scattered. The 
white spots at the right of the siderite veinlet (1) are pyrite. 
A similar specimen cut and polished showed under the micro- 
scope an independent and apparently simultaneous growth of 
siderite and magnetite; also some specular hematite. The 
outline of the minerals is clear and the edges free from alter- 

Fiu;. 8 illustrates an occurrence of massive siderite in the 
white limestone, the same being the contact-metamorphic de- 
posit shown in section in Fig. 2. The view was taken on the 
5th level, P drift. The black, lower i i^ht-hand comer, is zinc- 
lead ore; the rest is massive siderite with a streak of low- 
grade ore running through it. The geology of this contact- 



July 25, 1914 

metamorphic replacement of white limestone is clearly shown 
in Fig. 2, a cross-section made by Frank A. Aicher, surveyor 
for the Iron Silver Mining Co. The section follows the stop- 
ing quite closely, the faces mostly representing the limit of 
profitable ore rather than that of zinc-lead replacement, the 
irregular outline of which could not be clearly shown on the 
small scale adopted. The orebodies are practically enclosed in 
vein siderite which gradually merges into the limestone, fad- 
ing away at about 80 ft. from the porphyry. The siderite 
carries about 18% silica, and silicification of the limestone 
extends for over 100 ft. from the porphyry intrusion, indicat- 
ing a highly silicious emanation of moderate temperature. 
The source of the 'black iron' of Leadville, or rather of its 

presence of chalcedony and whitish chert bands in the ore. 
Flints have apparently been dissolved and redeposited or 
partly dissolved and included in amorphous quartz.. In Fig. 
9 the chalcedony bands follow the original bedding; c is chal- 
cedony, o zinc-lead ore, * siderite. 

Fig. 10 shows a pillar left in an old working ('Highline' 
stope) about midway between the 4th and 5th levels. The 
chalcedony c is segregated. The roof is a bed of siderite, «, 
freely sprinkled with galena and blende in distinct crystals 
of high assay value. The pay ore o is mixed zinc-lead pre- 
viously described. A candle is shown on a small chalcedony 
lens of great purity. A seem of pyrite p is marked by the 
pick and extends to the lowest visible bedding plane. I con- 

Fig. 11. 

Fig. 12. 

manganese content, has long been a subject of discussion. I 
have elsewhere traced the source to the siderite bordering the 
orebodies. 8 When it is considered that the great mass of sid- 
erite underlying the zinc-lead ore shown in Fig. 2 will assay 
about 22% iron and 18% manganese, the source of the oxid- 
ized 'black iron' of Leadville is placed beyond reasonable doubt. 
The siderite replacement deposits in bedded form or extending 
out from fissures as 'flats' are extensive in the Tucson mine, 
sometimes carrying pay-ore, over 60 ft. from the fault fissure 
and siderite replacement of limestone to 100 feet. 

Fig. 9 is a view in a stope 100 ft. above the 5th level. It 
clearly shows the arrangement of the ores. A peculiarity of 
these siderite replacements in the white limestone is the 

sThe Mining Magazine, April 1914, p. 287. 

sider Fig. 9 and 10 splendid examples of limestone replace- 
ment, showing alternating beds (Fig. 10) of pyrite. of sider- 
ite slightly ore bearing, of zinc-lead ore with included chal- 
cedony lenses, and a smooth bedding plane for the roof. The 
pay-ore is small but ample to illustrate the manner of depo- 

Fig. 11 is the face of a drift in a siderite replacement. The 
beds here are massive and quite hard. From the top of pick 
to the roof is solid steel-grained zinc-lead ore. From the same 
point to the floor, is massive fine-grained siderite. oxidized on 
faces and stained yellow. The white patches represent crys- 
talline siderite enclosing zinc-lead ore (black). This drift 
is just entering the pay-ore after penetrating siderite beds for 
about 50 ft. The Tucson fault is about 50 ft. to the right. 





Fig. 12, from the 4th level, Tucson, shows a brecciated vein 
mostly crushed zinc-lead ore, cemented by siderite. This brec- 
ciated ore occurs in the blue limestone 15 ft. above the part- 
ing quartzite and on the foot-wall side of the Tucson fault, 
or fissure vein, the hanging is a sheeted zone of slaty lime- 
stone, seamed with fault clay containing breccia and pebbles 
of hard limestone and quartzite with occasional pieces of 
zinc-lead ore and much decomposed porphyry. 

From about 30 ft. below the 4th level to 50 ft. above (the 
present extent of these stopes) the Tucson fault is a typical 
fissure vein, exhibiting alternating bands of zinc-lead ore and 
siderite as replacement of the foot-wall limestones, both the 
white and the blue formation. Fault clay forms the hanging 
wall with a sheeted zone of clay seams, shaly limestone, and 
decomposed porphyry extending 10 to 30 ft. into the hanging 
wall country. In places the vein is brecciated, Fig. 12 show- 
ing movement after ore was deposited. The fault is still mov- 
ing. At other points thin beds of hanging wall limestone have 
been drawn into the fault zone, folded, crushed, and replaced, 
wholly or in part, with zinc-lead ore and again folded or frac- 
tured by further movement and pressure. 

The Tucson fault fissure is not continuously mineralized. It 
is barren where talcy clays predominate as filling, and is usu- 
ally quite dry in such places. The ore occurs in shoots, not 
yet well defined, because of limited development. Lastly, fine- 
grained zinc-lead ore occurs everywhere in the vein and in the 
adjacent foot-wall country deposits, but in several localities 
below the 5th level large deposits of copper ore occurred In 
and near the fault fissure, but no copper has been found to 
extend much above the 5th level. 


1. Siderite replacement deposits in Leadville are of 
wide extent and of great significance in the future de- 
velopment of the district. 

2. Siderite in Leadville primary deposits is of high 
manganese content, a true vein siderite, the principal 
source of manganese for the oxidized ores ('hlack iron') 
long a subject of geologic speculation and fruitful of 

3. Siderite replacements are closely associated with 
intrusive gray porphyries, faults, and folded and sheared 
limestone. Siderite was one of the first minerals de- 
posited in the fissures. It was also the last, and was 
present during the whole vein-forming period. 

4. Siderite and sulphides are closely related, and 
doubtless of similar origin, being derived chiefly from 
intrusive porphyry emanations and deposited together 
in massive contact-metamorphic replacements. Siderite 
and sulphides have also been introduced through deep- 
seated fissures such as the Tucson fault, and may have 
been, in smaller part, derived from the Silurian sedi- 
mentaries through minor Assuring. 

5. The Tucson fault preceded ore deposition in the 
Cambrian and Silurian formation and is older than the 
normal faults of Leadville. 

6. The Tucson fault is coincident with the gray 
porphyry intrusion of Iron Hill. 

Coal production of Colorado in 1913 was 9,232.510 
short tons, worth *1 4,035,090, a decrease of 1,745.314 
tons and $2,310,246 compared with 1912. This drop in 
output was due to the strike which has caused so much 
loss of life, discussion, and investigation. 

Carbide Lamps airad Explosives 

Gas and dust was the cause of explosion which re- 
sulted in the death of Frank Ilora at the Wheeling 
Creek mine of the Lorain Coal & Dock Co. on January 
27, 1914. It was at first supposed that the residue from 
carbide lamps had caused the explosion ; some of this 
residue was found in break-through 5, about 150 ft. 
from the centre of the explosion. As a preliminary, 
pending the investigation, a temporary order was is- 
sued forbidding the miners of Wheeling Creek mine to 
use carbide lamps. The local union passed a resolution 
demanding a thorough investigation, and refused to go 
to work unless allowed to continue using carbide lamps. 
In the meantime, chief mine inspector Davies, deputy 
inspector Gaffney, together with safety commissioner 
of mines, J. M. Roan, of the State of Ohio, aided by 
other deputies, officials and engineers were making a 
searching investigation. It was soon demonstrated that 
as the residue left by the carbide lamps is merely slak- 
ed lime it could therefore not be considered as a cause, 
and it was proved conclusively that even had there 
been fresh carbide in the break-through, it could not 
have had anything to do with the explosion, as the 
break-through w T as dry. Carbide will not give off suffi- 
cient gas, when exposed to the air, to cause an explos- 
ive mixture or an ignitable mixture unless brought in 
contact with actual water. The moisture in the air is 
not sufficient to make enough acetylene to ignite. There 
can never be an accumulation of gas produced from 
carbide by moist air, for the obvious reason that in 
order to produce gas, any air which has given up its 
moisture to produce acetylene must move on, and the 
acetylene goes with it. An investigation of the place 
where the carbide residue was found showed that as a 
matter of fact, this residue was shut off from the butt 
entry in which the explosion occurred by a substantial 
brattice, the residue being found within 3 ft. of the 
adjoining butt entry in break-through 5, and as be- 
fore stated with a brattice between it and the butt 
entry in which the explosion occurred. The order pro- 
hibiting the use of acetylene was rescinded. J. W. Paul, 
of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, supplemented the investi- 

Fluorspar production of the United States in 1913 
was 115,580 tons averaging $6.37 per ton, a small de- 
crease compared with 1912. About 80% of the domestic 
output of fluorspar is consumed as a flux in basic open- 
hearth steel furnaces. It is used also as a flux in blast 
furnaces, iron foundries, and silver, copper, and lead 
smelters; in the manufacture of fluorides of iron and 
manganese for steel fluxing; in the manufacture of 
glass, enameled, and sanitary ware and of hydrofluoric 
acid: in the production of aluminum; and for many 
other purposes, according to the V. S. Geological Survey. 

Manganese ore production of t lie United States in 
1913 was 4048 tons. Imports were 345,090 tons. 



July 25, 1914 


Tike Maitl®imsifl Zmc Commjpsiinijp B&rfesviile 

By £. H. LESLIE 

The smelter site of The National Zinc Co. is about 
100 yd. to the east of the Bartlesville Zinc company's 
plant. Topographically the site of the National com- 
pany is almost identical with the Bartlesville plant, 
being a level tract of land with a few slight depressions 
which are being used as dumping ground for retort 
residue. This Company is controlled and operated by 
Beer, Sondheimer & Co. and is the most modern of the 
Bartlesville group. The halftone, Fig. 1, and the sketch, 
Fig. 2, published through the courtesy of W. H. Gill, 
superintendent of the smelter, show in a general way 
the arrangement of the various buildings and character 
of the construction. 

The zinc concentrates, which are being treated at this 
plant, are derived largely from the mills of Joplin, Colo- 
rado, Utah, and Butte. The concentrates are delivered 
at the plant in standard freight cars and unloaded by 
hand into storage bins at the ore house. There are 61 
storage bins at the smelter with a capacity of 15,000 
tons of concentrate. The concentrate is removed from 
the bins in buggies and taken to the dryers where it is 
dumped into the boot of an elevator and thus to the feed 
hoppers of the dryers. The dryer equipment consists 
of four 30-ton circular dryers of the same type as those 
used at the Bartlesville plant, the concentrate being 
fed at the centre of the furnace, is forced across the 
hearth by the four revolving rabble arms and discharged 
at the periphery. The power for the dryers is furnished 
by a 30-hp. Western Electric motor operating on a 220- 
volt, 115-ampere circuit. The dried concentrate is 
crushed by the usual Blake crusher and rolls, the mater- 
ial from the crusher going to a %-in. trommel screen 
and the oversize being re-crushed in a set of rolls. The 
dried product is elevated and conducted by bucket 
elevators to the feed bins of the roasting furnaces. 

The roasting equipment consists of one 20-ton double 
hearth furnace, two 25-ton, and one 30-ton Zellweger 
furnaces. A brief description of the Zellweger furnace 
was presented in a previous issue.* The power for the 
furnaces is furnished by individual Hawthorne and 
Western Electric motors, a 40-hp. motor being used on 
the double hearth furnace and 30-hp. motors on the 30 
and two 25-ton furnaces. The rabble mechanism is au- 
tomatically controlled by a hydraulic starting and stop- 
ping device whereby one passage of the rabbles through 
the furnace is made about every six minutes. The feed 
to the furnaces is automatically dropped upon the hearth 
through a hopper at the bottom of the feed bins, the 
discharge being effected by a cam and tappet arrange- 
ment which is operated by a small motor. The 30-ton 
furnace is 156 ft. long while the hearth is about 16 ft. 

Roasted Sulphide 

The roasted sulphide as discharged from the furnace 
contains from y. 2 to 1% sulphur in clean blende. This 
product is discharged from the furnace into hoppers and 
elevated by bucket elevators to brick storage bins. The 
roasted ore is drawn from these bins into tubs which 
are suspended from an over-head Sprague electric hoist 
and in this manner are carried to the mixing room. 

The fuel used consists of coal from the Pittsburg, 
Kansas, field, Arkansas semi-anthracite, and coke. The 
fuel is delivered to the storage bins directly from the 
railroad ears. In the mixing room the various tubs of 
roasted ore, carbonate, and fuel pass over weighing 
scales and are dumped into the hopper of a concrete 
mixer. The furnace charge thus prepared in the mixer 

*'Zinc Smelting at Bartlesville, Oklahoma.' 
Mining and Scientific Press. July 11, 1914. 

by E. H. Leslie. 





is clumped from the mixer into the furnace charge tubs 
which set in a pit in front of the mixer. The charge 
cars are then picked up by a 12-ton capacity Sprague 
electric overhead hoist and carried to furnace where it 
is charged directly by hand into the retorts of five blocks 
of furnaces. In the two other blocks of furnaces which 
go to make up the battery of furnaces at this plant, the 
mixed charge is elevated at the furnaces into suspended 
steel storage bins from which it is drawn into the hop- 
pers of the Saeger charging machines. 

The National Zinc Co. distillation furnace, shown in 
Fig. 3 and 4, is of the same general type as that em- 
ployed throughout the natural-gas smelting region. The 
furnace is four rows high and comprises 19 sections of 
16 retorts each. There is thus 304 retorts per furnace 
or 608 retorts to the block, making the total for the 
smelter 4256 retorts. The length of the furnace out- 
side of the end walls is 102 ft. 10 in. while the height 
from the floor to the front skewback is 6 ft. 2 in. The 
pitch of the retorts is 4 in. The cylindrical retorts used 
are 50*4 by 8i/> in. inside measurement. Blow boxes or 
burners through which the air and gas enter the furnace 
are fitted to each half-section with the exception of the 
last four which have but one blow box to a section. The 
use of two blow boxes to a section has come to be looked 
upon as better practice than the single blow box which 
is used at the older plants. By thus increasing the 
number of fuel admissions a more uniform heat is ob- 
tained. The furnace blocks are supplied with air by 
individual fan blowers by which means the maximum 
pressure of about 2 in. of water is maintained. A sketch 
showing the general arrangement and construction of 
the furnace is shown in Fig. 3. The fuel consumption 
covering everything is about 1,000,000 cu. ft. of gas per 
block every 24 hours. 

The Saeger Machine 

One of the most interesting features in the operation 
of these furnaces is found in the employment of the 
Saeger machine, a front view of which is shown in Fig. 
5, for the charging of retorts on two blocks of furnaces. 
While mechanical charging of retorts has found favor 
in Europe the introduction of the Saeger machine is an 
innovation in American practice. The pioneer work in 
that country which has been conducted with the Saeger 
machine at the National smelter gives promise of a wider 
field for its use in the operation of American zinc smelt- 
ers. While the conditions for the most efficient use of 
this machine are not found in the American arrange- 
ment of furnace blocks, it is nevertheless in successful 
operation at this plant and is proving a valuable adjunct 
to smelter operation. 

An idea as to the arrangement and construction of 
the charging machine is obtained from the accompany- 
ing side elevation sketch CFig. 6) and the halftone. 
Fig. 5. It will be seen that the machine is mounted on 
a track of 11-ft. gape and consists of a hopper bin with 
a capacity sufficient for charging one-half of one side 
of a block of furnaces. The bin is supported by a 






July 25, 1914 

structural steel column and bracing. The charge passes 
by gravity through a feeding device in the bottom of the 
bin and is conducted through individual pipe conduits 
to the eight spiral feeding devices which are so posi- 
tioned as to enter and charge the eight retorts of one- 
half of a section of the furnace simultaneously. The 

machine. The operator is protected from the heat of 
the furnace by the iron shield seen in the illustration. 
In actual charging operations the charging spouts are 
inserted into the 8 retorts of one-half of a section of the 
furnace for a distance of about 44 in. or to within 5 or 
6 in. of the back of the retort when the charge is forced 

Fig. 3. side elevation and cross-section through distillation furnace at national zinc plant. 


t+ttt t 

**■ MW Ml f ^ 


* * 

%* t 


H 1 * %, 

Fig. 4. national distillation furnace in operation. 

charging mechanism is mounted on a movable platform 
which moves at right angles to the trucks of the machine. 
This platform, with the chain drive for moving it is 
seen in Fig. 5. The movement is controlled by the 
operator who stands on an elevated platform, seen at 
the left of the half-tone, which platform is a part of the 

by the spiral feed through the spouts into the retorts. 
As the retorts become rilled the spouts are gradually 
withdrawn from the retorts and when the spouts emerge 
from the retorts an automatic cut-off stops the feeding 
device. The compactness and uniformity of the charge 
is regulated by the operator keeping the load on the 

Julv 25. 1914 



Fig. 5. front view of saegeb charging machine. 

feed motor at a predetermined constant. When one- 
half of a section is charged the machine is' moved for- 
ward and the operation repeated over the whole length 
of the furnace. Electricity for moving and operating 
the machine is obtained through a trolley. Since in- 
stalling this machine several modifications have been 
made in it which include the placing of a small rod 
above the charge spouts for the pur- 
pose of leaving a hole at the top of 
the charge for the escape of the first 
gas that is formed in the retort. A 
small bucket elevator lias also been 
added at the side of the machine by 
which any charge which is spilled on 
the floor during charging operations 
is returned to the bin of the machine. 
Blue powder is also handled by this 
elevator and subsequently charged. 
The last 41A sections of each furnace 
are charged with blue powder. The 
machine is operated by two motors, 
one for locomotion and the other for 
operating the charging machinery. 
A small 2-hp. motor is used on the 
bucket elevators. 

With the ordinary American ar- 
rangement of furnace blocks the 
charge storage bins which feed 
the machine must be placed at the 
end of the furnaces. It is therefore 
necessary to run the charging ma- 

chine under the hopper of the feed 
bin, fill the feed hopper of the ma- 
chine, move the machine to a turn- 
table, which is situated at the end and 
at the side of the furnace, turn the 
machine around 90° to bring the feed 
spouts into the charging position, and 
then move the machine down the 
track and in front of the retorts. 
Since the hopper bin on the machine 
will only hold sufficient charge for 
one-half of one side of a block, it is 
necessary after this half has been 
charged to move the machine back to 
the turntable, transfer it to the tracks 
under the storage bin, re-fill the hop- 
per bin on the machine, and again re- 
turn to the front of the furnace. In 
European practice this difficulty, 
which occasions considerable loss of 
time, is not experienced. The blocks 
being arranged in series instead of 
parallel, the charged bins are situated 
at convenient distances along the 
front of the furnaces and when it is 
necessary to re-fill the hopper on the 
charging machine it is moved under- 
neath one of these bins and little or no 
delay is occasioned. The turntable is 
not necessary in European practice and the cycle of 
operations is continuous. Even with the unfavorable 
arrangement of furnaces in American practice the ma- 
chine has been found to possess many redeeming 
features, in that besides saving six men on the two blocks 
of furnace, in this instance it permits of the charging 
of from 1000 to 1500 lb. more concentrate to the side, 

Fig. 6. side elevation, showing over all dimensions op saegeb machine. 



July 25, 1914 

and gives a more uniform charge and better results than 
hand charging, which is the general practice. By the 
use of this machine one side of a block of furnaces is 
charged in one hour. 

The drawing of metal is conducted in the usual man- 
ner, a draw-car being used which moves over a track 
in front of the furnaces. The ladle is raised or lowered 
to position in front of the condensers by means of a 
hand winch, the operator being protected from the heat 
of the furnace by a metal shield. The zinc is drawn 
three times a day; at 3 p. m., lip. m., and 4 a. m., cast 
into slabs and removed to the stock pile, Fig. 7, for ship- 
ment. The average charge of roasted ore is about 
15.000 lb. to the side of a block or 15 tons to the block, 
thus giving the plant a capacity of approximately 105 
tons per day. 

Water is used for discharging the retorts. A hose 
with nozzle is connected with the water pipe-line directly 
in front of the furnace with convenient taps to which 
the hose may be attached. In cleaning the retorts the 
operator is protected by means of a sheet iron shield 
which is suspended from a rail along which it can be 
moved in front of the furnace. Any slag which is not 
removed by the steam, which is immediately formed 
when the water enters the retorts, and which sticks to 
the sides of the retorts, is removed by means of scrap- 

Discharging Machine 

In connection with the discharging of retorts, it may 
be stated in passing that the discharging machine which 
was imported simultaneously with the Saeger charging 
machine, was found, after a thorough trial, to be un- 
suited to American practice and has been discarded. 
The chief difficulty in the use of the discharging ma- 
chine was found to be that it shook up the retorts un- 
necessarily and thus brought about mechanical difficul- 
ties in the operation of the furnace. With muffle retorts 
this machine no doubt would be a success. 

The retort furnaces are of the cellar type and the 
residue as discharged from the retorts falls into a chute 
at the front of the furnace and is conducted to cars un- 
derneath. The cars are subsequently removed to the 
dumping ground at the rear of the furnace blocks. Some 
of the residue is used for railroad ballast, some dumped, 
and that derived from the ore, which carries silver, is 
either clinkered at the plant of the Bartlesville com- 
pany! or shipped to the blast-furnace plants. The aver- 
age life of the retorts is about 30 days, while the con- 
densers last about 10 days. 

The pottery is equipped with all the necessary 
machinery for supplying the plant with retorts and 
condensers. St. Louis clay, received at the plant in the 
ordinary freight cars, is dumped at the pottery building 
where it is given a preliminary weathering. The crush- 
ing equipment consists of a 14-in. Blake crusher, the 
discharge from which is elevated by a bucket elevator 

and discharged into the hopper of the primary rolls. 
The discharge from the rolls is conducted to a four- 
mesh screen, the undersize from which goes direct to 
the pottery bins, while the oversize is re-crushed in a 
second set of rolls and is thence returned to the screen. 


Making the Retorts 

The clay is pugged in a small mill from which it is 
removed, cut into convenient size for handling, and al- 
lowed to season for three or four days. This material 
is then taken to a second pug-mill and re-pugged, the 
product thus obtained being ready for the manu- 
facture of retorts. The material used consists of a 
mixture of 1000 lb. of clay to 1250 lb. of adobe or burnt 
clay. In the manufacture of retorts the Mehler hy- 

t'Zinc Smelting at Bartlesville. Oklahoma,' by E. H. Leslie. 
Mining and Scientific Press, July 11, 1914. 

Fig. 7. spelteb stock piles. 

draulic press is used. This press has a capacity of 250 
retorts per shift of nine hours. The retort department 
of the pottery is handled by five men. As the retorts 
emerge from the press they are taken on carriages to 
the dry rooms of which there are twelve. These dryers 
are heated by steam coils placed in both the floor and 
ceiling of the rooms. By this means a temperature of 
about 110°F. is maintained. The twelve drying rooms 
have a capacity of 1100 retorts each. The retorts are 
kept in the dryers for about 60 days before being used 
in the furnaces. From the dryers they are taken on 
cars by a 30-hp. Jeffrey locomotive to the annealing 
ovens which are situated at the furnace blocks and are 
here tempered for about 12 hr. before being put into the 

The condensers are made of a composition of one- 
half clay and one-half crushed old retorts. The mater- 
ial is mixed and pugged in a small pug-mill and subse- 
quently molded in a Vannatti condenser machine. This 
machine is operated by two men and has a capacity of 
from 1000 to 1200 condensers per shift. The condensers 
as taken from the machine are allowed to stand for a 
day and are then crimped : this operation consisting of 
shaping the base of the condensers to conform with the 
retorts. They are then dried for about a week and 
burnt for use at the furnaces. The burning requires 
about 26 hr. The kiln used for this purpose has a 
capacity of 2500 condensers. 

The boiler room equipment consists of three 72 by 18- 





ft. horizontal return-tube boilers, built by the Frost 
Manufacturing Co., for a steam pressure of 125 lb. per 
square inch, which supply steam to the engines operating 
the electric generators, and one 72 by 18-ft. boiler of the 
same type built for 100-lb. pressure per square inch, 
which is used for dry-room service. The boiler feed 
water is supplied at a temperature of 190°F. by a Blake 
7i/» by 5 by 6-in. pump. 

The generator equipment consists of three units ar- 
ranged as follows: One 18 by 36-in. St. Louis Corliss 
engine direct connected to a 200-kw., 250-volt, com- 
pound-wound direct-current Western Electric generator 
operating at 120 r.p.m. ; one 16 by 19-in. Chuse 4-valve 
engine, direct connected to a 125-kw., 250 volt, com- 
pound-wound, direct-current Sprague generator operat- 

ing at 190 r.p.m. ; one 15 by 14-in. Skinner engine, direct 
connected to an 80-kw., 250-volt, compound-wound, di- 
rect-current Western Electric generator, operating at 
300 r.p.m. The switchboard consists of four 24 by 84-in. 
panels of blue Vermont marble, equipped with circuit 
breakers and Weston and Keystone instruments. 

This plant is the most modern of the Bartlesville 
group of zinc smelters and the work being done is most 
commendable, from both a mechanical and metallurgical 
standpoint. While details as to charges, costs, and 
exact metallurgical results are not available for publi- 
cation, the plant is extracting about 85% of the zinc 
content of the concentrates treated and as long as gas 
is available in the district and there is a market for 
spelter, will be operated profitably. 

An Hmpres®i©ini ©f the Rairndl 

We give herewith a portion of letter recently received 
from an Anglo-American mining engineer known to 
many of our readers and recently on a short visit to 
Johannesburg : 

"The Rand is certainly a great goldfield, and shows 
no sign of failing as a large factor in the world's supply 
of gold. There is a tendency, of course, for the original 
outcrop mines to play out, signs of this fact are demon- 
strating themselves fairly rapidly; on the other hand. 
the deep-level mines of the East Rand are showing up 
very well. Recently the State has had a hand in gold 
production of its own, and the experiment is being 
watched with interest. 

"There is very little doubt that there are large areas 
in the East Rand district that remain untouched, but 
attention has turned that way, and it seems probable 
that one by one there will be new mines developed, and 
in the course of a few years the production will move 
from the Johannesburg district to the East Rand. The 
Modder 'B', Modder Deep, Brakpan, and Van Ryn Deep 
all have a life of from 20 to 50 years. 

"The predominating factor in the success of the mines 
is the labor condition, to which is closely allied the poli- 
tical; in fact, it is difficult to talk about one without 
bringing in the other. The Boers are the real owners 
of the country as much today as before the war. They 
are, however, divided into two factions, the old pig- 
headed type headed by Ilertzog, whose only desire is to 
drive everyone out of the country that wants to do any- 
thing except sit on the stoep and smoke, the more sane 
and ambitious faction being led by Botha, who is kept 
'011 the fence' with the hachveldter on one side and the 
mining interests on the other. Then there is the Eng- 
lish party, or mining interests, with Merriman as an off- 
shoot with a small coterie which looks after the interests 
of the colored people other than the kraal 'nigger'. Last, 
but not least, is the Labor party, which is being led at 
the present time by disgruntled failures in mine manage- 
ment, such as f'resswell, Poutsma, and others. This is a 

strange mixture to form into a sane and constant govern- 
ment to work for the best interests of the premier indus- 
try of the country. 

"Mining has always been the 'bone of contention' in 
Africa, and it looks as though it will remain so in spite 
of the fact that a bloody war has been fought over it. 
It seems to have done little good toward the permanent 
peace of the country, the only difference being that the 
flag of another country flies over Government House, 
and a few Dutchmen have got titles. 

"The supply of Kaffir labor is short at the present time 
by 40,000 boys, in spite of the fact that the last three 
years have been very dry; indeed, the one word that is 
on everyone's lips is 'drought'. This condition should 
have forced the native from the kraals to the mines, and 
undoubtedly it has, but still the supply of labor is scarce. 
It is easy to foresee what will happen when the cycle 
changes and there are several wet seasons favorable to 
the native's natural agricultural instinct. This same 
drought condition has also forced many young Dutchmen 
to the mines, as there is no work on the land. 

"White labor is making itself impossible, and forcing 
itself out of the mines by its own foolhardiness. It is 
being replaced, selected natives of intelligence being 
sriven jobs other than common labor which were formerly 
held by white men. This is the natural outcome of the 
tyrranical behavior of the labor leaders. 

"Merriman is raising the 'color bar' question, and 
there is little doubt that before long, with or without 
favorable legislation, the 'tar-brush yellow' or half- 
breed mechanic of the Cape and Natal will find employ- 
ment in the mines, replacing the pure white at lower 
wages and less trouble to the mine-owner, at any rate for 
the time being. 

" While it is necessary for this condition to come about, 
one has to pause and look ahead a few years for tin- re- 
sult of such a policy, and the only conclusion thai can 
lie arrived at is that the educated colored man will be 
supreme in Africa." 



Cradl® M©Hlh@(dl ©IF D)I§p©§iinig of Cysumld© Slag 


Iii some recent work in Central America I had to 
solve the problem of disposing of a small quantity of 
cyanide slag, and the Latin-American molinette, shown 
in the accompanying sketch, was suggested to me by my 
native foreman. It was finally adopted as the cheapest 
and most efficient method under the circumstances, 
freight to San Francisco, California, costing $76 per ton. 
These molinettes are used by the 'high-graders' to re- 
cover the gold from stolen ore. The base or bowl of the 


molinette, as shown in the illustration, is made in a 
hard, close-grained rock which is hollowed out by fire 
and cooling with water to craek the rock, this being re- 
peated until a sufficient depth has been attained. The 
rough or projecting parts are then trimmed up with a 
chisel. A fairly round stone, A, is selected for the head, 
and a hole drilled in its upper side to receive the fork, 
C C, which is wedged into place. To the fork an extra 
weight, D, is fastened by the aid of vines. In order to 
smooth the bowl, B, fine gravel is used with a little water 
and the molinette is operated for a day or two in this 
way until it has become polished on the inside. 

The molinette is operated as follows: first the slag is 
broken down to pass a No. 10 screen and, for the size 
molinette illustrated, five pounds of slag forms a charge. 
Just enough water to make a thick paste is added, since 
if excess water is used the operation is delayed, as with 
a thin pulp in a tube-mill. Quicksilver is added accord- 
ing to the richness of the slag. The operator then puts 
the head A into the bowl on top of the slag, water, and 
quick, and grasping the ends of the fork C C begins to 
revolve the head, A, at the same time giving a rolling or 
twisting motion so as to smear or brighten small shots of 
metal. After the slag becomes slimed a trifle, some more 
water is added, then the slime is washed away and the 
coarse particles reground until the entire quantity of 
slag is slimed. When the amount of slimed slag in the 
bowl becomes small the entire mass is scooped up with 
a piece of dry gourd into a Kussia iron pan and covered 
with cold water to congeal the warm amalgam. The rest 
of the slime is then washed off and the remaining 
amalgam squeezed dry. It is now ready for retorting. 

I have had one of these molinettes made for a sum in 
Nicaragua equivalent to $8. One hundred pounds of 
slag can be cleaned up in a day, using two men, one to 
treat the slag and one to work the molinette. The slag 
in question weighed 600 lb. and the bullion recovered 
was worth $379.89. The slag discharged was assayed 
and found to be worth $25.03 gold and $2.78 silver per 
ton, or a total of $28.41. Bullion thus recovered is free 
from the metallic iron which is present after regrind- 
ing in an amalgamating barrel. 

There are 15 coke-making establishments in Colorado, 
which operate 3588 ovens, all of the beehive type. Six 
of the establishments, operating 726 ovens, were idle 
throughout the year. In addition to these idle plants, 
980 ovens were idle at plants that made some coke in 
1913, so that the total number of idle ovens was 1706, 
representing nearly half the coking capacity of the state. 
No new ovens were under construction at the end of the 
year. The output of coke in 1913 was 879,461 tons, 
valued at $2,815,131. according to E. W. Parker, of the 
U. S. Geological Survey. The decrease as compared with 
1912, amounting to 93.480 tons in quantity and $228,860 
in value, was due entirely to the labor troubles among 
the miners, and not to adverse trade conditions. The 
principal disturbances were in Las Animas county, the 
leading coal-producing and coke-making county, and re- 
sulted in a decrease in coal production of nearly 1,000,- 
000 tons and in the whole of the decrease in the output 
of coke. 

Duty of the Oroya Links 50-stamp mill at Kalgoorlie 
in 1913 was 7.9 tons per stamp-day. Ore treatment 
cost $2.05 per ton, the extraction being 92.25%, and 
residue average 44c. per ton. 

July 25, 1914 


Tlhi© Erapfcmi ©IF Moumlt LsL§§©ira 

The recent re- 
newal of vol- 
canic activity at 
Mt. Lassen, in 
Shasta county, 
California, has 
attracted much 
attention from 
scientists, engi- 
neers, geologists. 
summer tourists. 
and others, many of the more venturesome climb- 
ing the steep slope of the ancient volcano and gazing 
down into the ugly pit near its summit, that now con- 
stitutes the so-called crater. Some have contended that 
it is not a volcano at all — merely a geyser. Having 
personally visited the mountain, inspected the crater, 
and examined the material thrown from it, and escaped 
without damage, I am compelled to say that the recent 
explosive antics of Mt. Lassen in no sense resemble a 
geyser. While it is true no fresh lava has, as yet, been 
ejected by this, the newest volcanic vent in the United 
States, the demonstration, in my opinion, is distinctly 
that of a volcano — in embyro, perhaps, 
but a volcano, nevertheless. 

What has recently actually taken 
place at Mt. Lassen is easily described. 
In the latter part of May last a mod- 
erately heavy shock was felt by the in- 
habitants of that sparsely settled re- 
gion. On May 30 the report was pub- 
lished that a forest ranger on duty in 
the Lassen region had observed a fissure 
near the summit of Mt. Lassen from 
which a large volume of steam was 
being emitted. A day or two later 
there were reports that a crater had 
formed from which ashes and lava 
were being ejected. Several eruptions 
occurred, some of them of spectacular 
proportions, and notwithstanding the 
frequently repeated statements pub- 
lished that it was only a geyser, it be- 
came evident to those who could see the 
mountain, even from a distance of 100 miles, that some- 
thing very unusual was in progress. On Sunday morn- 
ing, June 14, the volcano had quieted down so that little, 
if any, steam was visible from a distance, and a number 
of faithful watchers who had been patiently waiting for 
an eruption, had about given it up as a hopeless vigil, 
when, without any warning whatever, at 9:45 o'clock, 
a huge black cloud burst from the summit of the moun- 
tain, ascending to great height and then spreading out 
like an immense mushroom. In a few minutes the dust- 
cloud and the heavier gases began to descend, and these 


soon enveloped the entire mountain and the surround- 
ing region within a radius of 4 to 5 miles, and dust 
settled to the southward and southwestward to distances 
as great as 7 to 10 miles. On the evening of the same 
day, at 6:30 o'clock, a second but smaller eruption 

The following day I went to Mineral, in Battle Creek 
meadows, and for several days thereafter explored the 
region on the south and southwest sides of Mt. Lassen. 
Finally, on June 20, I with three other men, with saddle- 
horses and pack animal, rode to within 3000 ft. of the 
foot of the trail leading up the steep slope of Lassen 
on the south side. A small cloud of steam was observed 
at intervals issuing from a fissure amid the rocks, far 
up the mountain side, and as we learned subsequently, 
2000 ft. southeasterly from the main vent. When the 
sun had melted the snow sufficiently to make walking 
safe, we started for the crater, 2000 ft. above us and 
marly 1 \U miles distant. Arriving at the summit, the 
crater was seen on the opposite slope of an amphitheatre- 
shaped basin, and about 700 ft. distant. It had greatly 
increased in size over the dimensions given in the early 
reports. I found it to be about 650 ft. long, 100 to 150 


ft. wide, and 100 ft. or more in depth. While its width 
is being constantly increased by the caving of the walls 
of the crater, the depth is being diminished from the 
same cause. It looks like a big open-cut, or glory-hole, 
and a miner watching the ground surrounding the vent 
would say the ground was working. Cracks could be 
seen on the surface about the crater, extending back 
from the rim from 100 to 200 ft., and it would seem 
that this moving mass must eventually all fall into the 

It was evident that a new fissure had formed extend- 



July 25, 1914 

ing from near the summit of the mountain in a south- 
easterly direction for nearly half a mile — how much far- 
ther I do not know, as there was at that time no vis- 
ible evidence of it on the surface beyond the limits 
mentioned. This fissure undoubtedly extends to great 
depth, and is a conduit for steam generated far down 
below the surface. It may be that a mass of molten 
rock exists below, which, coming in contact with water, 
generates the steam which follows the line of least re- 
sistance, the open fissure, to the surface. When clogged 
at the surface, the steam and sulphurous gases accom- 
panying it, being unable to freely escape, accumulate 
until there is sufficient energy developed to blow out 
the obstruction. This resulted in the formation of a 
small pit, described by the forest ranger as being 40 
by 25 ft., and only a few feet deep. The crumbling 
walls of this cavity caving into the pit, once more sealed 
the vent, when a- second blow-out took place, enlarging 
the hole. Again and again this process was repeated 
until the two eruptions of Sunday, June 14. By June 
21, the day on which I saw the crater, it had been en- 
larged by these repeated explosions to a hole 650 ft. 
long and over 100 ft. wide. 

"When at the summit, Mt. Lassen is seen to be a clus- 
ter of four peaks. At the highest point of the south- 
east peak of the four forming the main summit mass, 
is situated the observatory of the Forest Service. This 
building was used as a watch-tower by the forest rang- 
ers. The observatory is well ventilated by the holes 
made by the falling rocks thrown out of the crater. 
The disposition of the several peaks and their connect- 
ing ridges forms an amphitheatre-shaped basin, the 
sloping floor of which is from 100 to 200 ft. below 
the surrounding ridges and peaks. The new crater lies 
along the northerly side of this depression, extending 
from near the summit of the northwesterly peak in a 
southeasterly direction to the saddle connecting the 
northeast and southeast peaks. The new vent cannot 
be seen from any point outside of this crater-shaped 
basin, as there is no other mountain near that is suf- 
ficiently high to permit one to look into the basin. 

It has been reported that flames and molten lava have 
been seen at the crater. This is untrue, or was up to 
June 21. There were icicles hanging in festoons along 
the north rim of the pit on June 21, and the only evi- 
dence of heat was where the steam was slowly rising 
from each end of the rift, the central portion having 
been filled in by the caving of the walls. Sulphur was 
being deposited on the rocks adjacent to the steam 
vent, and sulphurous gases could be detected all over 
the mountain-side, though this was no doubt in part 
due to the smell of the damp sand that had been thrown 
out from the vent. 

Lassen peak is of volcanic origin, and so are all of 
the mountains and hills within many miles of it, many 
of them being, like Lassen itself, extinct craters. To 
the westward about 5 miles is a rugged peak known 
as Brokeoff mountain, that has every appearance of 
being a portion of the rim of an ancient volcano that 

must have been very much higher than Mt. Lassen now 
is. What was probably the central part of this old cra- 
ter is indicated by the two solfatara called Soupan 
Springs and Bumpasses Hell. From this vicinity the 
rocks dip away on all sides as from a central vent. 
The Cinder Cone is 11 miles a little north of east from 
Mt. Lassen. It has the distinction of having been the 
last eruption of volcanic rock to have occurred in the 
United States. Just when that eruption occurred is 
not positively known, but is placed at from 100 to 200 
years ago. Whether the present disturbance at the sum- 
mit of the dominant peak of the region will result in 
a flow of molten lava, I am unable to predict, though 
such an eruption would be in no way surprising. 

The Lassen Peak region is one full of natural beauty. 
There are grand forests of pine, fir, tamarack, and 
other trees ; bright streams teeming with fish ; there are 
hot and mineral springs; geysers, lakes of boiling mud; 
sulphur deposits; great faults; fields of basalt, ande- 
site, and tuffs. In short, it is a paradise for the geol- 
ogist, the hunter, the fisherman, or the scientist in 
search of a volcano, either old or new. I have but one 
word of advice to offer: If the mountain is steaming, 
it is fairly safe to climb up and look at it; if it has 
ceased to steam, it may be extremely dangerous to ap- 
proach the crater, for it may explode without a moment's 
warning, and the region of the crater would then be a 
most uncomfortable place, for, if not hit by flying rocks, 
the poisonous vapors and gases would quickly asphyxi- 
ate anyone who may be enveloped by them. 

Gold! Frodujicftioim ©iF Silhxeiraa 

The eight Russian gold-smelting laboratories produced 
in 1913, 106,901 lb. troy of 'schlich' gold (crushed gold 
ore), which yielded 104,155 lb. of pure gold equal to 
1,249,860 oz. In 1912, the production of these laborator- 
ies amounted to 100,290 lb. of schlich gold, yielding 
97,828 lb. pure gold. In 1912 the strike at the Lena 
goldfields had considerable influence on the output of 
the district. The increase in 1913 was due entirely to 
the activity of the Bodaibo laboratory, which produced 
about 7200 lb. more than in 1912. — Daily Consular Re- 

Gold output of the Consolidated Mines of New Zea- 
land, at Reefton in the South Island, were as follows in 
April : 

Mine. Tons. Yield. Cost per ton. 

Blackwater 4,283 $38,000 $4.80 

Progress 3,470 21,000 4.48 

Wealth of Nations 2,080 14,000 4.56 

A correction. — In the article upon 'Flotation Tests 
at Mt. Morgan' by William Motherwell, printed June 27, 
it should have been stated (page 1046) that all samples 
had been dried before being tested by the cyanide pro- 
cess : also that the grading tests showed the finest grade 
of ore as well as finest grade of concentrate was richest. 

July 25, 1914 



Readers of the Mixing and Scientific Press are invited to use this department for the discussion of technical 
and other matters pertaining to mining and metallurgy. The Editor welcomes the expression of views contrary 
to his own, believing that careful criticism is more valuable than casual compliment. Insertion of any